The Journal of Plant Genetic Resources is a bimonthly academic journalco-sponsored by the Institute of Crop Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences,and China Association of Agricultural Science Societies .Tt isthe only journal in China that mainly introduces plant genetic resources. Founded in 2000, officially launched in 2003, quarterly from 2000 to 2009, and bimonthly in 2010.
The contents of the report are field, horticultural crops, ornamental and medicinal plants, basic research on plant genetic resources, research results in applied research, innovative academic papers, and high-level reviews or reviews of forest plants, grass plants and all their economic plants. For example, the investigation, collection, preservation, evaluation, utilization, innovation, Informatics, management, etc. of germplasm resources; Systems of origin, evolution, classification, etc.; Gene excavation, identification, cloning, establishment of gene libraries, and research on genetic diversity.
Abstract: Rice （Oryza sativa L.） is one of the most important food crops in the world， low temperature destabilizes the growth and development of rice， and causes lower yield or harvestless in worse cases， has becoming one of the major environmental stresses that decrease rice yield and quality. The use of agricultural protection technologies to reduce cold damage were not only time-consuming and laborious， but also ineffective. Therefore， the cultivation of rice varieties showing cold tolerance in practice is the optimal way to solve this problem. In breeding of cold-tolerant varieties， precise identification and evaluation of cold tolerance rice in conjugation with the exploitation and utilization of important cold-tolerant genes become of significance. In recent years，several cold tolerant QTLs or genes had been identified by map-based cloning， GWAS and QTL analysis，and their functional mechanisms have been investigated. This article reviews the cold resistance of rice， from the aspects of identification methods and periods， evaluation systems and the molecular research basis， and suggested that different evaluation systems should be used to evaluate the cold tolerance of rice at different growth stages. At the same time， it is proposed to pyramid important cold tolerance genes/QTLs in excellent rice germplasm resources for further innovative utilization， which could provide reference for exploring the mechanism of cold tolerance and breeding new varieties of cold tolerance in rice.
Abstract: Rice is the largest crop food in China， possessing a principal strategic position in agricultural production. With the rapid growth of population and the acceleration of urbanization process， the limited yield increase makes rice production is facing severe challenges. Breeding high-yield rice varieties is of great significance to ensure food security and realize sustainable agricultural development. The ideal plant architecture is a considerable strategy of variety improvement and directly affects rice yield. The tiller angle， which affects rice yield by regulating the light energy utilization efficiency of the population， is a core element of plant architecture characteristics. The production practice shows that the varieties with reasonable tiller angle show better lodging resistance and stable yield potential. With the rapid development of functional genomics， researchers have made many important progresses in mining of the rice tiller angle regulatory genes and the molecular mechanism analysis in recent years. In this review， we systematically summarized the functional genes and genetic metabolic networks regulating rice tiller angle. And then， the domestication process and the genetic mechanism of gravitropism in regulating rice tiller angle were mainly elucidated， as well as the regulation mechanism of plant hormones and environmental factors. Even further， we prospected the potential further research directions under the existing theoretical framework. The purpose of this paper is to provide a theoretical reference for the genetic improvement and molecular design breeding of high-yield and ideal plant architecture varieties.
Abstract: The crucifer Orychophragmus violaceus （L.） O. E. Schulz （syn. Moricandia sonchifoli （Bunge） Hook. f.） is an ornamental plant native to China and serves as the germplasm resource in the genetic improvement of the Brassica L. crops. In this paper， the research progress and status of its cytogenetics， cytological behavior of its intergeneric hybrids with the Brassica L. crops， the chromosomal localization of some traits， and the discovery of the dihydroxylated fatty acids are summarized. O. violaceus （L.） O. E. Schulz （2n=24） has the large genome size of about 1.3 Gb and the long chromosomes with the homogenous staining. The meiotic pairing patterns of O. violaceus （L.） O. E. Schulz and its haploid reveal the polyploidy nature of its genome. The latest results from the genome sequencing revealed that the ancestral diploid of this species should likely have the tPCK karyotype with x=7， and experienced one specific tetraploidization event occurring at 600-800 million years ago， which gave rise to the extant genome of n=12 by chromosomal rearrangements and the inactivation of centromeres. With O. violaceus （L.） O. E. Schulz as the male parent， the intergeneric hybrids with six cultivated Brassica L. species give the cytogenetical behaviors specific to each Brassica L. parent， which are likely associated with the genome structures and inherent cytological patterns of two parents. The chromosomes from O. violaceus （L.） O. E. Schulz are clarified easily from those of Brassica L. species in these hybrids， as they are of larger size and more deeply stained. The traits of the serrated leaves， the basal clustering stems， purple petals and dihydroxylated fatty acids are localized on different chromosomes via the development of the Brassica napus L.- O. violaceus （L.） O. E. Schulzadditional lines. The dihydroxy fatty acids with high content are discovered in its seed oil and present the better lubricant effect than the castor oil. O. violaceus （L.） O. E. Schulz has also potential medicinal value. Finally， the future research area and utilization for Orychophragmus Bunge species are discussed.
Abstract: Fluorescence in situ hybridization （FISH， fluorescence in situ hybridization） is a powerful tool for molecular cytogenetics studies and is able to authentically allocate particular DNA or RNA sequences on chromosomes. With the development of the genome sequencing technology， the reduction of sequencing cost and the publishment of a large number of species genome information， Oligonucleotide （Oligo） probes based on high-throughput sequencing and reference genome were developed showing the advantages in FISH. In comparison with the traditional probes， Oligo-FISH can further reveal the evolution， inheritance and variation of chromosomes more precisely and deeply in plant evolution.This paper reviews the types and applications of target DNA and fluorescent probes in the development of fluorescence labeling， as well as the types and preparation techniques of oligonucleotide probes， mainly focusing on the origin and development of Oligo-FISH and its application in plants， which plays an important role in the identification of plant chromosomes and plant homologous chromosomes. Since the karyotype of species and genera can be constructed by Oligo-FISH technology， the results of Oligo-FISH can provide guidance for genome assembly of crops in this genus which have no complete genomes. Oligo painting can also solve the problem of fusion and exchange between chromosomes of heteropolyploid species and accurately detect whether there is translocation and heterologous recombination between chromosomes. Therefore， the development of Oligo-FISH technology provides strong support for the assembly of the genome at chromosome level. In the future， Oligo-FISH technology combined with signal amplification technology can overcome the challenge of low Oligo probes with high concentration of repeat sequences in regions， and visualize limited gene regions， such as the detection of promoters or enhancers or the localization of gene segments in transgenes. These studies will make better use of the research results of species genetics and evolution to further ensure， assist and innovate the improvement and development of crop genetics and breeding.
Abstract: As a very valuable germplasm resource， the wheat materials showing male sterile is of significance in the study of wheat hybrid breeding and heterosis utilization. In this study， we identified a male sterility mutant 4167ms from a wheat high generation line 4167， followed by the phenotype classification， genetic analysis and molecular marker mapping. The anthers of the mutant were shriveled and not exposed. The pollens were irregular in shape and failed to be stained with 1% I2-KI， indicating complete sterility of the pollens. Gained from the outcome of field trials over several years， the male sterility were stable without affects due to light and temperature conditions. The F1 plants derived from crosses between 4167ms and a number of varieties were completely fertile. The segregation ratio （fertile vs. sterile plants） in F2 populations fitted to 3∶1. The F1 plants （KD342//4167ms/4167）， which were derived from reciprocal cross， were fertile， and the segregation ratio （fertile vs. sterile plants） in derived F2 population of segregation was 3∶1. These results indicated that the sterility was controlled by a single recessive nuclear male sterile gene， temporarily designated ms1t. By taking use of a 4167ms/Chinese spring F2 mapping population， together with bulked segregant analysis （BSA） and mapping with SSR molecular markers， the ms1t was delimited with five markers （Xwmc617-Xkd661-Xkd696-ms1t-Xkd495-Xkd393） on chromosome 4BS. The genetic distance of the closest flanking markers Xkd696 and Xkd495 to ms1t were 3.9 cM and 1.9 cM， respectively. The comparative analysis based on the physical map of Chinese Spring suggested that ms1t was allocated to the same genetic interval of the former classified ms1 locus， implying ms1t in mutant4167ms as a novel recessive allele of the MS1gene.
Abstract: In order to analyze the quality characteristics of sesame seed with different colors， 13 nutritional quality traits of 157 sesame germplasm resources with different seed coat colors （white， yellow， brown， and black） were tested and analyzed in Wuhan and Zhumadian. The results showed that average oil content of 157 sesame germplasm was 52.96%， and the average contents of oleic acid， linoleic acid， sesamin， sesamolin， campesterol， and β-sitosterol were 40.65%， 44.32%， 2.67 mg/g， 1.61 mg/g， 1.22 mg/g and 2.96 mg/g， respectively. The average oil content decreased gradually with the deepening of seed coat color. The total sterol content was the highest in black sesame. The content of sesamin and sesamin was the highest in white sesame and the lowest in black sesame. Oleic acid content of yellow sesame and linoleic acid content of brown sesame were the highest. Oil content， oleic acid content， sesamin and sesamolin content of black sesame were significantly lower than those in white sesame， but no significant differences in contents of stearic acid， linoleic acid， arachidic acid， campesterol and β-sitosterol in sesame seeds with different colors were observed. Among the 13 nutritional quality traits， there were significant positive correlations between β-sitosterol and stigmasterol， Δ5-avenasterol and stigmasterol， sesamin and sesamolin， sesamin and oil content， sesamolin and campesterol， and significant negative correlations between oleic acid and linoleic acid. The correlation coefficients between Δ5-avenasterol and stigmasterol， sesamin and sesamolin were higher in black sesame than in sesame with other colors. The 157 sesame genotypes were divided into four subgroups by cluster analysis. The first and second subgroups were mainly brown black and yellow white sesame， respectively. The third subgroup contained high sesame materials， and the fourth subgroup contained high linoleic acid materials and high oil content materials. Collectively， this study explored the quality characteristics of sesame seed with different colors， which provided reference and excellent germplasm for utilization and genetic improvement of sesame germplasm resources.
Abstract: In order to explore the regulation mechanism of genome-wide DNA methylation at rice seedlings upon low temperature stress treatment， three rice genotypes showing levels of cold tolerance were treated at 3-4 ℃， followed by determination of the genome-wide DNA methylation using whole genome bisulfite sequencing （WGBS）. By analyzing the distribution of methylation-related genes in the promoter and genic body region of the three samples， it was found that the related genes were mainly distributed in the promoter region. The genotype P427 was found anchoring the highest number of genes， including 9223 genes in the promoter region， and 2906 genes in the body region. The genotype 9311 was found anchoring the fewest genes. GO and KEGG enrichment analysis revealed that the differentially methylated genes were mainly involved in metabolic pathways such as those of diterpene biosynthesis， starch and sucrose metabolism， β-alanine metabolism， and phenylpropane biosynthesis. These results indicated that the methylation in the promoters was important in the regulation of low temperature stress-responsive genes， and the transcriptional regulation was associated with the degree of methylation and the methylation types. The genotype P427 may affect the cold tolerance of rice through modulating the genes in metabolic pathways such as diterpene biosynthesis， starch and sucrose metabolism， and hormone signal transduction pathways. Collectively， these results provided better understanding of the methylation-based response mechanism of cold tolerance in rice
Abstract: Leaf color mutants are often accompanied by changes in chlorophyll content and abnormal chloroplast structure. They are important materials to decipher the functions of genes in chloroplast development and photosynthesis. In this study， a naturally occurring mutant 74101 showing etiolated leaves was identified in maize. The mutant showed etiolation throughout the growth period. Compared with the wild type， the total chlorophyll content decreased by 53.38%， and the net photosynthetic rate decreased by 25.63%. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the disordered chloroplast thylakoid structure， with loose matrix lamella and no grana structure. Genetic analysis and fine mapping results showed that the 74101 mutant phenotype was controlled by a pair of recessive nuclear gene， which was delimited in the 76.05 kb physical interval between the markers K-138 and K-27 on the long arm of maize chromosome 5. By sequencing and analyzing four candidate genes in this interval， a C to T mutation at 1126 site of the gene ZmNPPR5 （Zm00001eb252430） encoding PPR protein was identified. Tests for allelism with EMS mutants approved the ZmNPPR5 gene as the causal agent of leaf etiolation phenotype. The subcellular localization suggested that it was expressed in the nucleus. Collectively， this study revealed that ZmNPPR5 has an important function affecting chlorophyll synthesis， which laid a foundation for deciphering the nuclear-localized PPR protein on the regulation of chloroplast development and chlorophyll synthesis.
Abstract: Wheat （Triticum aestivum） is one of important food crops in many countries， whereas drought seriously destabilizes its growth and yield production. In this study， the genome-wide association study （GWAS） was conducted to mine SNP loci and candidate genes that associate with drought resistance of wheat root traits at seedling stage. 183 Xinjiang spring wheat varieties （lines） were examined under 20% PEG-6000 or normal nutrient solution treatment conditions， to simulate drought stress at seedling stage. The measurement of root traits were statistically analyzed， and the correlation analysis of drought resistance coefficient was carried out. Genome-wide association analysis of drought resistance coefficients of eight traits including total root length， root surface area， root volume， root mean diameter， root fresh weight， root dry weight， root tip number and maximum root length was performed using a hybrid linear model MLM （Q+K） using 55K SNPs， and candidate genes were identified for significant inherited association loci. The results showed that the variation coefficient of eight root traits were 17.81%~70.71% and 20.01%~61.62% under normal and PEG stress conditions， respectively. Correlation analysis results showed that the drought resistance coefficient of average root diameter was significantly negatively correlated with those of total root length， number of root tips and maximum root length. The drought resistance coefficient of total root length and root surface area had the largest correlation coefficient of 0.74. Genome-wide association scanning enabled identification of 54 SNPs associated to root drought resistance （P≤0.001）， distributed on 16 chromosomes except 3B， 3D， 5D， 6D and 7D. Each single locus could explain the phenotypic variation ranging from 6.18% to 18.74%. In addition， six pleiotropic loci were detected， which were located on chromosomes 1A， 5A， 7A， 1B， 5B and 2D， each explaining the phenotypic variation ranging from 6.55% to 18.74%. The locus AX-110482078-AX-110400975 was significantly associated with the number of root tips， root volume and maximum root length on chromosome 5A， with the contribution rate ranging from 8.74% to 15.44%. Nine candidate genes were proposed based on 54 significantly-associated SNPs. With gene annotation information， three genes TraesCS4A01G424000， TraesCS6A01G047200 and TraesCS5B01G056600 were proposed to be involved in physiological regulation of wheat stress by regulating translipoprotein， peroxidase and MYB transcription factors， respectively.
Abstract: This research examined the identification method and genetic traits of low nitrogen resistant soybean at the seedling stage. 260 soybean varieties were used and subjected for pot experiments under normal and low nitrogen treatments， followed by examination of nine traits （such as SPAD， plant high， and shoot fresh weight） at the stage of the fourth compound leaf unfolding. By analyzing the phenotypic difference of soybean varieties under low nitrogen stress condition， as well as the low nitrogen tolerance coefficient， correlation analysis， principal component analysis， affiliation function， and regression analysis， the soybean varieties showing low nitrogen tolerance were identified. The significant differences at all the traits were observed under two different nitrogen-supplying levels， showing levels of variation among the traits and the varieties. The indexes of nine traits were refined using three indexes by principal component analysis. Based the value of the affiliation function and the comprehensive evaluation of low nitrogen tolerance in conjugation with cluster analysis， five categories （strong resistant， resistant， middle resistant， sensitive and most sensitive） were suggested. Seventeen soybean varieties were strong resistant categories， while seven were most sensitive categories. Through stepwise regression analysis， total dry weight， root dry weight， shoot fresh weight， SPAD of the second compound leaf， and SPAD of the first compound leaf， might be deployed as the principal indicators for evaluating low nitrogen tolerance in soybean.
Abstract: Soybean is an important source of plant protein and oil in diets of Chinese residents. Jiangsu province is one of the main soybean producing areas in China. Under the frame of the Third National General Survey and Collection Action of Crop Germplasm Resources， 203 soybean landraces were collected from 35 counties in Jiangsu province from 2016 to 2019. In this study， the genetic diversity based on the phenotypic datasets at 25 traits were investigated. The abundant phenotypic diversity was observed with the diversity index of 12 morphological traits ranging from 0.0311 to 1.3800， and that of 13 quantitative agronomic traits ranging from 1.3850 to 2.0155. The 203 landraces were divided into five groups by cluster analysis. The phenotypic variation at each group was revealed， and the performance of the yield-related traits in IV group was superior. Principal component analysis suggested eight principal components that showed a cumulative contribution rate of 68.361%. The comprehensive scores of 203 soybean resources ranged from 0.140 to 1.385. According to the order of scores， seven elite soybean landraces in Jiangsu province were selected. Collectively， the present study unlocked the genetic diversity of soybean landraces in Jiangsu province， which provided insights for the germplasm innovation and breeding for new soybean varieties.
Abstract: In order to study the effect of sowing in different seasons on the content of nutritional functional components in barley grass powder and grains， and to explore the high-efficient production technology of high-quality dual-purpose barley， 48 barley varieties （lines） from Yunan province were sown in four seasons （spring， summer， autumn and winter） for two consecutive years. The samples harvested were subjected to measure the contents of total flavones， GABA， alkaloids and proteins by spectrophotometry and Kjeldahl method， followed by the correlation analysis on the nutrient function components between barley grass powder and grains. The results showed that samples harvested from different years and seasons showed a significant difference on the accumulation of nutritional functional components in barley grass powder and grains. The average contents of the four nutritional functional components （total flavones， GABA， alkaloids and proteins） in grass powder were autumn sowing > winter sowing > spring sowing > summer sowing. These components in grains from winter sowing season were higher than those in grains from autumn sowing season. In general， the nutritional functional components of grass powder was higher than those of the grains. The nutrient functional components were greatly affected by the sowing season， showing the trend of sowing season > varieties > varieties × sowing season. As a result， excellent dual-purpose barley varieties （Aisi 4， Tengyun 4 and Yunpi 22） were preliminarily selected.
Abstract: The identification and evaluation is an important research subject in the protection and utilization of germplasm resources. Wheat landraces from the western region of Yunnan province， P.R. China， were known with various types and abundant diversity. Analysis of their genetic diversity is of significance to accelerate their breeding utilization rate. In this study， 65 SSR markers were used to analyze the genetic polymorphism of 186 wheat landraces from the western region of Yunnan. A total of 407 alleles were detected， with an average of 6.26. The total of the major allele frequency was 36.1077， with an average of 0.5555. The total of gene diversity index was 37.5473， with an average of 0.5777. The total of polymorphism information content （PIC） was 34.9924， the average was 0.5383， the range were from 0.146 to 0.835， and the polymorphism reached high level （PIC ≥0.5）. Among subgenomes A， B and D， the average value of gene diversity index from high to low were B > A > D. Among the 7 homologous groups， the average value of gene diversity index ranged were from 0.5202 to 0.6508. the fourth homologous groups were the highest， and the seventh homologous groups were the lowest. Cluster analysis had showed two groups， of which in group I five samples expect a hulled hexaploid wheat landrace are tetraploid wheat， and in group Ⅱ 181 samples were hexaploid wheat. In group II， the landraces were clustered into subgroups mainly being coincidence with the geographical sources such as Lincang， Baoshan and Dali. The results of principal component analysis were consistent with those of cluster analysis. These results indicated that wheat landraces from the western region of Yunnan province had possessed high genetic diversity and were valuable gene bank for wheat breeding and improvement in future.
Abstract: Fifty-six color-grained wheat varieties， which were released from different provinces in China in the past 25 years， were investigated in this study. The variation coefficient， principal component analysis and cluster analysis were applied to evaluate their five agronomic and three quality traits， which would provide reference for germplasm resources innovation and new varieties breeding in China. The results showed that the variation coefficient in the growth period， plant height， kernels per spike， 1000-grain weight and grain yield ranged from 8.11% to 21.82%， especially for the yield and growth period both with a higher variation coefficient. The variation coefficient of three quality traits protein content， bulk density and wet gluten content ranged from 3.44% to 15.06%， among which the bulk density was stable and the variation of protein and wet gluten content was abundant. Most of the varieties released by Shanxi Province， Anhui Province and Beijing showed good quality， and wheat varieties from Shandong Province showed better yield performance. There were no significant differences in traits among different color-grained wheat. The correlation analysis showed that the growth period negetively correlated with the plant height. The 1000-grain weight was observed to be positively correlated with the kernels per spike. The protein content positively correlated with the wet gluten content and growth period. The principal component analysis simplified the six traits into three principal components， with a cumulative contribution rate of 67.55%. The first principal component was associated with the bulk density， the second principal component was associated with the yield， and the third principal component was associated with the protein and wet gluten content. Cluster analysis suggested the 56 color-grained wheat resources into four groups at a distance of 12.5， among which the first group had better comprehensive traits. The varieties Shannong Lanmai 1 had the highest F value （1.02）， and Liuzi Heimai 1 had the second highest F value （0.99）. According to the trend of color-grained wheat variety traits， the growth period and yield attended to be increased within years， while the plant height and protein content attended to be decreased. Collectively， in breeding for color-grained wheat varieties the yield performance was the major target， and future improvement on the quality traits， especially the protein content would become of interest.
Abstract: The bio-enhancement breeding for higher folate in food crops is a potential effective way to improve folate deficiency in humans. It is of great significance to study the genetic effects of folate traits in waxy maize F0 kernels. Two components 5-methyltetrahydrofolate （5-M-thf） and 5-formyltetrahydrofolate （5-F-thf） are the main forms of natural folate. In order to study the content and variants of folate in F0 kernels， twenty crosses were generated according to Griffing diallel cross using 5 waxy corn inbred lines， followed by the evaluation of the 5-M-thf and 5-F-thf contents of fresh F0 kernels in this study. The results showed that the content of 5-M-thf was higher than that of 5-F-thf in all crosses， and the content of 5-M-thf in ZN3/J6 was highest， which was 432.85 ug/100 g DW； the content of 5-F-thf in BN2/ZN3 was the highest， which was 115.64 ug/100 g DW. The F0 heterosis was observed in the 5-M-thf and 5-F-thf. The 5-F-thf showed positive heterosis in all crosses， while the 5-M-thf showed variants on heterosis in different crosses. Further calculation of the heritability and maternal effect of folate traits showed that the heritability of 5-F-thf （0.81） was higher than that of 5-M-thf， while the maternal effect of 5-M-thf （0.16） was higher than that of 5-F-thf. In conclusion， this study revealed the F0 heterosis and maternal effect of folate trait in waxy maize kernels， and the different performance on forms of folate in maize kernels. The inbred lines such as BN2 and ZN3， which were detected with high folate content， can be applied as female parent to obtain high folate content in maize F0 kernels.
Abstract: The hulless barley （locally referred qingke） is the staple food crop in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China， and ensuring its sustainable production is crucial to both food and national security. Since the straw of the hulless barley is of importance in yak feeding， breeding for new varieties showing dual-purpose end-use in grain consumption and forage becomes of interest. In order to establish an evaluation system suitable for hulless barley varieties， this study performed the field trials at two locations （Changdu city of Tibet； Haixi city of Qinghai） for two years （2020 and 2021） to record the performance at 15 agronomic and yield-related traits and the responses to five fungal pathogens. The plants including straw and grains at the milk maturity stage were harvested to measure the feeding quality by quantifying 15 parameters. These datasets were further evaluated by clustering analysis， multiple comparisons， principal component analysis， gray relation analysis and the analysis of productivity and stability. An evaluation method was established for selecting the hulless barley varieties for dual-purpose end-use. With the evaluation criteria， the variety Ganqing 9 was identified suitable for both grain consumption and forage. In addition， Kunlun 15 which had high grain yield production were suggested for grain consumption， and Kangqing 7 and Zangqing 22 which had high biomass and feeding quality were qualified for taking as silage.
Abstract: To provide reference on genes exploration in chestnut， this study investigated the genetic diversity of 17 soluble sugar related traits in 121 chestnut germplasm resources collected from ten provinces in P. R. China. The contents were quantified by the HPLC method， followed by genetic variation， Shannon-weaver index diversity analysis， principal component analysis and cluster analysis. The result showed that： （1） The soluble sugar related traits in samples had abundant phenotypic diversity. The average variation coefficient and average diversity index were 20.57% and 1.89， respectively. The differences on genetic variation and genetic diversity in samples from different regions were observed. In samples from Shaanxi province， the variation degree was the highest， with the coefficient of variation of 20.73%， and the samples from Hebei province showed the highest genetic diversity， with the diversity index of 1.88. The genetic variation and diversity level in samples from Anhui province were the lowest， with the coefficient of variation and diversity index of 12.27 % and 0.97， respectively. （2） Except sucrose content， fructose content， mannitol content and the sum of measured sugars（Total content of sucrose， maltose， stachyose， fructose， mannitol and sorbito）， significant differences among populations in remaining traits were observed. The soluble solids content， total soluble sugar content， maltose ratio， stachyose content， stachyose ratio， sorbitol content and sorbitol ratio were extremely significant differences among populations. There were rich variations and high diversity among different regions. （3） The differentiation coefficient of 17 traits between populations was 13.41 %， and that within populations was 86.59 %， indicating that the variations on these traits was mainly attributed by intra-population diversity. （4） Principal component analysis showed that the contribution rate of the first principal component was 30.609%， severing as a comprehensive evaluation index of chestnut fruit sweetness and taste. The main feature vectors were soluble total sugar content （0.708）， sucrose content （0.619）， sucrose / Total soluble sugar （0.921）， maltose / Total soluble sugar （0.623）， stachyose / Total soluble sugar （0.664）， the sum of measured sugars （0.647） and sum of measured sugars/ Total soluble sugar （0.951）.（5） Cluster analysis suggested 2 groups of 121 germplasm resources， being correlated with the geographical collection information.
Abstract: Apart from facilitating the development of the potato processing industry and enriching the diets of people， breeding of potato varieties with good nutritional qualities also contributes to the adjustment of the national-wide planting structure. Protein， vitamin C and potassium （K） are important quality traits in potato. In this study， the genetic variation of protein， vitamin C and K and their interaction relationship in 118 potato breeding lines were assessed by cluster analysis and the two-dimensional quadrant method. The variable coefficient of protein， vitamin C and K content were 16.34%， 26.01% and 14.19%， respectively， and the genetic diversity index were 1.9744， 1.9952 and 2.0411， respectively. These indicated a broad genetic basis for protein， vitamin C and K content in this collection. The protein content was extremely significantly positively correlated with the K content in potatoes. The cluster analysis enabled the classification of 118 potato lines into four groups. The lines in groups I and II had lower protein content； the lines in group II had high vitamin C content； the lines in group III had the highest contents of protein and K； the lines in group IV had the highest vitamin C content. Twenty lines showing multiple high nutritional qualities were identified by two-dimensional quadrant analysis. Gained from these results， it is possible to identify potato varieties with high nutrition and suitable for planting in Fujian province of P. R. China. This study might provide useful materials breeding and deciphering the mechanism of elite potato varieties with high nutritional value.
Abstract: In order to identify kenaf germplasm resources resistant to root knot nematode， In this study， the root knot nematode population infected with kenaf was identified by SCAR primers， and the root knot nematode resistance of 220 kenaf wild or cultivated germplasm resource materials were identified and evaluated by using the methods of natural field disease and pot inoculation identification. The results showed that the pathogen causing disease in the field was Meloidogyne incognita. The results of field resistance identification showed that there were 133 kenaf resources showed high resistance， accounting for 60.45%， and all the roselle， false roselle and creeping saxifrage showed high resistance， and the high resistance ratio was the highest. The results of pot inoculation showed that there were 7 immune resources， accounting for 3.18% of the total resources. And 98 high resistance resources，accounting for 44.55% of the total resources. All roselle were identified as high resistance grade. There were some differences in the identification of kenaf germplasm resistance between natural field disease and pot test. There were 98 germplasm resources with the same identification results by the two methods.There were 69 high resistance resources ，accounting for 70.41% of the 98 germplasm resources. Among the high-resistance resources， 49 were from cultivated kenaf， 10 were from wild relatives， the rest were from roselle， rose hemp and hibiscus， and 1 high susceptible variety was from wild relatives.These results of this study provided scientific basis for the exploitation and utilization of kenaf germplasm resources against root knot nematode disease.
Abstract: In this study， a total of 222 samples from nine populations of ancient Liquidambar formosana Hance that distributed in Jiangxi province， P.R. China， were genotyped by capillary electrophoresis using 14 pairs of SSR primers， followed by the genetic diversity and cluster analysis using GenAIEx， CERVUS and Structure. The results showed that the average number of observed alleles （Na） of 14 SSR loci was 8.143， with the average number of effective alleles （Ne） of 2.819. The average value of Shannon information index （I） was 1.009， with a mean polymorphism information content （PIC） of 0.513. The average expected heterozygosity （He） and observed heterozygosity （Ho） were 0.504 and 0.470， respectively. The Ningdu （ND） population had the highest genetic diversity （He=0.551）， and the Wanli （WL） population had the lowest genetic diversity （He=0.394）. The South region of Jiangxi province showed the highest genetic diversity （He=0.534） and eight private alleles， followed by the North region of Jiangxi province with He=0.505 and the largest number of 14 private alleles. The lowest genetic diversity and a small number of private alleles were found in the Central region of Jiangxi province （He=0.473， n=2）. The results of AMOVA showed that the intra-population variation （92%） was significantly higher than that of the populations （8%）. This was in line with a coefficient of genetic differentiation （Fst=0.133）， implying higher gene flow （Nm=2.995）. According to principal component analysis （PCoA） and structure analysis， 9 populations could be divided into three groups， and there were different degrees of introgression among populations. Collectively， this study provided insights for the utilization and protection of ancient L. formosana， indicating the importance on the protection of ancient trees vailable in the future breeding program. In order to maximize a long-term genetic gain， the selection of superior trees in the populations in the North and South of Jiangxi province should be strengthened which may contain specific gene type resources.
Abstract: Grape is one of the most widely cultivated fruit trees in the world and is rich in germplasm resources.Germplasm resource nurseries have been collecting and preserving germplasm resources for a long time， accumulating resources such as wild species， local varieties， breeding varieties， breeding materials， rare resources and closely related plants， etc. However， the traditional germplasm resources information based hand-writing or printing is un-friendly on information management， acquisition and communication. Taking advantage of the development of internet technology， online germplasm databases becomes easily accessible in information sharing， trait evaluation， germplasm conservation and utilization. There are many grape-related databases worldwide， which not only provide data information to decision-making departments， variety certification institutions， management personnel， scientific research and teaching units， but also serve germplasm resources and biotechnology researchers， seed bank management， seed introduction and investigation personnel， agricultural technology extension personnel， farmers， students， and seed， feed， wine and other enterprises. In this article， we focused on four databases （The European Vitis Database； Genesys PGR， the International Research Institute for Tropical Agriculture； GRIN， the US Department of Agriculture； China Germplasm Resources Information System） to analyze the datasets of origin， species， fruit color， application， aroma and botanical characteristics of Germplasm. We would like to provide insights on promoting innovative germplasm technology research and development， as well as improving the sharing efficiency of germplasm resources， which has implication for the efficient use of online database and the future construction of Chinese database.
Abstract: EIN3/EILs （Ethylene inductive proteins/ethylene inductive 3-like） protein family function as the main members of ethylene signal transduction pathway and play an important regulatory role in plant growth and development and stress response. In this study， ZmEIL2 was isolated from maize inbred line B73 based on sequence homology （GeneBank ID： KJ727458.1）. This gene carries a 1788 bp coding sequence （CDS） that encodes for 595 amino acid residues with a relative molecular mass of 63.81 kD and a theoretical isoelectric point of 6.34. ZmEIL2 contains an EIN3 domain which is specific to EIN3/EILs family. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that ZmEIL2 protein had the closest evolutionary relationship with SbEIL1 protein in Sorghum bicolor and was relatively distant from EIL proteins in Arabidopsis andsoybean. The subcellular localization assay showed that ZmEIL2 protein was localized to the cell membrane and nucleus. Tissue specific expression analysis showed that ZmEIL2 gene was highly expressed in bract， followed by ear， tassel and silks， and the lowest expression was detected in mature leaves. The transcripts of ZmEIL2 gene were inducible under abiotic stresses treatments such as dehydration， PEG， ABA， high salt， heat and cold， particularly under PEG， ABA or high salt treatments. The expression level of ZmEIL2 gene in leaves was significantly higher than that in stems and roots. These results laid a theoretical foundation for further deciphering the molecular mechanism of ZmEIL2 gene in responses to abiotic stresses.
Abstract: In order to explore the dwarf gene and analyze the dwarfing mechanism in maize， the maize dwarf mutant K718d， wild-type K718 and their F2 segregation population were used for gene mapping by BSA whole genome resequencing （BSA-reseq） and transcriptome sequencing （RNA-seq）. Three candidate regions with a total length of 21.03 Mb hosting 438 annotated genes were detected on chromosome 1. A total of 2374 differentially expressed genes （DEGs） were identified， including 1452 up-regulated genes and 922 down-regulated genes. KEGG analysis showed that DEGs were mainly involved in metabolic pathways including phenylpropane metabolism， fatty acid chain elongation and galactose metabolism. Gene function annotations showed that DEGs were involved in cell growth， cell wall composition， and plant hormone anabolism. BSA-reseq and RNA-seq suggested 26 candidate genes， of which 19 were found with non-synonymous mutations. Two candidate genes Zm00001d032035 and Zm00001d032422， which are annotated with plant hormone metabolism， were obtained based on the homologous gene function annotation， gene expression level and bioinformatics analysis. PCR amplification and qRT-PCR analysis showed that， both genes contained the amino acid substitutions in the coding region in K718d if compared to K718， and both showed decreased transcripts. These results provide reference for further dwarfing gene cloning and application in maize breeding.
Abstract: In plants， erucic acid is synthesized by the catalysis of a multienzyme complex， in which the β- Ketoacyl-CoA synthase encodedby FAE1 （fatty acid elongase 1） is a key rate limiting factor. Erucic acid is mainly stored in seeds in the form of TAG and is an important oleochemical feedstocks. The FAE1 genes in plants are variable on DNA sequence， thus resulting in differences on capability of erucic acid synthesis. To identify and isolate FAE1 genes with the highest capability on erucic acid synthesis， four plant species including Brassica napus， Crambe abyssinica， Tropaeolum majus and Limnanthes douglasii were used and twelve encoded FAE1 sequences were obtained from their genomes by homologous cloning method. Each FAE1 gene was sub-cloned into the yeast expression vector， followed by the analysis of erucic acid content in each recombinant yeast under induction culture conditions. The results showed that the twelve FAE1 genes shared 52.1-99.9% and 49.9-99.8% identity on cDNA and amino acid sequence， respectively， showing species-specific characteristics. By GC-MS analysis of all recombinant yeasts， eight FAE1 genes derived from Mianyou328， Crambe abyssinica and Limnanthes douglasii have been demonstrated with the capability to synthesize very-long-chain fatty acids. CaFAE1-3 had the strongest capability to synthesize erucic acid （4.82%）， followed by GjFAE1-1 （4.53%）， and LdFAE1 that was the weakest one （0.29%）. In addition， 95.39% of the C20∶1 fatty acids were converted by CaFAE1-3， implying great application potential in high erucic acid breeding. The remaining four genes derived from Yangguang80 and Tropaeolum majus were not detected with the capability on erucic acid synthesis. This is possible because of GyFAE1-2， TmFAE1-1 and TmFAE1-2 that contain mutations in the conserved cysteine or （and） histidine sites， and GyFAE1-1 that contains a R395K mutation resulting in loss of enzyme activity. Collectively， this study represented better understanding of the relationship between the structure and function of FAE1 gene， which has implication in higher erucic acid breeding and genetic engineering improvement on erucic acid trait in rapeseed and Crambe abyssinica.
Abstract: In order to provide the basis for the breeding and improvement of density-tolerant varieties, the change characteristics of ear traits of maize hybrids and the response to planting density were studied, taking maize hybrids popularized in China from four different eras since the 1980s as the materials. From 2017 to 2018, 12 maize hybrids with a large planting area of popularization released from 1980s to 2010s were investigated in Shenyang, Liaoning province and Gongzhuling, Jilin Province, with the two planting densities of 60,000 plants hm-2and 120,000 plants hm-2, using split plot experiment design, four row plots and three replicates. Ear length, ear diameter, bald tip length, rows per ear, kernels per row, and 100-kernel weight were investigated after harvest. The maize varieties released from different eras showed extensively significant change for rows per ear, kernels per row and 100-kernel weight in the present study. Ear diameter, bald tip length and 100-kernel weight decreased under different planting densities with the decades, rows per ear showed the opposite trend, and ear length and kernels per row did not change significantly. The change of bald tip length was especially significant, with the average decrease of 0.24 cm (high planting density) and 0.19 cm (low planting density) every 10 years from 1980s to 2010s. With the increase of planting density, the ear length became shorter, ear thinner, bald tip longer and kernels per row reduced for maize hybrids in the same era. Among them, the decrease of the new varieties released since 2000s was smaller, and the increase of bald tip of the new varieties in 2010s was the least with the value of 1.04%, indicating that the new maize varieties were more tolerant to density. In the future, it is necessary to maintain higher 100-kernel weight, while strengthening the synergistic improvement of ear length, ear diameter and bald tip, so as to achieve the goal of increasing yield during the breeding of density-tolerant.
Abstract: A natural lesion mimic mutant lm452 was found in the progeny of near iso-genetic lines built by Xinong1376 and Kehan21. This study analyzed the development, physiological-biochemical characteristics, agronomic traits, andSinheritance of lesion mimic in lm452. The results show that the lesion initially occurred in the first leaf, and onset parts were randomly; the color of lesion change from white to tan, with striped and patchy apperance. With the development of plants, the number of lesions gradually increased, and spread from leaf to sheath. The severity of lesion is affected by temperature and light; shading can avoid or reduce the occurrence of lesions. Low temperature and strong light can aggravate the spread of lesions; the results of physiological and chemical assays indicate that the formation of lesions is accompanied by the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), decreased soluble protein content, and decreased cellular viability. The 1000-kernel weight of lm452 was significantly lower than that of sister line g451 in both fields and greenhouse. Genetic analysis showed that the lesion mimic trait of lm452 was controlled by a single recessive nuclear gene. Above results provide the foundation for cloning and molecular regulation network mechanism analysis of the target gene.
Abstract: Insect pests attacks caused large rice yeild and economic loss every year. Brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens) is one of the most grievous insects of rice. The most effective measure to avoid its large-scale damage is developing BPH resistance lines and cultivating resistant varieties. Guangxi Indica rice germplasm 47-1 is highly resistance at seedling and adult stage for three consecutive years which proved that 47-1 had good genetic stablity, and shows the significant antibiosis and antixenosis against BPH. In order to enrich the gene diversity of BPH resistance and breed resistant rice varieties, it is meaningful to map its resistance gene and explore its resistance mechanism. In this study, we developed one F2 population containing 91 individuals by crossing 47-1 and a susceptible line 9311. After that, the BPH resistance level of each plant was identified by insect weight gain. The results showed that 61 resistant individuals having BPH weight increased multiple < 1.1 and 30 susceptible individuals with multiple > 1.1 were obtained. Chi-square test (χ2=3.081<χ20.01,1=3.84) showed that the ratio was consistent with the separation rule of one pair of dominant genes. One BPH resistance locus was detected in the region harbored by markers 04M0.453 and 04M3.688 on chromosome 4, which was considered to be the allele of Bph40. Only 3bp substitutions in the CDS of the Os04g08390 amplified from variety 47-1 were different from that of Bph40, which caused two amino acid differences in the protein. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that Os04g08390 of 47-1 was closely related to Bph40. Overall, we proposed that it is a Bph40 allele that contributes to the resistance of 47-1.
Abstract: Potato cyst nematode (PCN) is an important quarantine disease in potato, which can reduce the yield of potato by 80%.In recent years, it has been reported that the potato golden nematode (Globoderarostochiensis) has been found in several major potato producing areas in Southwest China.In order to ensure the safety of potato production in China, it is urgent to screen germplasm resources with cyst resistance and select resistant varieties.Using molecular markers N146, N195, 57R, TG689, Gro1-4-1 and Gpa2-2, 875 potato germplasm resources preserved by Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences were screened for resistance genes to potato cyst nematode.211 resources were screened to contain H1 molecular markers (N146, N195, 57R and TG689) of the resistance gene of potato wireworm, of which 114 resources contained 4 molecular markers at the same time;Seven resources contain molecular marker Gro1-4-1 of potato golden nematode resistance gene Gro1-4;237 resources contain Gpa2-2 molecular marker of potato white nematode resistance gene Gpa2.The results of this study will provide technical support and material basis for the breeding of potato cyst nematode resistance.
Abstract: The immature embryos of maize can form embryogenic callus through tissue culture, and are usually used as explants for genetic transformation. It is not well known about the molecular mechanism of maize embryonic callus formation. To reveal the potential genes involved in the callus formation of maize, type I calli with well growth and type II calli with poor growth from F3 embryos of maize inbred line CAL28× Zheng58 were selected for RNA-seq analysis. Compared to type II calli, there were 4419 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in type I calli, including 1571 upregulated genes and 2848 downregulated genes. The results of GO enrichment analysis showed that DEGs were mainly enriched in response to stimulus, cell components and catalytic activity pathways. KEGG enrichment analysis showed that the enrichment of DEGs were mainly involved in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and the plant hormone signal transduction pathway. The SAUR family, ZIM family and IAA growth hormone response factors were upregulated in type I callus. A total of 2968 transcription factors belonging to 56 transcription factor families in DEGs were significantly enriched. The expression levels of EREB24, EREB53, EREB184, EREB206, ZmLBD10, ZmLBD24, ZmLBD31 and ZmLBD32, which are from AP2, WOX and LBD transcription factor families, were significantly up-regulated in type Ⅰ callus. Genetic manipulation of these target genes may promote the formation of maize callus.The results provide theoretical reference for the analysis of molecular mechanism of maize callus formation, and the identified candidate DEGs would have great application potential.
Abstract: Grain size and morphology is one of the main factors that determine the wheat yield, it is of great significance to mine the associated loci of grain size and morphology related traits and screen related candidate genes for improving wheat yield. In this study, 300 representative natural populations of winter wheat at domestic and exotic excellent were used as research materials to identify the phenotype of 9 grain traits, including 1000-grain weight, grain length, grain width, grain thickness, grain length-width ratio, grain area, grain perimeter, grain shape and grain plumpness. Wheat genotypes were collected by 90 K SNP chip, and genome-wide association study of grain size and morphological traits was carried out by mixed linear model (MLM+Q+K).The results showed that the traits related to grain size and morphology showed rich phenotypic variation, the coefficient of variation ranged from 3.80%~-26.06% and the broad heritability was 56.25%~-91.89%. 66 stable association loci (P ≤ 0.001) related to grain size and morphology were detected by GWAS, which were distributed on 18 chromosomes except 3D, 4D and 5D, which could explain 3.74%~-14.34% of phenotypic variation. for pleiotropic loci associated with two or more grain traits we detected 37. among which the BS00022512_51 marker detected on chromosome 3B was simultaneously correlated with 4 grain traits (grain length, grain width, grain thickness and grain length-width ratio), with the largest apparent contribution rate (7.06%~-14.34%), the wsnp_Ex_c4480_8055475 markers detected on chromosome 6D were simultaneously associated with six grain traits except grain thickness, grain shape and grain plumpness, and the phenotypic contribution rate was 3.81%-8.25%. Haplotype analysis of BS00022512_51 and wsnp_Ex_c4480_8055475 markers showed that there were three haplotypes of GC-Hap1, AT-Hap2 and AC-Hap3 in wsnp_Ex_c4480_8055475 markers loucs on chromosome 6D, and Haplotype GC-Hap1 is a haplotype with large grains and high 1000-grain weight. The distribution frequencies of the three haplotypes were 65.58% and 32.25% and 2.17%, respectively. Haplotype GC-Hap1 was widely selected in four winter wheat regions in China. Nine candidate genes were proposed based on 37 significantly-associated multiple effect SNPs.
Abstract: Rice with high resistant starch (RS) content improves human health and reduces the risk of diet-related chronic diseases, so it has received more attention in the research of functional rice in recent years. Discovering new rice grain RS-related genes is of great significance for revealing the genetic mechanism of rice grain RS synthesis. It can provide new genetic resources for breeding rice varieties with high RS. In this study, Ningxia local high-yield japonica rice variety Ningjing 28, imported japonica rice variety JTD, and 126 F7 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) were used as research objects. A genetic linkage map containing 1,856 Bin markers was constructed by whole genome resequencing technology. The entire length of the map is 1973.86 cM, and the average genetic distance between markers is 1.06 cM. Using CIM interval mapping method to map the QTL of RS traits in rice populations, one QTL controlling RS was detected, located on chromosome 7, with a LOD value of 4.2 and a contribution rate of 9.7%. Gene function annotation and enrichment analysis were performed on the candidate regions, and two candidate genes Os07g0444000 and Os07g0443500 were obtained. Os07g0444000 is localized on the cell membrane and may be involved in the decomposition of the rice glucosylceramide pathway. Os07g0443500 localizes in the nucleus and is a DNA-binding protein containing an MYB domain. Through comprehensive analysis of agronomic traits, three families with higher RS content and better performance of other agronomic traits were obtained from the RILs population, numbered 201941, 201950, and 201956, respectively. This study provides new clues for the further cloning rice RS-related genes and variety breeding by mining the QTL loci and related genes of rice grain-resistant starch.
Abstract: To provide a basis for breeding liquor-making sorghum with marker-assisted selection and exploring the genetic mechanism of key genes underlying these traits, this study used high-density genetic map to identify QTL for panicle architecture-related traits. 205 RIL population from a cross between BTx623 (American cultivar) and Hongyingzi (Cultivar for brewing Kweichow Moutai liquor) were used to investigate six panicle traits in five environments of Guiyang, Anshun and Ledong from 2020 to 2021, these traits included Panicle length (PL), panicle handle length (PHL), number of cob nodes (NCN), number of primary branches (NPB), and length of the longest primary branch length (LLPB). QTL were identified using the inclusive composite interval mapping (ICIM) method. Totally, 61 QTL were detected on 45 unique loci, of which 14、10、8、11 and 18 QTL were related to PL, PHL, NCN, NPB, and LLPB, respectively. 19 important QTL identified in multi-traits or multi-environments distributed on chromosome 1(3), 3 (4), 4 (2), 5 (1), 6 (4), 7 (1), 8 (2), and 9 (1), and 13 orthologous genes for rice panicle architecture were found in or near 12 of the 19 QTL, such as DEP1, RGN1, OsPID, OsSPL7 and WTG1, which could provide a basis for further gene cloning and function verification.
Abstract: In order to explore the phenotypic diversity of wild Hippophae rhamnoides subsp. Sinensis resources in Qinghai Province, 150 wild Seabuckthorn resources from 10 regions in Qinghai Province were collected and 12 phenotypic traits were analyzed. The results showed that Seabuckthorn had rich phenotypic diversity in Qinghai Province, the coefficient of variation of 12 phenotypic characters ranged from 16.49% to 58.76%. Among them, ground diameter, tree height and thorn length had great variation, and the coefficient of variation was over 50%. Correlation analysis showed that there were significant or extremely significant correlations among all characters except tree height, branch, ground diameter and leaf width. At the same time, the phenotypic traits of Seabuckthorn were correlated with latitude and altitude, and different traits were affected by different geographical factors, among which the leaf traits were the most affected. Four principal components with eigenvalues greater than 1 were selected by principal component analysis, and the cumulative contribution rate was 86.35%, which contained most of the information about phenotypic traits of Seabuckthorn. Fruit weight had the greatest effect on phenotypic traits diversity of Seabuckthorn. The results of cluster analysis showed that at 15 Euclidean distances, the tested materials could be divided into three groups. These results indicate that the phenotypic characters of Seabuckthorn resources in Qinghai are rich in diversity and have great potential for exploitation and utilization. This study provided a scientific basis for the breeding and preservation of excellent germplasm resources of Hippophae rhamnoides subsp. Sinensis.
Abstract: In order to identify elite germplasm resource of asparagus bean applicable for genetic improvement, 243 representative asparagus bean varieties were cultivated following the split area (variety + year) test design method, followed by quantifying 28 quality characters of the pods. The heritability of the characters, correlation analysis, cluster analysis and principal component analysis were further performed. The results showed that the variation coefficients of 28 quality traits ranged from 10.34% to 66.41%. The analysis of variance illustrated that there were significant differences among varieties at most traits. Based on their characteristic data, the composition of main nutrient components in asparagus bean was listed. The broad heritability of 16 traits such as vitamin C and dry matter content was more than 80%, while that of leucine, methionine content was less than 40%. There were 98 significant correlation coefficients in a manner of pairwise comparisons, and there was a strong correlation between all amino acid components. 243 varieties were classified into five groups by cluster analysis. 42% of the varieties were clustered in group II, representing the benchmark level of asparagus bean. Group I, III and V showed high content of sugar, amino acid and protein, respectively. The varieties with extreme individual traits were scattered in group IV. Principal component analysis demonstrated that 28 traits could be transformed into nine principal components, with a cumulative contribution rate of 65%. Twenty-four elite germplasms were identified according to the comprehensive score. Collectively, this study enriched our understanding of the nutrient quality characteristics of asparagus valuable for its genetic improvement in future.
Abstract: To evaluate the resistance of hulless barley to barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) , 245 hulless barley materials were tested three?times by inoculation of viruliferous aphids under field conditions. The results showed 08-1280 possessed highly resistance to BYDV, six materials（ZYM1289, Beiqing 6, ZDM4409, Ganqing 2, Zangqing 3000, ZYM1853）were resistant. 47,173, and 18 materials showed moderately resistance, susceptibility and highly susceptibility to BYDV, respectively. Molecular marker detection indicated that 08-1280 carried Yd2 resistant gene.To gain a better understanding of physiological mechanism of hulless barley against BYDV infection, the differences in total phenol, proline, soluble sugar and soluble protein changes between resistant material ‘08-1280’ and susceptible material ‘Kangqing 3’ were investigated. We found that the physiological response to BYDV varied with resistance and time after inoculation in hulless barley. 10 days after inoculation, the total phenol and proline of high resistant material showed increases significantly higher than high susceptible one. 30 days after inoculation, the increase of total phenol of high resistant material were significantly higher and the increase of soluble sugar was significantly lower as compared with high susceptible material. Compared with the control, soluble protein decreased dramatically in high resistant material, but increased in high susceptible one at 30 days after inoculation. This study provided excellent resources and theoretical reference for breeding?resistant?varieties and clarifying?resistant?mechanisms in hulless barley. This study provided excellent resources and theoretical reference for breeding?resistant?varieties and clarifying?resistant?mechanisms in hulless barley.
Abstract: MYB is one of the largest number of transcription factors in plants. MYB is involved in a variety of physiological and biochemical processes of rice, such as root development, cell development, secondary cell wall synthesis, tillering formation, flower organ development, spike morphogenesis, seed development, stimulatory metabolism, secondary metabolism, biological stress and abiotic response. This paper introduced the classification and protein structure of MYB transcription factor family, reviewed the latest research progress of MYB family members in growth and development, hormone signals in rice, described the regulatory role of MYB in abiotic stress processes of rice, such as drought, high temperature, low temperature, high salt, UV damage, etc., and also discussed the defense role of MYB in biological stress such as fungi, bacteria, etc. Finally, based on the latest research progress of rice MYB transcription factor, deficiencies were summarized and prospects for future research were put forward.
Abstract: Abstract: To evaluate the plant height, grain traits, and diseases resistance of wheat resources derived from different wheat regions of China at four major breeding stages that cultivated in Ningxia spring wheat region, and to provide feasible evaluation methods and excellent germplasms for Ningxia wheat breeding, a total of 228 domestic wheat resources belonged to four breeding stages were used. The entropy-weighted DTOPSIS method was used for comprehensive evaluation of the plant height and grain traits of these germplasms in order to select good breeding parents. The disease resistance and distribution of resistance genes of these materials was evaluated by field test combined with 18 molecular markers associated with major wheat diseases in Ningxia. The results showed that the plant height and the protein traits of materials showed the reduced whereas the grain numbers and grain weight showed increased tendency from breeding stages I to IV. Based on the Ci value, we selected a total of 11 materials belong to the top 5% of the total. These materials were Hongxinglong No.3, Yangnuomai, Xinjiang wheat, Shanglin wheat, Ningchun No.45, Huining No.19, Ningchun No.32, M6445, Ganchun No.25, Yongliang No.15 and Xiaobing No.33, respectively. Besides, these 11 materials also showed good resistance to stripe rust and leaf rust in the field test, and three of them, namely Hongxinglong No.3, Shanglin wheat, and Xiaobing No.33 showed resistance to powdery mildew. In the field, there were 181, 220 and 83 in 228 materials showed resistant to stripe rust, leaf rust and powdery mildew, respectively. Further, 18 molecular markers associated with diseases resistance including Xfa2019, Xwmc221, Wpt-7004, Xgwm18, Xcfa2040, cfd71, Xgwm293, Xgwm304, Xgwm149, Xgwm526, Xgwm332, 5EST-237, KU.962, XMAG1714, Xmag1759, Xgwm160, Xicsx79 and WGGBH218, showed amplifications in 194, 227, 23, 30, 127, 68, 57, 31, 153, 65, 211, 191, 1, 226, 225, 77, 62 and 191 of the 228 materials, respectively. In word, the DTOPSIS method based on entropy weighting and molecular marker associated with major wheat diseases can be used to evaluate the domestic wheat resources at the different breeding stages. The 11 wheat resources with good comprehensive traits can be used as candidate parents for Ningxia wheat breeding.
Abstract: The main incidence site and symptom phenotype of anthrax disease for 479 common persimmon were observed and recorded in National Field Genebank for Persimmon. The results showed that the persimmon anthrax pathogen was mainly infected with twigs, fruits, leaves and sepals of persimmon. Based on the anthrax symptoms of persimmon branches and fruit in field, 479 common persimmon germplasms were divided into five resistance levels of highly resistant, resistant, medium resistant, susceptible and highly susceptible. Among which 66 germplasms (13.8%) had high resistance, and the representative varieties are ''Yunyang Huoshi'', etc; 35 germplasms showed the resistance to anthracnose (7.3%), the representative varieties are ''Huangbian Xiaojixin'', etc.; 119 germplasms had medium resistance (24.8%), the representative varieties are ''Fuyu'', ''Jiro'', etc.; 209 germplasms were susceptible (43.6%) , the representative varieties are ''Fuping Jianshi'', etc; highly susceptible varieties have 50 accessions (10.4%), such as ''Suruga'' etc. Pathogenic bacteria were isolated from leaves, branches, sepals and fruits. According to the morphological characteristics of colonies, mycelia and spores and the sequence alignment of multiple genes, all of them were identified as Colletotrichum horii.
Abstract: Rice is one of important staple crops serving as the primary food supply in Hainan Province. However, food self-sufficiency in Hainan Province is low. Breeding elite rice varieties and improving rice yield are important to ensure food security. Based on the panel data of rice varieties certified in Hainan Province from 2003 to 2021, total information of the rice varieties during these 19 years was studied, and 14 traits data including rice yield, disease resistance and rice quality were analyzed. Results showed that 383 rice varieties were certified in Hainan Province in recent 19 years, including hybrid rice varieties of approximately 71.3%. The yield of the varieties in regional trials and production trials reflected the low level of rice yield per mu in Hainan. In terms of variety traits, the certified varieties were mainly with 110-160 grains per panicles, which might be characteristic due to Hainan climate conditions. Most of the varieties were not resistant to blast or bacterial blight, with less than 0.5% of double resistant varieties. The amylose content of the varieties was relatively high, but a slowly decreasing trend was demonstrated with the years went by. Only about 24% of the rice varieties reached the third grade and above of the indica rice quality, which meant a poor level of the rice quality totally. Therefore, in order to improve rice yield, variety resistance and rice quality, germplasm innovation and breakthrough are needed to breed new rice elite varieties in Hainan province. In addition, it is also necessary to revise registration standard for rice variety and strengthen researches on rice cultivation and extension of elite rice varieties to improve the level of rice production in Hainan Province. The combination of elite varieties and good cultivation could better ensure food security and could also promote the construction of Hainan Free Trade Port.
Abstract: The applied core collection is the optimal set of elite germplasm constructed to solve breeding problems, which greatly embody the tight connections between germplasm research and crop breeding. Its effective construction and utilization can significantly improve the usage efficiency of germplasm in crop breeding. Considering the present research status of core collection, we clarified the basic category and characteristics of maize applied core collection, and proposed that on the basis of core collection, the construction of maize applied core collection by integrating elite alleles of important breeding traits will be the focus of maize germplasm research. The constructed applied core collection would be suitable for the maize breeding of various ecological regions, with clear heterosis groups, clear elite alleles, but without obvious genetic burden. At last, the key issues of the construction of maize applied core collection are discussed, by which to promote the development of maize applied core collection and also to provide permanent supports for the research of breeding in China.
Abstract: The Three Parallel Rivers of Yunnan Protected Areas refers to the longitudinal valley of the Hengduan Mountains where the Nu River, Jinsha River and Lancang River flow in parallel in Yunnan Province, and has rich plant resources. In order to find out the distribution of buckwheat germplasm resources in this area, the wild buckwheat expedition team of the Institute of Crop Science of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences conducted a 15-day wild buckwheat survey in the area from 2020 to 2022, collected a total of 60 materials from 8 species of The genus Fagopyrum Miller, clarified the distribution and population characteristics of buckwheat germplasm resources in this region, and discovered some special wild buckwheat resources. The survey results laid a solid foundation for the targeted conservation and utilization of buckwheat germplasm resources in this region, and provided certain reference value for the study of the origin and domestication of buckwheat.
Abstract: To explore maize dwarf genes and analyze their regulation mechanism, provide germplasm resources and theoretical basis for maize dwarf breeding. Morphological observation and paraffin section were used to study the dwarfing characteristics of maize dwarf mutant K15d and wild type K15. By allele-test, PCR was used to clone the dwarf gene d15, the gene function was analyzed, and the expression pattern of d15 in stem internodes at three stages was analyzed by qPCR. Compared with wild type K15, the plant height, ear height and the internodes number below ear position of mutant K15d decreased by 39.22%, 69.75% and 38.83%, respectively, with significant or extremely significant differences. Stem cells were significantly smaller and irregularly arranged. The dwarf gene d15 was allelic to br2 and consists of 5 exons and 4 introns. The fifth exon was missing 200bp in the range of 5485bp to 5685bp, and the length of coding region was 3983bp which encoded 1326 amino acids. There were only 10 transmembrane domains encoding proteins, two were missing. The change of secondary structure and the loss of the second conserved domain had affected the substrate binding and transport function. The promoter sequence of d15 was 1091bp, and only two SNPs were differences from br2, with 99.94% homology. There was no significant difference between the expression of d15 gene in the mutant and the wild type at the three stages of pre-jointing, jointing and post-jointing. In conclusion, the dwarf gene d15 is a new br2 allele with similar dwarfing characteristics and expression characteristics to br2, which enriches the maize dwarf gene pool.
Abstract: Leaves are important vegetative organs of plants, and leaf margin serration (lobe) has many advantages in production practice. The research on the regulation of leaf margin serration has important guiding significance for plant breeding. This paper reviews the regulation mechanism of leaf margin serration formation. Several factors such as plant hormones, gene expression, and miRNA have role in shaping leaf margins. Auxin unbalanced accumulation at the leaf margin can promote serration. Cytokinins (CK) depends on accumulation of auxin at leaf margin to promote leaf shape complexity, while gibberellin (GA) negatively regulates leaf shape complexity. Meanwhile, this paper summarizes three main pathways of plant hormones and genes involved in leaf margin serration formation: TCP-CUC-PIN1-Auxin, KNOX-GA/CK, LMI1-CK. MiR164, miR319, polycomb group (PcG) epigenetic modification and alpha-1,2-glucosyltransferase are also involved in leaf margin serration formation. Previous studies have shown that ambient temperature and light intensity regulate the leaf margin development through the KNOX-GA pathway. High temperature and low light intensity decrease the complexity of leaf shape. The genetic mechanism of regulation on leaf margin serration differs from plants to plants. The discovery of leaf margin serration related genes mainly focuses on cash crops, as to fruit trees breeding, further research should promote not only fruit quality and resistance but also ornamental character.
Abstract: Docynia delavayi (Franch.) Schneid. is a well-known wild fruit tree in Yunnan Province, whose fruits are rich in nutrients and ideal for green fruits. Its fruits are rich in tannins, crude fibres and flavonoids, resulting in most of the fruit being sour and difficult to eat fruits directly. During the preliminary resource survey, it was found that the natural variation of Docynia delavayi (Franch.) Schneid. fruit is abundant, and some individuals have a better taste of sweet juice and crispy flesh, which is loved by the public. The selection of fresh plus trees will lay the foundation for later targeted improvement. In this study, a total of 100 fresh-feeding candidate plants from Nuozadu Township, Lancang County, Yunnan Province, were used to determine and analyse their fruit phenotypes (fruit weight, fruit cross diameter and fruit longitudinal diameter), and the average fruit weight (61.28 g) and average yield (9 kg/m2) were used as indicators to select a total of 66 plus plants. The quality traits (total sugars, total acids, Vc, flavonoids, tannins, crude protein, crude fibre) were measured and analysed. The results showed that there was some variation in all traits, among which the content of Vc was the most variable with a coefficient of variation of 0.318 and the content of total sugar was the most stable with a high overall consistency with a coefficient of variation of 0.064. The correlation analysis showed that except for crude protein content which was significantly negatively correlated with flavonoid content, the other indicators were positively or negatively correlated and none of them reached a significant level. Then the comprehensive scoring method was used to score and rank the initial selection of superior plants, the higher the ranking the better the overall quality, and finally the lower limit of significantly lower than average scores was determined according to the one-sample mean hypothesis test, and finally 13 excellent fresh-feeding individuals with a total score higher than the lowest lower limit (56.13) were screened, of which the first one was No. 98 with a score of 66 and the best overall performance, and the rest of the plus trees are, in descending order of overall score: 1, 15, 34, 12, 76, 9, 77, 8, 71, 7, 99, 6. A total of 13 plus trees of Docynia delavayi were screened in this study, providing valuable material for the selection and breeding of improved varieties of fresh Docynia delavayi.
Abstract: In order to investigate the effects of Na+ and K+ content and distribution in shoot and root of rice on biomass accumulation and salt tolerance at seedling stage, salt stress treatment by using Yoshida culture solution containing 125 mmol/L NaCl, was applied for analyzing 51 rice germplasm accessions with different types. Five morphological parameters including salt tolerance score (STS), relative root length (RRL), relative shoot dry weight (RSDW), relative root dry weight (RRDW) , shoot water content (SWC), and six ion indexes, namely shoot Na+ content (SNC), root Na+ content (RNC), shoot K+ content (SKC), root K+ content (RKC), shoot Na+/K+(SNa+/K+) and root Na+/K+(RNa+/K+) were measured. On the basis of principal component analysis（PCA）, with membership functions and weighted standard deviation coefficient method, a comprehensive evaluation value D for objectively assessing the salt tolerance of rice germplasm accessions at seedling stage was obtained. Specific primers for amplifying the coding region of SKC1 were applied for sequencing, alignment and haplotype analysis. The results showed that SNC was significantly negatively correlated with other 4 morphologic indexes except RRL, and STS was found to be significantly negatively correlated with SNC, RNC and SNa+/K+. Meanwhile, significant positive correlations among STS, RSDW, RRDW and SWC were revealed by correlation analysis. PCA with 11 evaluation indexes suggested four major components, with a cumulative contribution rate of 82.093%. Six key indexes, including RSDW, STS, RRDW, SNC, SNa+/K+ and RNC, were selected based on the loadings of 11 indexes in CI1. Combined with the linear regression analysis between the D value and these six indexes, it was found that SNa+/K+ may be the key factor affecting ion balance in rice seedlings with a great regression coefficient. By sequence alignment of the SKC1 coding regions, 51 rice germplasm accessions were divided into nine different haplotypes. The haplotype of Koshihikari (Hap1) was the dominant allele of japonica rice accessions, and the haplotype of Nona Bokra (Hap7) was the dominant allele in indica and Aus rice accessions. The other seven haplotypes containing only 1 or 2 rice germplasm accessions were shown to be rare alleles. The results gained from this study provide a theoretical foundation for screening and identifying the salt-tolerant rice germplasm accessions in ion homeostasis.
Abstract: The breeding of hybrid soybean varieties is mainly based on the ‘three-line’ method (based on cytoplasmic male sterility). As the male parent of the hybrid, the restorer-of-fertility (Rf) gene in the restorer line plays a decisive role. In the former study, we mapped the Rf gene GmRf1 for the soybean RN (Ru Nan) type cytoplasmic male sterile line. This study conducted functional annotation, subcellular location prediction, sequence alignment and differential expression analysis of candidate genes in the physical interval of GmRf1. We identified that the PPR (pentatricopeptide repeats) gene Glyma.16G161900 encoding for 576 amino acids encoded in male restorer line JLR230 is GmRf1. By crossing Williams82 containing GmRf1 with the female sterile line JLCMS204A, the pollen fertility of F1 plants was identified demonstrating that GmRf1 could restore the fertility of CMS-RN sterile lines. Wu further developed functional molecular markers Rf1-dCAPS-2 and Rf1-dCAPS-3 based on the single nucleotide mutation sites of GmRf1 between female and male parents. Collectively, this study laid a theoretical and technical foundation for the future marker-assisted selection of GmRf1, as well as the creation of new restorer lines through genetic engineering.
Abstract: Studies were conducted based on different intensities of the red-flesh color peaches to analyze the their formation mechanism and provide theoretical basis for efficient breeding of red peach varieties with different intensities. In this study, promoter activity of PpMYB10.1 was detected using GUS staining buffer, transcription repressors were captured through DNA-pull down assay, the function of candidate genes were determined by double luciferase and yeast two-hybrid assay. The results showed that expression of PpMYB10.1 and anthocyanin content of deep red, red and light red flesh peach decreased successively, indicating that the 483bp deletion and 5243bp insertion on PpMYB10.1 promoter have changed its promoter activity. Subsequently, we verified the 483bp deletion sequence and designed two promoter sequences, one of which contained the 483bp deletion sequence and 1609bp in length, and the other segment did not contain the 483bp deletion sequence and 1126bp in length. Their activities were identified by GUS staining. We found that activity of PpMYB10.1 promoter with 483bp sequence was weaker than that without the sequence. Later, we found that the activity of LUC at the injection site with ‘PpBL+PpNAC1+proMYB10.1(1126bp)’ was almost comparable to that of ‘PpBL+PpNAC1+proMYB10.1(1609bp)’, indicating that the presence or absence of the 483bp sequence had little effect on PpBL and PpNAC1 binding to the PpMYB10.1 promoter. Therefore, we believe that the 483bp sequence may bind to a transcriptional repressor, leading to the weakening of PpMYB10.1 initiation activity. Then, we designed the 483bp sequence as a probe, labeled with FGD fluorescein, and incubated with red peach fruit solid nucleoprotein. A total of 15 target proteins were identified, of which 2 (Prupe.2G302800 and Prupe.6G284800) showed inhibitory function according to functional annotation, and were used for subsequent functional verification. Dual luciferase assay was used to verify the transcriptional inhibitory activity of the two candidate genes. We found that the LUC activity of the injection site with ‘Prupe.2G302800 +proMYB10.1’ was stronger than that of the control‘GUS+proMYB10.1’ in tobacco leaves. However, with ‘Prupe.6G284800 +proMYB10.1’ injection site, LUC activity was almost comparable to that of control ‘GUS+proMYB10.1’. These results indicated that the two candidate genes had no inhibitory activity against the PpMYB10.1 promoter. Interestingly, the Prupe.2G302800 identified using the 483bp sequence showed strong interaction with PpBL, and inhibited its transcriptional activity to PpMYB10.1, which had a certain function in reducing the expression of PpMYB10.1. Although Prupe.2G302800 identified in this study is not the direct factor for lightening the red flesh of peach, it can play an important role in lightening the red flesh peach by inhabiting PpMYB10.1 transcription through interaction with PpBL.
Abstract: The experiment aimed to explore the genetic variation in trait of sugar and acid component in F1 generation of the jujube hybrid and offer further support for selecting the parents and quality germplasm selection in breeding. The contents of sugar and acid component in fruits of the 140 hybrid plants of ''JMS2'' × ''Jiaocheng 5'' and parents were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that the sugars in the fruit of the hybrid progeny were mainly composed of sucrose, fructose and glucose, of which sucrose accounted for 52.5 %. The variation coefficient of sugar components ranged from 26.74% to 35.45%, with the highest variation coefficient of glucose and the lowest variation coefficient of sucrose. The mean F1 values of fructose and glucose were higher than the median parent value, while sucrose was lower than the median parent value. The main acids were malic acid, quinic acid and citric acid, of which malic acid accounted for 35.10 %. The coefficient of variation of acid components ranged from 29.67% to 42.86%. The mean F1 value of malic acid was lower than the median parent value, the mean F1 value of oxalic acid and fumaric acid was higher than the median parent value，and the other acid components were greatly affected by environment. Both sugar and acid components showed normal distribution characteristics and were quantitative characters controlled by multiple genes. At last the optimal lines J17 and J70 were selected.
Abstract: Soybean is rich in nutrients and active substances. Oligosaccharides are beneficial functional components for human health, and identification of soybean oligosaccharide specific germplasms is of great practical significance. In this study, the content of oligosaccharides was quantified by HPLC method in a population of 264 soybean genotypes that were cultivated at multiple environments. The total oligosaccharide content in Sanya city of Hainan province and Nanjing city of Jiangsu Province ranged from 6.18% - 11.46% and 4.19% - 13.80%, respectively. Sixteen oligosaccharide specific genotypes with stable performance at different environments were obtained. Genome-wide association scanning (GWAS) was carried out by combining phenotypic and genotypic data of oligosaccharide content in natural soybean populations. SNPs significantly associated with oligosaccharides content were identified and candidate genes were considered to be related with oligosaccharide/sucrose. Collectively, this study provided germplasm resources applicable for the selection and breeding of special soybean varieties, and also provided foundation for further exploring oligosaccharide candidate genes and developing their molecular markers in soybean.
Abstract: Conducting DNA fingerprinting of rice germplasm resources and assigning uniform identity information to each germplasm are of great significance for identifying the resource family in China, assessing the genetic basis of resources, improving resource utilization efficiency and protecting the intellectual property rights of the seed industry in rice. In this study, using 5374 rice accessions that had completed whole-genome DNA resequencing as the basis, two sets of whole-genome DNA fingerprinting standards for rice germplasm resources were established through the selection of reference sample resources, analysis of high-quality SNP loci, and selection of the optimal number of SNPs and SNP combinations. Through principal component analysis and phylogenetic tree analysis, the SNPs selected by fingerprinting standards 1 and 2 could represent 94,197 high-quality population common SNPs for population genetic diversity detection. In addition, population genetic similarity analysis verified the effectiveness of fingerprinting standards 1 and 2 for conducting genetic similarity identification of rice germplasm resources. This study is expected to provide technical support for the conservation and utilization of rice germplasm resources and the protection of intellectual property rights in the seed industry, and to provide reference for the development of whole-gene DNA fingerprinting standards for other crops.
Abstract: Agropyron cristatum, as one of the important wild relatives of wheat, contains many excellent genes that can improve wheat. The wheat-A. cristatum addition line contains a complete A. cristatum chromosome, which is an important tool to utilize the excellent gene of the A. cristatum P genome. As a perennial tetraploid outcrossing plant, the P chromosome structure of some of its homologs is different, which results in the different agronomic traits of the wheat-A. cristatum additional line materials in the same homolog group. In this study, the heading time, plant type, panicle character, grain character, resistance to powdery mildew and leaf rust were identified and analyzed employing cytological identification, molecular marker detection, agronomic character investigation and disease resistance identification. The results showed that wheat-A. cristatum 2P addition line II-9-3 was genetically stable, compact, immune to leaf rust and powdery mildew, and could be used for plant type improvement and disease resistance breeding of wheat. Wheat-A. cristatum 2P addition line II-3-1b showed obvious plant height reduction effect, early heading and immunity to leaf rust, which could be used for wheat plant height improvement and leaf rust resistance breeding. Wheat-A. cristatum 2P addition line II-23-72 is nearly immune to endemic leaf rust and powdery mildew species and can be used for disease-resistance breeding. The three 2P addition lines in this study provided materials for the creation of 2P translocation and deletion lines between wheat and A. cristatum. Different 2P addition lines showed different excellent characteristics in plant type, plant height and disease resistance, which not only provided a basis for the effective use of 2P chromosome excellent genes in wheat improvement but also laid an important foundation for further mapping of 2P chromosome excellent genes.
Abstract: Leaf-color mutants are crucial germplasms for understanding the mechanisms of pigment metabolism and chloroplast development. In this study, to identify the mechanisms of temperature-sensitive albino phenotype in Brassica napus, physiological assessment and transcriptome analysis were performed in two resynthesized B. napus inbred lines, the green-leaf line G7097 and white-leaf line W7105. Under low temperature in field conditions, in albino leaves of W7105, the chlorophyll and carotenoid contents were dramatically decreased and chloroplast structure was abnormal. Compared with green leaves, albino leaves showed significantly lower net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and significantly higher intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci). Transcriptome analysis of leaves at three different developing stages was performed in G7097 and W7105 lines. After pairwise comparisons, a total of 1532 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with leaf color phenotypes were screened out, including 540 up-regulated DEGs and 992 down-regulated DEGs. GO and KEGG enrichment analysis showed that the up-regulated DEGs in albino leaves of W7105 were significantly enriched in proteasome, translation process, carbohydrate and energy metabolism pathways; while the down-regulated DEGs were significantly enriched in chloroplasts, photosynthesis and electron transport chain. Moreover, several DEGs involved in chlorophyll and carotenoid biosynthesis were significantly down-regulated in albino leaves from W7105, suggesting that chlorophyll and carotenoid metabolisms were also impaired in albino leaves. These findings provide a foundation for mapping the candidate genes and understanding the molecular mechanisms of albino leaves in B. napus.
Abstract: Potato(Solanum tuberosum L.) is the third most important food crop in Yunnan Province. Late blight has always been a devastating disease in potato production. Use of resistant varieties is the most fundamental and effective way to control the disease. In this study, screening of broad-spectrum Rpi genes molecular marker and evaluation of late blight resistance upon field in 255 potato genotypes. The results showed that there were 69, 53, 51, 12, 23 and 76 varieties(lines) containing R8, RB, Rpi-blb2, Rpi-sto1, Rpi-sto1 and Rpi-vnt1.1, respectively. Eighty-one of the varieties(lines) were polymerized with multiple broad-spectrum Rpi gene markers, and 77 were derived from CIP. The results of field resistance identification showed that: Among the 255 varieties (lines), 68, 35, 68 and 84 varieties(lines) were of high resistance, medium resistance, medium sensitivity and high sensitivity, respectively. Thirty-three moderately resistance and 60 highly resistance varieties(lines) were derived from CIP, respectively. Compared with CIP, the domestic germplasm is lack of resistance and polymerization of multiple broad spectrum Rpi gene markers. R8 marker played a major role in field resistance to late blight, which was highly consistent with field resistance. Potato polymerized R8 markers and other broad-spectrum Rpi gene markers can improve the degree of resistance compliance and field resistance. This study demonstrated that R8 marker have a high degree of compatibility with field resistance to late blight and could be used for marker assisted selection, which could provide scientific basis for the future popularization and application of new varieties(lines) and resistance breeding in Yunnan Province.
Abstract: The tiller angle is one of the most important traits in the plant architecture of rice, which has a significant impact on rice yield. We developed a BC3F2 populations with wild rice as the donor parent and cultivar zhenshan 97 as the recurrent parent. With QTL-seq we detected a QTL on chromosome 8 in line LHY54. After comparing the sequence of cloned gene in this region, TIG1 (TILLER INCLIDED GROWTH 1) was chosen as the candidate gene. In this study, a KASP molecular marker was designed based on the variation of the -449 bp C?T in the promoter of TIG1 gene. The marker was validated in the mapping population and cultivars, which is an efficient functional marker. TIG1 is fixed as strong functional TIG1 allele in Geng/japonica (C at - 449bp of promoter) but is largely divergent in Xian/indica. The development of this functional KASP marker would improve the efficiency of conventional rice plant architecture breeding via marker-assisted selection.
Abstract: In order to excavate excavate dissect elite waxy maize germplasm resources from landraces and improve the utilization efficiency of waxy maize breeding，the genetic diversity，relationship and population structure was analyzed by genome-wide scan based on of 10K SNP markers among 207 Guangxi waxy maize landraces and 6 reference waxy inbred lines. The results showed that the overall genetic diversity of the Guangxi waxy maize population was relatively high，with an average expected heterozygosity (He) of 0.22，observed heterozygosity (Ho) of 0.31，and an average polymorphic information content (PIC) of 0.25. The genetic diversity in central Guangxi was the highest (He=0.24，Ho=0.32，MAF=0.24，PIC=0.26) at the population level. Landraces were divided into four major groups by population structure analysis. The genetic relationship between populations and the originations of landraces attribution of taxa taxa are not completely related to geographical location. In general, the genetic similarity coefficient among Guangxi waxy maize landraces is low, and the genetic diversity is abundantThe overall genetic similarity coefficient between landraces is low revealed the genetic diversity is rich . Analysis of variance for molecular variation (AMOVA) showed that 99% of the genetic variation derived from population per se. The genetic differentiation coefficient (FST) between groups populations populations was 0.005，indicating a low-level differentiation among groups populations. The summary results of the present study indicated These results cleared cleared the genetic diversity and relationship of waxy maize landraces in different regions of Guangxi，and provided a theoretical guidance for waxy maize germplasm improvement and breeding of new varieties in Guangxi.
Abstract: Wild F.cymosum is the most widely distributed wild buckwheat resources, which have high genetic diversity. The environmental changes and human action give rise to the loss of wild F.cymosum resources, therefore, it is urgent to protect F.cymosum wild resources. In this study, based on the collected wild F.cymosum resources, we compared the differences between sexual reproduction and asexual reproduction on the off-site reproduction of F. cymosum and discussed the effects of tuber propagation on the off-site propagation of wild buckwheat in different geographical environments . The results showed that the tuber reproduction of F.cymosum was relatively better, and it was conducive to its outcrossing and fruiting after a large population was formed by off-site reproduction. The difference between the altitude of habitat, climate conditions and breeding sites has an impact on the germination, growth and reproduction of wild F. cymosum ,the geographical conditions of Zhaojue County were suitable for the off-site reproduction of F.cymosum ,the research results have certain reference value for the formulation of ex situ propagation and conservation strategies of F.cymosum.
Abstract: Nanjing 46 is a high-quality japonica rice variety developed by Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences with good eating quality, resistance to stripe disease, and high yield. A series of rice varieties derived from Nanjing 46 were summarized by genealogical map. Agronomic traits of Nanjing 46 and it’s derived varieties were measured, including yield, quality and disease resistance. The allelotypes of important functional genes were analyzed based on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. As the first good eating quality japonica variety in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, Nanjing 46 is widely used as the core germplasm in the breeding. By 2022, 29 varieties in 3 generations have been bred and released in Shanghai, Anhui, Hubei, Jiangsu, Liaoning, and Hebei, respectively. Great variations in appearance quality, physicochemical characteristics of grain and starch viscosity characteristics were showed among 20 varieties derived from Nanjing 46, in general. The range of variation for the growth period, plant height, yield and processing quality is litter than other traits. The allelic analysis of important functional genes showed that Wx was the main gene affecting the taste of derived varieties rice. With the increase in the number of quality genes with different alleles from Nanjing 46, the taste value of the varieties was obvious decreased. In the breeding of varieties using Nanjing 46 as the parent, the selection of appearance quality, grain physicochemical characteristics and starch viscosity characteristics should be paid more attention than rice eating quality and yield. Regulation of multiple genes is also required to improve quality traits and breeding efficiency accurately. At the same time, the complementarity of blast resistance genes should be attention to in parent selection.
Abstract: In order to clarify the situation of quality related genes and quality traits of Chinese wheat varieties, 530 wheat varieties approved in China in recent years were analyzed for volume weight, crude protein content, wet gluten content, water absorption and stability time. At the same time, 13 quality related SNP KASP markers were used to detect quality related genotypes. The distribution and aggregation of favorable allelic variations of quality genes in different quality planting areas were analyzed. The results showed that: The frequency of favorable allelic variants of quality genes detected was uneven among different regions, and such as the distribution frequencies of 1BL/1RS (-), 1Ax 1/1Ax 2*, Pinb-D1b and Pinb-B2b were significantly different among different regions. , However,there was no difference in the distribution of favorable allelic variants such as 1Bx17+1By18, TaPsy-D1a and TaPod-A1b was not different among different regions. The results of multiple favorable allelic aggregation analysis showed that 12 materials with containing four excellent allelic variants of 1B/1R (-), 1Ax 1/1Ax 2*, 1Dx5+1Dy10 and glu-B3g+ were selected from 5 gluten quality- related genes .The analysis results of three grain hardness genes showed Pina-D1b+Pinb-D1b +Pinb-B2b combination was not found in all materials, 16 materials with Pina-D1b+Pinb-B2b combination were found, and 88 materials .with Pinb-D1b +Pinb-B2b combination were found found. 10 samples were found to contain simultaneously polymerized five favorable allelic variants of five color related genes were tested . 4 materials with 10 favorable allelic variants of 13 SNP KASP markers of quality related genes were found , and 16 materials with 9 favorable allelic variants were found . The results of quality analysis showed that there were regional differences in quality traits, and the stability time was inconsistent with protein content and wet gluten content. The distribution frequency of excellent alleles of gluten quality related genes, such as 1BL/ 1RS (-), Glu-1Ax1, /1Ax2* and 1Dx5+1Dy10, was significantly different among the wheat varieties of strong gluten, medium strong gluten and medium gluten, and was positively correlated with the quality.
Abstract: The high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) compositions and the quality parameters in 184 Sichuan wheat varieties released from 1949 to 2018 were analyzed. The results showed that there were three alleles at Glu-1A including 1, N, 2*, eight at Glu-1B including 7, 20, 22, 7+8, 7+9, 6+8, 14+15 and 23+18, and three at Glu-1D including 5+10, 2+12 and 3.1t+11*t. The 14 subunits formed 24 combinations, with the N/7+9/5+10 having the highest frequency (12%). With the breeding process, the diversity of alleles increased, and the ratio of high-quality strong gluten 1 and 5+10 increased gradually. In terms of individual loci, 5+10 had a positive effect on the stability time, while alleles of Glu-1A and Glu-1B affected on unit weight, protein and wet gluten contents. N/6+8/2+12, N/6+8/5+10, 1/20/2+12 and 1/20/5+10 were related with weak gluten and the 1/7+8/5+10, 1/7+9/5+10 and N/7+8/5+10 related with medium gluten. The medium-weak gluten wheat varieties dominate in Sichuan province,with the unit weight and sedimentation value increasing, but other quality traits increasing first then decreasing．This study can provide reference for further improvement of wheat quality in Sichuan Province.
Abstract: Transcriptome sequencing was performed on the daughter root of Aconitum carmichaelii (DR) to explore the underlying molecular mechanism regulating the expansion of DR. DR from three time points during the expansion stages, namely S1 (1 D), S2 (31 D) and S3 (61 D), were selected for sequencing. The related differential genes were verified by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). 73600 Unigenes were obtained; 7555 differential expression genes (DEGs) were obtained by comparative transcriptome analysis. There were 2560, 2171 and 6320 DEGs in the three comparison groups of S2vS1, S3vS2 and S3vS1, respectively. More down-regulated DEGs were indicated than the up-regulated; KEGG enrichment analysis showed that DEGs were mainly involved in starch and sucrose metabolism, plant hormone signal transduction, plant-pathogen interaction and phenylpropane biosynthesis. Starch biosynthesis pathway was up-regulated and lignin biosynthesis was down-regulated, the auxin and abscisic acid signaling pathway was up-regulated while the cytokinin and gibberellin signaling pathways were down-regulated; these pathway-related genes were performed in regulating the process of enlargement. The genes involved in these pathways were screened for qRT-PCR. The results were consistent with the expression patterns of transcriptome data which indicates the data obtained by transcriptome sequencing is reliable. This study is the first to explore the dynamic transcriptional changes in the process of DR enlargement, and excavate the related genes involved in the regulation of the enlargement process, which provides information for improving the yield of DR and provides clues for further research on the molecular mechanism of DR.
Abstract: C2H2 zinc finger protein transcription factor plays an important role in plant growth and development, stress response and regulation of secondary metabolism synthesis. The previous comparative genomic studies between Golden buckwheat and Tartary buckwheat found that the high flavonoid content in Golden buckwheat may be due to the amplification of the gene family related to flavonoid biosynthesis, such as FdCHI, FdF3H and FdDFR. However, C2H2 zinc finger protein transcription factor family genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis have not been reported in Golden buckwheat. Therefore, genome-wide identification and expression profiling of FdC2H2-ZFP transcription factor in Golden buckwheat were performed in this study. A total of 114 Golden buckwheat FdC2H2-ZFPs were identified. On the basis of RNA-Seq data, the C2H2 zinc finger protein gene FdC2H2-2 was screened and cloned. This gene has three typical C2H2 zinc finger structures and has high homology with AtTREE1 and AtDAZ3. qRT-PCR showed that the expression of FdC2H2-2 gene was significantly induced by jasmonic acid. In addition, the rutin content in the hairy roots of overexpressed FdC2H2-2 was significantly higher than that of the control, and the expressions of flavonol synthase (FLS), phenylalanine ammonlyase (PAL) and flavonoid 3'',5'' -hydroxylase (F3''5''H), the key enzyme genes in the rutin synthesis pathway, were significantly increased. These results indicate that FdC2H2-2 gene may positively regulate the accumulation of rutin by activating the expressions of the key enzyme genes of rutin biosynthesis, FLS, PAL and F3''5''H. In order to provide reference for exploring the biological function of C2H2 zinc finger protein gene in Golden buckwheat.
Abstract: Coordinating with the Third National Survey and Collection Action on Crop Germplasm Resources, we collected 110 peanut landraces in Guangdong province, P.R. China. Fourteen phenotypic traits in the collection were recorded, followed by diversity analysis, correlation analysis, principal component analysis and cluster analysis. The results showed that the coefficient of variation at 14 phenotypic traits ranged from 5.18% (crude fat content) to 37.34% (pod number per plant). By correlation analysis, the pod number per plant was significantly negatively correlated with main stem height, and extremely significantly positively correlated with branch number. Fourteen phenotypic traits were classified into six principal components by principal component analysis, with a cumulative contribution rate of 71.074%, which can represent a large proportion of the phenotypic variation. 110 peanut landraces were divided into four groups by cluster analysis when applying the euclidean distance of 15, which had the characteristics of high crude fat, high linoleic acid, high yield, high resistance to rust and leaf spot respectively. This study provides a reference for the utilization of newly collected peanut germplasm resources.
Abstract: Paphiopedilum species plants, which know with specific flower shape, gorgeous color, and long ornamental period, have great ornamental and economic value. The classification of the genus is controversial. The diversity and correlation analysis of 27 phenotypic traits were carried out by investigating 29 species of Paphiopedilum, followed by cluster analysis based on the principal components of phenotypic traits. The results showed that the phenotypic variation of Paphiopedilum were rich in diversity. The genetic diversity index (H'') on 17 quantitative characters arranged from 0.7834 to 2.0318. The flower length (FL) and flower width (FW) showed the genetic diversity index higher than 2.0, while flower number (FN) was observed with lower genetic diversity index (less than 1.0). The variation range of genetic diversity index on 10 quality characters was 0.5098-1.1241. The diversity indexes of petal shape (PS) and Lip main color (LMC) were the highest (both >1.0), and the lowest value was observed on staminode bottom concave (SBC) and anther type (AT). From the results of diversity analysis, it can be seen that 29 species of Paphiopedilum have large differences in phenotypic traits among species, with rich diversity. The coefficients of variation (CV) of 17 quantitative traits ranged from 18.22% to 59.09%, and those of the petal length/petal width (PL2/PW) and peduncle length (PL) exceeded 50%. These results showed that the interspecific phenotypic characters of Paphiopedilum palustratum were dispersed greatly. Correlation analysis revealed the relevance and complexity among the phenotypic characters of Paphiopedilum. The principal component analysis suggested five principal components (eigenvalues >1.0) with a cumulative contribution rate of 84.176%. The characters and indexes of flower organs largely contributed to the phenotypic diversity. Cluster analysis suggested six groups of these Paphiopedilum species, being largely coincident with previous classifications except the presence of minor differences.
Abstract: In this study, the genome-wide association scanning (GWAS) was used to identify SNPs and candidate genes that significantly associated with the fruit color in pepper. By taking the natural population composed of 195 annual peppers, the fruit color including immature fruit color and mature fruit color were investigated in two calendar years (2020 and 2021). Through the DNA sequencing and SNP variation detection, the high-quality SNPs filtrated by quality control were used for GWAS. The results showed that the phenotypes at pepper fruit color traits collected from the two calendar years were completely consistent, indicating the inheritance of the traits. GWAS analysis revealed eight SNPs associating with the pepper fruit color, enabling the annotation of 31 candidate genes. It includes several strong candidates including the respiratory burst oxidase homologous protein A (capana01g000138), isoflavone 2''-hydroxylase-like (capana04g000616, capana04g000617, capana04g000618, capana04g000619, capana04g000620, capana04g000621 and capana04g000622) and F-box-like/WD repeat-containing protein TBL1Y-like (Capana04g000624). These results will provide a reference for molecular assisted breeding of fruit color in pepper.
Abstract: In this study, the morphology, physiology and transcriptome of different types of leaves were measured in adult trees of Silver Poplar, which provided a reference for revealing the maturation effect. The main results are listed: (1) The leaf morphology at long branches and short branches was significantly different, and the leaves in different parts overlap to a large extent. (2) The photosynthetic pigment content in different parts of leaves was significantly different, and the content of chlorophyll a and total chlorophyll in the lower leaves were significantly higher than those of the upper and middle parts. There were significant differences in antioxidant enzyme activities among different parts of leaves. The SOD enzyme activity in the lower leaves was significantly higher than that in the upper and middle parts. The MDA content was manifested as the middle > upper > lower part. (3) The nutrient content in different parts of leaves was significantly different. The starch content in lower leaves was significantly lower than that in upper and middle leaves; The IAA content of the leaves in different parts increased with the decrease of height, and the ABA content was the middle > the upper part > the lower part; The IAA and IAA/ABA of leaves at the long branches were significantly larger than those of the short branches, and the ZR content showed an opposite trend. (4) Based on transcriptome data, the number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between leaves in different parts were less than that between different types of leaves. (5) GO and KEGG enrichment analysis in pairwise comparison showed that the DEGs in upper long branch (SC)-VS-lower long branch (XC) and the upper short branch (SD)-VS-lower short branch (XD) were significantly enriched in the photosynthetic pathway. Of them two genes were annotated both encoding psbR protein and their transcripts in the lower leaves were upregulated. In addition, by analyzing the genes involving in IAA transduction process, the upregulation on the gene expression was observed in the leaves of short branches.
Abstract: Using artificial inoculation technique, a total of 166 sorghum male-sterile and maintainer lines which introduced from the countries of India, USA, Australia and China, were evaluated for resistance against the diseases of sorghum target leaf spot (TLS) and sorghum anthracnose (SA) at two calendar years (2019 and 2020). The result showed 26 accessions highly resistant (HR) to target leaf spot accounting for 15.66%. Thirty-four accessions rated as resistance (R) to TLS accounted for 20.48%, and 42 accessions rated as moderately resistance (MR) to TLS accounted for 25.30%. Forty-six and 18 accessions, which were rated as susceptible (S) and highly susceptible (HS) to TLS, accounted for 27.71% and 10.84% respectively. There were eight accessions rated as highly resistant (HR) to sorghum anthracnose accounting for 4.82%. Eighty-four and 56 accessions rated as resistance (R) and moderately resistance (MR), accounted for 50.60% and 33.73%, respectively. There were 14 accessions rated as susceptible(S) and 4 accessions rated as highly susceptible (HS) to SA, accounting for 8.43% and 2.41%, respectively. Nineteen accessions were found being simultaneously resistant to both TLS and SA.
Abstract: Tea germplasms are strategic resources ensuring the high quality development of tea industry, and raw materials enabling the original innovation in tea science and technology, breeding and development of new products with special characteristics. Studies on tea germplasms are of great value and significance considering the relevance on the innovation and sustainability of tea seed industry. This article reviewed the main progress in the investigation and collection, preservation and cataloguing, identification and evaluation, sharing and utilization of Yunnan tea germplasm resources, as well as the existing problems in the past 60 years. The future development of Yunnan tea germplasm resources was discussed and prospected.
Abstract: Wheat variety Yannong 999 (YN999) shows stably high yield potential with strong environment adaptability. Unlocking its genetic basis and key chromosomal regions underlying high yield performance will provide theoretical support for the further application. In this study, a 55K wheat SNP array was used for genotyping the YN999, its 46 derived varieties (lines) and a natural mapping population containing 243 wheat varieties (lines). The genetic effects of the key chromosomal segments undergone strong selection was elucidated. The genetic cause of high-yielding potential in YN999 was dissected based on the composition of excellent alleles underlying the three yield components. The characteristics of high thousand kernel weight were preferentially selected and present in the derived varieties (lines). Genotyping using the wheat 55K SNP array revealed that the average genetic similarity of YN999 if compared to 46 derived varieties (lines) was 86.50%. The genetic similarity in YN999 to its derived varieties (lines) of F3, F5, F6 and F7 were 84.94%, 86.19%, 86.67% and 87.65%, respectively. A total of 222 segments of YN999 with over 95% transmission rate were detected in the offspring of YN999, and the length of the segment varied from 5.04 Mb to 108.75 Mb, among which 2A contained the longest segment with high frequency selection, being 483.37Mb, and 7D contained the shortest of 13.84 Mb. A total of 135 identified QTL related to yield traits were coincided with the 222 high-frequency selection regions, with 80, 48 and 7 QTL in the A, B and D genome, respectively. A total of 1195, 268, 790 and 678 significant SNPs, which were correlated with yield per plant, kernel number per spike, 1000-grain weight and spike number per plant, respectively, were detected by single marker QTL analysis using a natural mapping population. Among those, approximately 84.02%, 51.69%, 94.18% and 13.42% alleles contributing to the higher yield performance were identified from YN999. These results indicate that YN999 has enriched the superior alleles of yield per plant and 1000-grain weight, which might be the important genetic basis for the high and stable yield in YN999. This study provided theoretical reference in application of YN999 as key parent in molecular breeding programs, and laid a foundation for identification and cloning of the genes with high yield performance.
Abstract: Clivia (Kaffir lily), which belongs to the genus Clivia of the family Amaryllidaceae and natively distributes in South Africa, is considered as one of the most famous evergreen ornamental plants in the world. Several new species of the genus Clivia, and a new natural hybrid, Clivia × nimbicola, have been discovered in recent years. Up to date, six Clivia species and three varieties have been recognized. China is one of the largest countries for clivia production in the world, whereas only few studies have been carried out in China. The taxonomy of Clivia species and cultivars is often confused or with mistake. Several clivia cultivars are commercially available in market, but they are yet reported in academic journals. This review introduced the phenotypic characteristics of Clivia species, varieties, cultivars and types, and generated the dichotomous key that enables to clarity several confusing species. Based on the marketing and scientific research in China, ten series of the commercial clivia cultivars are suggested. We provide the prospective on the germplasm resources innovation, floral breeding, in vitro propagation and molecular breeding in clivia, which would have implication in clivia marketing and these academic research.
Abstract: Rice landraces harbour many elite genes modulating important agronomic traits, and are important resources in rice genetic improvement. In this study, 47 pairs of SSR markers and 16 phenotypic traits were deployed to conduct the genetic diversity and clustering analysis of 58 excellent rice landraces. The results showed that 284 polymorphic alleles were amplified from 58 rice landraces with an average of 6.04 alleles (variations: 3 to 10); the polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.38 to 0.81 with an average of 0.67; and the genetic diversity index (GDI) ranged from 0.76 to 1.88 with an average of 1.36. These suggested that these SSR markers revealed rich polymorphisms and were able to clarity these rice landraces. The variations on 16 phenotypic traits of this collection were largely different; the variation coefficients of awn length, flag leaf angle and filled grains per panicle were 2.15, 0.73 and 0.51, respectively; those of panicle length, growth period, thousand-grain weight and flag leaf width were below 0.2. The clustering analysis showed that the dendrogram of this collection based on either markers or phenotypic traits were generally consistent. In some lines sharing pedigree (Erjiunan 1, Guangluai 4, Lucaihao, Aijiaonant, Jinnante, Guangluai 15), or sister lines (between Hanmadao 1 and Hanmadao 2, Meihuanuo 1 and Meihuanuo 2, Muguanuo 1 and Muguanuo 2, Xiangnuo 1 and Xiangnuo 2), they were clustered together using either of both datasets. Collectively, gained from evaluating the genetic diversity of different rice landraces, this study provided insights in selection of elite parental lines applicable in rice breeding.
Abstract: In contrast to the traditional hybrid breeding technology, the third generation crop hybrid breeding technology based on the nuclear male sterility gene has layers of advantages such as safety on seed production, flexibility on bi-parental combinations, and stability on hybrid fertility. This technology has been widely used in maize, rice and other crops, and provides a possibility in future use of soybean heterosis. We previously mapped by positional cloning approach a nucleic male sterility gene MS6 that encodes an R2R3-MYB transcription factor in soybean. In this study, we deployed CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology to knock out the MS6 gene in soybean. The transgenic plants carrying edited MS6 alleles were subjected for phenotype observation, pollen and fertility identification, thus approving the causal mechanism of this gene. A new germplasm showing stable male sterility was obtained. This provides theoretical and technical support for further establishing the third generation soybean hybrid breeding technology system based on MS6 gene.
Abstract: Grain filling rate is an important and complex agronomic trait that directly affects rice yield and quality. Huaidao 5, a superior rice japonica variety, derived from the 7208 ×Wuyujing 3 cross, shows a high grain filling rate, whereas its functional mechanism remains unclear. A transcriptome analysis in Huaidao 5 and Wuyujing 3 was performed by harvesting 14-days-after-fertilization grains. Real time fluorescent quantitative PCR was used to analyze the transcripts of few candidate genes, and Sanger sequencing was applied to identify their polymorphisms between Huaidao 5 and Wuyujing 3. 3,230 up-regulated and 1,171 down-regulated genes were detected between Huaidao 5 and Wuyujing3. Gene ontology analysis indicated that these differentially-expressed genes were primarily involved in starch and sucrose biosynthesis, photosynthesis, carbon assimilation, and hormone biosynthesis and signaling transduction pathway. If compared to Wuyujing 3, more genes involved in starch and sucrose biosynthesis were up-regulated in Huaidao 5. Sixty-three hormone-related differentially expressed genes were detected, of which 35 genes were involved in the auxin pathway, suggesting that auxin plays an important role in the rice grain filling process. Several identified grain-filling-rate-related genes (GFR1, OsPFP1, OsPHO1;2, OsSWEET13, OsCIN2) were significantly up-regulated in Huaidao 5. Moreover, Sanger sequencing revealed an elite haplotype GFR1Huaidao5, which contributes to the fast grain filling rate in Huaidao 5.
Abstract: Seed coat color is an important agronomic trait that associates with crop domestication and serves as morphological marker. In mung bean, the seed coat color was related to the content of flavonoids. Cloning and application of seed coat color-related genes becomes of interest in development of new mung bean varieties with improved nutritional properties. In this study, the varieties ‘Jilv 9’ (black seed coat) and ‘Ziyuan 330’ (yellow seed coat) were used as parents to generate an F2 segregating population. The BSA-seq approach was applied for preliminary mapping of the genes underlying the seed coat color. The association analysis using integrated SNPs and InDels suggested an interval of 3.26 Mb harboring 324 predicted genes, of which 49 genes were found with non-synonymous mutations and 15 genes were detected with frameshift mutation. By further use of 11 high-quality KASP markers in fine mapping, the candidate interval was finally delimited between KASP330 and KASP421 in the physical interval of 16,302,330–18,013,421 bp (1.71 Mb) on chromosome 4. The transcriptome data analysis and qRT-PCR expression analysis suggested six differently-expressed candidate genes, of which the LOC106758748 was annotated as a transcription factor MYB90 that was reported with a function in the flavonoid biosynthesis and served as key candidate gene regulating the seed coat color in mung bean. This study laid a solid foundation for further cloning of mung bean seed coat color related gene(s) and the utilization in breeding.
Abstract: The genetic diversity analysis of 135 rice germplasm resources collected from different altitudes in Yunnan province, P.R. China, were genotyped by using the gene chip GSR40K. The rice germplasm resources at different altitudes were found with rich genetic diversity, and they were divided into five subgroups: indica, partial indica, intermediate, japonica and partial japonica. Eighty-two genes with expected breeding value were genotyped by haplotype markers and functional markers. All accessions were found with the genes related to the grain shattering. Nearly 70% of rice varieties were detected with rice blast resistant genes, whereas only a small proportion of accessions containing insect resistance and fragrance genes were identified. The accessions in this collection were divided into seven subgroups by cluster analysis and principal component analysis. The differentiation of each marker site among the 7 subgroups was evaluated by the Gst value of genetic differentiation index, indicating that there was high genetic differentiation among the 7 subgroups. Moreover, at least 10% of the genomic segments in this collection are completely different, and only 7.5% are frequently communicated and fixed, suggesting an extremely low frequency of gene exchange between different subpopulations. Based on the difference of altitude among subpopulations, the differential genomic regions among populations were proposed associating with altitude adaptability. Collectively, these results provided scientific basis for effective protection and efficient utilization of rice resources in rice breeding.
Abstract: In order to systematically understand the current status on the genetic diversity of wheat varieties from different origins in Huang-Huai wheat cultivation region, 109 newly-released varieties from this region were investigated in this study. The genetic diversity analysis and comprehensive evaluation based on 12 agronomic and quality traits were carried out by using Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H’), cluster analysis, principal component analysis, regression model construction, etc. 84 and 25 varieties were collected from the southern and northern part of Huang-Huai wheat cultivation region, accounting for 77.1% and 22.9%, respectively. The wheat varieties showing strong gluten and medium strong gluten accounted for 11.9% and 16.5%, respectively. The variation coefficient on 12 traits ranged from 1.66% to 76.64%, with an average of 11.37%. The variation coefficient of stabilization time was the largest, and the variation coefficient of bulk density was the smallest. The H’ index on 12 traits ranged from 1.50 to 4.65, with an average of 3.78. The H’ index on basic seedling was the smallest (1.50), and the rest H’ were above 3.00. The H’ on 12 traits of wheat in the northern part was higher than that in the southern part, with an increase of 24.7%-188.6%. The increase of growth period was the smallest, and the increase of basic seedling was the largest. At the square Euclidean distance of 10.0, 109 wheat varieties were grouped into six categories, mostly being coincidence with their origins. There were significant or extremely significant differences in bulk density, growth period, spike number and water absorption rate of wheat varieties from different origins, part which were 0.9%, 3.5%, 11.0% and 4.1% lower in the southern than that in the northern, respectively. The cumulative contribution rates of the first six principal components of wheat varieties from different origins had little difference, with 80.25% in the southern part and 83.33% in the northern part. The comprehensive scores of wheat varieties from different origins were strong gluten wheat > medium strong gluten and medium gluten wheat. The richness and uniformity of wheat traits in the northern part were higher than those in the southern part, and the evolutionary potential was higher. The five traits of spike number, grain number per spike, bulk density, protein content and water absorption rate could be used to evaluate the comprehensive performance of northern part wheat varieties. Gained from these results, it is suggested that future improvement of wheat varieties in the southern part would profile from enlarging the genetic basis. The six traits including growth period, spike number, yield, bulk density, protein content and wet gluten content could be used to evaluate the comprehensive performance of wheat varieties in this region.
Abstract: Anthocyanins, which are natural pigments and serve as important natural antioxidants scavenging free radicals, are rich in a variety of compounds that are important in health care. Anthocyanins affect the ripening, taste and color of fruits and vegetables, and prevent plants from abiotic and biotic stresses. Therefore, optimizing anthocyanin content is regarded as the breeding goal in many horticultural crops. As the secondary ethylene signaling transcription factors, ethylene response factors (ERFs) respond to plant hormone signaling and can result in feedback regulation, and these genes are known to modulate the process of ethylene regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis via various mechanisms. In terms of the molecular mode, ERFs in regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis rely on the physical interaction with transcription factors, activating transcription factors, forming regulatory complexes with MBW or directly activating structural gene promoters. This study aims to provide a theoretical basis for further elucidating the mechanism of ERF regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis, and to explore the relationship between the rapid accumulation of anthocyanins and the increase of ethylene release in fruits and vegetables at the late ripening stage.
Abstract: Hazelnut (Corylus) is one of the important nut crops and woody oil species with highly nutritional values. The genus Corylus is a member of the birch family (Betulaceae) in the order Fagales, and includes 13 species identified to date around the world. The European hazelnut (C. avellana L.) is the species with commercial cultivation in the European countries and the west states of the United States. The earliest European hazelnut breeding appeared in the 1900s and the major modern breeding programs started in the United States in 1960’s. After several decades of variety selection, many varieties were released with excellent characteristics, such as the varieties with highly stress resistance for the in-shell and the kernel markets, pollination varieties and ornamental varieties. In China, the first generation of hazelnut hybrid breeding performed in 1980’s, a total of 15 cultivars have been released and widely cultivated in twenty-odd provinces of China from dozens of candidate seedlings since 2000. The planting area is about 112,000 ha2 in China at present. The new generation hybrid breeding has been ongoing since 2006. New breeding projects and regional trials are mainly aiming to select cultivars with cold hardiness, branch shriveling resistance, drought resistance, heat resistance, and compatible pollinizers with high catkin retention. Objectively speaking, the achievements of European hazelnut breeding and the relative researches exceed the works in China for many years. Up to now, cross breeding is still a main method in hazelnut breeding. Therefore, to continuously introduce and efficiently utilize the special germplasm resources of European hazelnuts is an effective way to speed up the breeding work of hazelnut in China. Based on the research work and the international communication of hazelnut for many years, the authors reviewed a large number of domestic and foreign literatures. The cultivation status of European hazelnuts, the traits of C. avellana L. and their narrow-sense heritabilities, main targeted traits of European hazelnut varieties for kernel market and their evaluating standard, as well as the main characteristics of new advanced varieties released in the United States, Italy, Spain and Turkey were listed in the review. Thus, the precious nut trees, European hazelnuts, can be comprehensively illustrated to the domestic readers and researchers. Also in this review, the introduction history, scientific research, germplasm collection and protection, as well as the cross breeding utilization of European hazelnuts in China were summarized at the same time. Meanwhile, the problems in the introduction, regional trials and cross breeding utilization of European hazelnuts in China were discussed. Aiming to the problems above, constructive suggestions were proposed in terms of sustainable introduction, germplasm protection, cross breeding utilization, research communication and the funding application. Finally, the prospective of scientific research and industry development in China was summarized at the end of this review. The authors sincerely hope this review could provide some references in hazelnut breeding research and cultivation promotion in China.
Abstract: In recent years, facility cultivation in watermelon has become one of the main ways in China, and dwarf germplasm resources have been of interest considering their application for their unique advantages in facility cultivation. Dwarf is one important agronomic trait in modulating plant architecture, and dwarf watermelon varieties are adaptable for high-density planting, mechanizing management and pest control, which can effectively reduce costs and meet the current needs of simplified watermelon cultivation. In this study, 14 dwarf germplasms, which were collected from domestic and foreign countries, were subjected for self-pollination with several generations to obtain homozygous inbred lines. Fourteen dwarf germplasms were subjected for diallel crosses, and F1 hybrids and derived F2 populations were analyzed for plant architecture related agronomic traits. Based on allelic tests for 14 dwarf germplasms, two types (class-I and class-II) on the dwarf phenotype were observed. The dwarf trait in class-I mutants d1, d2, d3 and d6 was controlled by the same recessive gene Cldw1, while the dwarf trait in class-mutants was controlled by another recessive gene Cldf. The F1 hybrid derived from inter-crosses between two classes were observed with long vine, and the segregation ratio of the vine type in F2 population was 9:3:3:1, thus confirming that the dwarf trait in two types of mutants were controlled by two different recessive genes. The analysis of different dwarf germplasm mutants in this study provided better understanding of watermelon dwarf resources, which has implication in breeding for new watermelon dwarf varieties.
Abstract: The allotriploid interspecies (BCC) were obtained by reciprocal crosses between Brassica carinata (2n=4x=BBCC=34) and Chinese kale (2n=2x=CC=18). The interspecies displayed a stronger growth than parents; the plant and flower type tended to parent B. carinata; and the flower color was the same as parent Chinese kale. Meiosis observation of the allotriploid showed that 9 bivalents and 8 univalents (9Ⅱ 8Ⅰ) were formed at diakinesis, and the two kind of chromosomes (B and C) tended to separate into two groups; at metaphaseⅠ, 9 bivalents of CC genome arranged on equatorial plane and 8 univalents of B genome distributed around the equatorial plane ; and at anaphaseⅠ, the distributions of chromosomes with 13/13 or 12/14 were in the majority. The obtain of this allotriploid (BCC) provides an important material for production of CC B alien addition lines and for study of chromosome homology between B and C genome.
Abstract: The project of “investigation of biological resources of agriculture in Yunnan province and its peripheral area”belongs to National Basic Task Program of the Ministry of Science and Technology. The project has passed the acceptance inspection from the Ministry of Science and Technology in May, 2012, after it has been carried out for 5 years. Yunnan and its peripheral area are low latitudes and high altitudes, also the concentrative areas inhabited by minority nationality people, where the species of agricultural crops are quite abundant, so are the biological and genetic diversity, as a result, the wild relatives of agricultural crops are plenty. In this paper, the authors have introduced the wild relatives of food crops, economic crops, vegetable crops and fruit trees collected in Yunnan and its peripheral area in order to provide basic information and scientific evidences for the researches and development, and constituting the national conservation policy of the diversity of wild plants and scientific researches.
Abstract: In this study, we investigated the phenotypic diversity of 18 characters on five main natural populations of Paphiopedilum hirsutissimum that were collected from three provinces Yunnan, Guangxi and Guizhou in China. The statistical methods used included nested variance analysis, coefficient of variation, correlation analysis, principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis. The results revealed significant difference at most phenotypic traits among populations if compared to that within populations. The mean phenotypic differentiation coefficient (VST) was 75.18%, indicating that the population diversity was largely contributed by the variation among populations. The average variation coefficient of the 18 phenotypic traits was variable from 6.36%–18.51%, with a higher degree of dispersion. PCA showed that plant height, length of ovary, scape height, length of maximum leaf, diameter of flower and length of synsepal were the main sources of phenotypic variation. Pearson correlation analysis showed that plant height, width of synsepal and width of dorsal sepal were significantly or extremely significantly positively correlated with the majority of plant traits, whereas only the length of synsepal was extremely significantly correlated with geographic factors. Cluster analysis revealed three groups from the five populations, which could be explained by the geographic distribution. This study found that populations of Paphiopedilum hirsutissimum have high genetic diversity, and the variation between populations is much higher than that within the population. The phenotypic diversity indicates that wild Paphiopedilum hirsutissimum populations should be protected as much as possible. Moreover, it is recommended that germplasm is preserved in nurseries and libraries in addition to in-situ conservation, and that an artificial reproduction system is established enhance our conservation efficiency.
Abstract: The root system architecture (RSA) determines the composition of the root system and plays an irreplaceable role in crop growth and development. It is of great significance to analyze the genetic mechanism of wheat root architecture and the selection of varieties with better RSA traits in breeding for elite wheat varieties. Genome-wide association study (GWAS) is an effective method to analyze the genetic mechanism of complicated quantitative traits (i.e. RSA) in wheat. In the study, GWAS for RSA-related traits(total root length, total root surface area, total root volume, average root diameter and number of root tips) were conducted in 160 wheat accessions from Henan and Shandong, which were previously genotyped by wheat 660K SNP chip. Twenty-three loci associated with RSA related traits were detected from chromosomes 1A, 2A, 2B, 3B, 4A, 5A, 5B, 5D, 6A, 6B and 7B, and each explained the phenotypic variation variable from 7.2% to 12.8%. Among them, eleven loci are found to coincide with the formerly-reported loci, and the remaining 12 loci are newly identified. Taken together, this study is of significance to uncover the genetic structure of the root architecture with a potential in future breeding of high-yield and stress-resistant wheat cultivars.
Abstract: Abstract: tassel is an important reproductive organ of maize and the appearance of different kinds of maize differ in thousands of ways .molecular markers, tightly linked with tassel color, could be screened by genetic analysis and QTL mapping of the color of the maize tassel. these molecular markers can be used as an useful tool for maize variety protection and species identification. Mean while, higher pigment content of anthocyan in purple tassel is closely related to the insect resistance of maize tassel. In this study, a black SDM of maize inbred lines were used as a common male parent and respectively hybrid with the white maize inbred lines of wood and yellow maize inbred line Mo17 to build two F2: 3 groups, respectively named MuS (Mu6 x SDM), and MoS (, Mo17 ?SDM).these two groups were planted in two different environments in Yunnan and Chongqing, then conduct QTL mapping about two traits, the anther color (COAn) and the anther capes color (COCa). The results showed that: the anther color and the anther cape color are both quantitative traits, jointly controlled by major genes and minor genes. Seven QTL related to anther color are detected from the two groups in two different environments. They are located in chromosome 2,3,6 and 10.The QTL within marker interval umc1196a-IDP8526 on the chromosome 10 both expressed in Chongqing and Yunnan, and the contribution rate of the phenotype were 23.17% and 19.98%; nine QTL related to anther cape color are detected from the two groups in two environments, located in chromosome 3, 6, 9 and 10 .Among them, three QTL are environmental insensitive (they express in both two environments and the contribution rate are greater than 10%), which respectively in the marker interval umc1979-umc1796 mmc0523-umc2006 in chromosome 6 and the marker interval umc1196a-umc2043 in the chromosome 10 and the contribution rate of the phenotype ranges from 10.69% to 59.30%. The location and effect of the major QTL detected from these two groups have a high degree of consistency, and the major QTL controlling the two traits of anther color and anther cape color have the phenomenon of chain of distribution, mainly near the marker mmc0523 at bin6.04 and the marker IDP8526 at bin10.04. QTL that located on chromosome 6 and 10, and that are stable in different environments and genetic backgrounds can be regarded as the target sites used for further fine mapping. They can also provide a valuable reference for marker-assisted selection of maize tassel color.
Abstract: Broccoli is an important cruciferous vegetable, it has a good anti-cancer effect, with the expanding cultivation area of broccoli and the developing of anticancer drug, the demand for broccoli seeds are increasing. Using male sterile line to produce F1 generation seeds is an important way to utilize of heterosis, but the cytoplasmic male sterile lines commonly used in production have the problems of the buds death are heavier in the early, nectar volume is less and seeds production are low. Our group makes excellent broccoli inbred lines as male parent. cabbage dominant genic male sterility material 79-399-3 and cytoplasmic male sterile material OguraCMSR3 629 as the infertility sources, we have obtained multiple dominant genic male sterile lines and cytoplasmic male sterile lines of broccoli through backcrossing method, in order to further effectively use of broccoli male sterile lines and search for better infertility sources, The the differences of the bud death numbers, floral organ structure and number of or frequecing bees visiting flowers among dominant genic male sterile（DGMS）lines，cytoplasmic male sterile（CMS）lines and inbred lines of broccoli 8554, 8590 and 93219 were studied. The results showed that the differences of the bud length, bud diameter, death buds of single branch, corolla diameter, stamen length, anther length, petal length, the times of visiting bees, the number of visiting bees and the time of bees staying on the flower between DGMS and CMS of lines 8554, 8590 and 93219 were significant. On As athe whole, above characteristics in DGMS lines were significantly better than CMS lines.
Abstract: Barbarea vulgaris is an excellent cruciferous plant, particularly being ideal as a model species to study saponin biosynthesis, insect resistance, and coevolution of plants and insect pest. In order to make full use of B. vulgaris germplasm, the genetic diversity was analyzed among the 34 accessions conserved in the national mid-term gene bank for vegetables, based on the phenologic, morphological and insect resistance data from the field investigation. The results showed significant morphological diversity in B. vulgaris germplasm from Europe. Among the 34 accession, BV13-BAR13 bolted earliest, 47 days earlier than the latest bolting material (BV13-BAR9). Most of the B. vulgaris germplasm have glabrous leaves, strong tillering ability and more leaf numbers. The range and coefficient variation (CV) of the plant height, silique length and inflorescence length are the highest among all traits. Only 9 of 34 B. vulgaris are susceptible to the diamondback moth, most accessions are highly resistant to the pest. The clustering analysis showed that 34 accessions can be divided into 3 groups. The resistant and susceptible germplasm were distributed to different groups, reflecting their genetic relationships. Our research will provide useful materials and information for the genetic breeding of insect resistant B. Vulgaris and cruciferae crops.
Abstract: Most agronomic charateristics and complex biosynthetic pathways are determined by the coordination of multiple gene expression ,and gene pyramiding molecular breeding combined with conventional breeding techniques have become the main means for the crop breeding.Gene pyramiding molecular breeding includes genetic transformation molecular breeding and marker-assisted selection molecular breeding. The research progress of crop genetic pyramiding molecular breeding in recent were reviewed. The research methods, the countermeasures on the existing problems of gene pyramiding molecular breeding were discussed and the prospects were described as well in this paper.
Abstract: High molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) in the doubling haploids from stable cultivars and the crossing hybrids between different varieties of common wheat were analyzed to explore the possibility of improving the subunit compositions by anther culture and commercial crossing. Double haploids from five wheat genotypes of Alondra, Orofen, Xinchun9, Verry, and Bainong3217 were obtained by anther culture, and different hybrids were made each other from different wheat lines with different HMW-GS constitutions such as Xingchun9, Jing771, CB037, CS, Ningchun4, Bobwhite, and yangmai12 by crossing. Then, SDS-PAGE was used to analyze the populations of the doubling haploids and the crossing hybrids for HMW-GS combinations. The results indicated that frequent variation of HMW-GS happened in the doubled haploids with a rate up to 61.8% in the test genotypes, among which Alondra and Bainong3217 gave higher variation frequency than other three varieties, and several subunits might be new ones which are not present in the corresponding wild types, but need to be identified further. Comparing with the donor lines, the typical double haploids varied in HMW-GS were not changed in main agronomic characteristics such as plant height, growth period, and grain weight. In most F1 hybrids, the expression of all HMW-GS appeared to be co-dominant, but the expression of one or two HMW-GSs was did found to be suppressed in a few F1 crosses. Cytoplasm of female parents was found to have some effect on the expression of very few subunits in a few crosses. At the same time, 2-3 possible new subunits that did not exist in the parents were observed in the two crosses, Ningchun4/CB037 and Jing771/Ningchun4. By continuous self-crossing and tracing of the new subunits, stable lines expressing the putative new subunits were obtained from the two crosses mentioned above. Variation of HMW-GSs constitution or new HMW-GS can be induced by anther culture and normal cross. Co-dominant of HMW-GS expression did not definitely exist in all F1 crosses. Cytoplasm did effect the expression of HMW-GS in some cases. The present study is theoretical and practical valuable for the improvement of wheat processing quality and the further understanding of the genetic and structural features of HMW-GSs encoding genes.
Abstract: China is one of the major origin centres of Vitis species, and has lots of grape species and inherited resource in the world. There are 40 species, 1 subspecies and 13 varieties originated from China. According to the “description standard and data standard for grape (Vitis L.)”, taking a number of character index as a identification parameters, the genetic. diversity of 23 Chinese wild grape species were analysised by identifying botany characteristics and agronomic traits.The results showed that Chinese wild grape had rich diversity in main phenophase, young shoot down, young shoot color, blade shape, blade color, teeth, berry size, skin color, berry flavor, floral organs and so on, with abundant genetic diversity. It can provide reference for classification,evolution and breeding of vitis . It is suggested that “description standard and data standard for grape (Vitis L.)” for further revision and improvement, in order to adapt Chinese wild vitis resource diversity evaluation research.
Abstract: Leaf color is usually determined by the number, structure, and photosynthetic characters of the chloroplast. Isolation of the functional genes in leaf discoloration mutants of the C4 model plant foxtail millet and deciphering their functions is a way to disclose the regulation mechanism of C4 plant chloroplast biogenesis, development and photosynthesis. In this study, a stripe-leaf mutant t122 was identified from the EMS-induced mutant library of the foxtail millet variety Yugu1. The mutant t122 was observed with developmental retardation, and irregular white stripes on leaves. In contrast to the wild type, the significant decrease on the plant height, leaf length, leaf width, main panicle diameter, main panicle weight, and seed setting rate was observed in t122 mutant, whereas an increase on the panicle number per plant was detected. The photosynthetic capacity of t122 was impaired. By the leaf anatomy analysis, no significant difference in the distance between leaf veins, the number of cell layers between vascular bundles, and the cross-sectional cell area of leaves was observed in t122; however, an increased on the leaf cell length was detected. The ultrastructural observation of chloroplasts showed that, in t122 the chloroplasts showing functional structure were only detected in subsets of leaf cells. The segregation analysis suggested that the stripe-leaf trait of t122 was controlled by a single recessive nuclei-encoding gene. Using the method of MutMap, the candidate gene was mapped to the region of 24.0 Mb - 30.0 Mb on chromosome 3. Collectively, these results laid a good foundation for future cloning and functional characterization of the stripe-leaf gene in foxtail millet.
Abstract: Hengduan mountains lie in southwest of China,which is famous by the extending from south to north.There widely distribute wild Dactylis glomerata germplasm resources,which belongs to subspecies glomerata,and subspecies himalayensis.The distribution range of two subspecies is nearly the same,but much difference existed in the morphological characters and phenological development in two subspecies.Through hybridization of subspecies himalayensis and subspecies glomerata in artificial condition,triploid offspring may be obtained.But no definite evidence has been found that hybrid triploid offspring was existed by crossbreeding of two subspecies in natural condition.In recent decade years,many basal studies about the two subspecies have been done in China,but a few were about the protection and utilization.Thinking about the origin,it can be sure that subspecies himalayensis belong to natural origin ecotype,but subspecies glomerata was likely to belong to naturalization species.Because of the competing threat from the subspecies glomerata,it is necessary to reinforce the protection and utilization studies about the subspecies himalayensis.
Abstract: To understand the genus Fragaria resources distributed in the south of Qinling Mountain in Hanzhong City, Shaanxi Province of China, the wild strawberries were surveyed during 2019-2021 (latitude, 32°49′46″ to 33°19′38″; longitude, 106°09′23″ to 106°40′23″). The investigation sites include eight villages of three counties (Mengjiahe Village and Wangjiazhuang Village in Lueyang County; Erliba Village and Dashuya Village in Ningqiang County; Liziba Village, Lijiagou Village, Qiuqiya Village and Toudaohe Village in Mi'an County). A total of 57 wild strawberry accessions were collected in this survey. These accessions were identified and classified into three Fragaria species including Fragaria nilgerrensis Schlect., F. chinensis Lozinsk. and F. pentaphylla Lozinsk. (white-fruited), and two types including F. pentaphylla pink-fruited genotype and F. pentaphylla red-fruited genotype through botanical character observation and ploidy identification. Among them, F. pentaphylla was found to be predominant in population. These wild strawberries were found in the vertical space of 849 - 1352 m above sea level, such as mountains, forests, streams, roadsides, barren fields and rock walls. We provided the characters of the collected Fragaria species in detail, and proposed the suggestions on the protection and utilization of local wild strawberry resources.
Abstract: Cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogea L.) is an important oilseed and economic crop in China. Oleic content and linoleic content of peanut seed add up to 80%. Oleic acid is an important factor that affects physical and chemical stability and nutritional value of peanut oil. Breeding peanut variety with high oleic content is an important breeding objective of peanut quality to promote international competitiveness and meet domestic consumption demand since 2000. Increasing oleic content in peanut significantly improves the nutritional quality. In this paper, we summarize mutants of high oleic peanut, the genetic characteristics of high oleic acid content and analyse pedigree relationship of high oleic acid peanut varieties and developing methods. Our purpose is to improve high oleic breeding of China peanut.
Abstract: Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) widely mediated stress signal transduction, and plays an important role in the control of normal growth of human cells and in the promoting tumor cell development. At present, HSP90 has become forefront projects of cellular immunity, signal transduction and anti-cancer investigation. The physiological function of HSP90 start later in plant than in animal and fungi. Recent researches revealed that plant HSP90 plays an important role in development, environmental stress response and disease resistance. This paper discussed the molecular functions of HSP90, and systematically reviews latest progresses on molecular mechanism of plant HSP90 as well as improvement of plant resistance to facalitate broaden work.
Abstract: Rice blast is one of the main diseases in rice, and improvement of rice blast resistance is of great significance in rice breeding. In this study, we constructed a new restorer line M630-Pi9 by making crosses in the rice variety 9311-Pi9 that carries the broad-spectrum blast resistance gene Pi9 with the excellent rice restorer line M630, followed by backcrossing combined with molecular marker-assisted selection and background detection. No significant difference on agronomic traits and rice quality was observed in M630-Pi9 and its hybrid Huiliangyou 630-Pi9 if relative to M630 and Huiliangyou 630, respectively. By test for rice blast resistance at the seeding stage was conducted in M630-Pi9 and M630 by using a mixture of predominant isolates from Anhui province, M630-Pi9 represented improved resistance than that of M630. Natural inoculation showed that the improved restorer lines and derived hybrids had significantly improved rice blast resistance. Moreover, a metabolomic analysis was conducted in order to identify the metabolites involved in rice blast resistance. 212 metabolites in M630-Pi9 compared with M630 were found, including 155 down-regulated and 57 up-regulated components. The contents of substances annotated for cell wall and alkaloids which have toxic or immunizing effects on the organism are significantly increased and decreased, respectively. The contents of flavonoids involved in adverse biological process have been modified, implying that the rice blast resistance gene Pi9 trade off the invasion of pathogens via possibly regulating the contents of metabolites. Collectively, this work provided an example of deciphering the mechanism of rice blast resistance and producing new germplasm for rice breeding.
Abstract: An economical detection method of simple sequence repeat with tailed primer M13(TP-M13-SSR) was used in genetic diversity analysis of 25 regional apple cultivars . The ranges of gene diversity, PIC and locus heterozygosity on 5 SSR loci were 0.5032～0.8448, 0.3952～0.8268 and 0.4400～0.9600，respectively. UPGMA cluster analysis showed that the apple species were classified into two groups, correlatively with geographic origin and relationship. The method has the advantages of high-throughput, sensitiveness, cost-effectiveness and high accuracy. And it had been used in studies on genetic diversity analysis of apple successfully. In addition, the merits and demerits of the TP-M13- SSR technique as well as the potential of application in analysis of genetic diversity in fruit tree were assessed.
Abstract: Ankyrin repeats, as one of the most commonly protein motifs, are involved in diverse protein-protein interactions in various life activities. Based on Snap Bean genome database and bioinformatics method, we obtained Snap Bean ANK family genes and analyzed their molecular biological characteristics. A total of 30 ANK genes were systematically identified from Snap Bean and located on 9 chromosomes. The chromosome 5 has 13 genes, which is more than other chromosomes. Protein structure domain analysis showed that ANK25 still contains a RING domain besides an ANK domain. Ring proteins are mainly involved in gene transcriptional regulation, DNA repair and recombination. The transient expression in Arabidopsis protoplasts displayed that ANK protein mainly contributed in plasma membrane. Expression pattern analysis found that ANK25 is responsive to drought, salt and exogenous ABA. This study provides valuable information regarding the classification and functions of ANK genes in Snap Bean.
Abstract: Pleione is a genus of the Orchidaceae with great ornamental value, including 24 species and nine natural hybrids, and having 431 grexes registered with the Royal Horticultural Society in the UK. The plants of this genus are very popular and are of great potential for market development. China is the center of distribution and species diversity of Pleione, but lags behind Europe in resources development and breeding of the genus. In order to strengthen the conservation and sustainable development and utilization of Pleione, its germplasm resources and crossbreeding were reviewed, focusing on the achievements of crossbreeding in the past 50 years aiming at different breeding goals, and summarizing the problems in and prospects for the germplasm resources, crossbreeding, and industry, to provide some insights and directions for Pleione breeding.
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