The Journal of Plant Genetic Resources is a bimonthly academic journalco-sponsored by the Institute of Crop Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences,and China Association of Agricultural Science Societies .Tt isthe only journal in China that mainly introduces plant genetic resources. Founded in 2000, officially launched in 2003, quarterly from 2000 to 2009, and bimonthly in 2010.
The contents of the report are field, horticultural crops, ornamental and medicinal plants, basic research on plant genetic resources, research results in applied research, innovative academic papers, and high-level reviews or reviews of forest plants, grass plants and all their economic plants. For example, the investigation, collection, preservation, evaluation, utilization, innovation, Informatics, management, etc. of germplasm resources; Systems of origin, evolution, classification, etc.; Gene excavation, identification, cloning, establishment of gene libraries, and research on genetic diversity.
Abstract: Litchi， a subtropical evergreen woody fruit tree that originates in China and has been cultivated for over two thousand years， is essential to China’s fruit tree industry. The rich litchi germplasm resources hosted in China provide an important guarantee for litchi breeding and industrial development. The national litchi and banana germplasm repository （Guangzhou） serves as the primary unit for the preservation of litchi germplasm resources in China and is currently the most comprehensive and standardized litchi germplasm repository in the world. As of December 2022， the national litchi and banana germplasm repository （Guangzhou） has collected and preserved 652 litchi germplasm resources and successfully bred multiple high-quality litchi new varieties， including Hong xiu qiu， Xian jin feng， and Feng shan hong deng long. The repository has also established a population of over 500，000 natural hybrid offspring and more than 20，000 artificially hybrid offspring， promoting basic research on litchi genomics and origins， molecular markers， quality， and disease resistance. These measures have contributed to the adjustment of the litchi varieties and the promotion of the industry， playing an important role in rural poverty alleviation and the sustainable development of the litchi industry. This review presents an overview of the development history of the national litchi and banana germplasm repository （Guangzhou） and also summarizes the progress made in the past two decades regarding litchi germplasm resource collection and preservation， as well as their innovative utilization. Furthermore， we propose future research directions and focus in the national litchi and banana germplasm repository （Guangzhou）， aiming to provide a reference for the effective utilization and industrial development of China's litchi germplasm resources.
Abstract: As one of the important mechanisms of epigenetic regulation， usually occurs in plant cytosine bases， including CG， CHG and CHH. DNA methylation mainly affects chromatin structure and gene transcription level. DNA methylation plays important roles in transcriptional regulation and maintaining the genome stability. Abiotic stresses affect plant growth and reproduction and ultimately lead to plant death. Based on existing research findings， DNA methylation can induce phenotypic alterations in plants under stress.To cope with abiotic stresses， the change mechanism of DNA methylation level during growth is affected by methylase and demethylase. The signal transduction pathways can change the expression of some stress response genes， thus causing changes in plant morphology， physiology and biochemistry to adapt to adversity. Some genes are upregulated （initiate） or downregulated （close down） in expression in order to assure the adaptive growth and development of plant， thus enabling plants to adapt and resist stress damage to a certain extent. This article reviews the DNA methylation modification and its role in transcriptional regulation， research progress in the growth and development of horticultural plants， and the epigenetic regulation of abiotic stress as well as the problems and prospective of horticultural plants. It provides a reference for the genetic improvement of horticultural plants and deciphering the mechanism of stress resistance.
Abstract: AP2/ERF（APETALA2/ethylene responsive factor） is one of the largest transcription factor （TF） families in plants， which contains at least one specific AP2 domains composed of 60-70 highly conserved amino acids. Depending on the number and sequence similarity of AP2 domains， this family can be classified into five subfamilies： AP2 （APETALA2）， DREB （dehydration-responsive element binding proteins）， ERF （ethylene-responsive factor）， RAV （related to AB13/VP）， and Soloist. AP2/ERF TFs regulate their expression by binding to target genes through YRG and RAYD conserved elements in the AP2 domain. At present，AP2/ERF TFs have become a hot candidate gene for studying plant stress resistance mechanisms and biosynthesis of active ingredients. More and more AP2/ERF families and their members have been reported. In this review， we summarized the latest research achievements on plant AP2/ERF family， including the structural characteristics and classification， and the research progress of AP2/ERF TFs involved in regulation of plant secondary metabolites synthesis， participation in biological and abiotic stress response was mainly introduced.Meanwhile， possible hot research topics and fields of AP2/ERF were proposed，which may provide a reference for further mining and utilization of such transcription factor genes for plant genetic improvement and germplasm innovation.
Abstract: Lily is a perennial bulbous herb. Lily is one of the most important ornamental crops in the world because of its dignified posture and colorful flowers. The underground part fleshy bulbs of the edible lily can be eaten，and some species can also be used as medicine or extract spices，therefore，lily is a plant resource with high development and utilization value. The differences of the types and contents of anthocyanins and their distribution in different areas in petals result in the color diversity of the ornamental lily and the violet red change of the edible lily bulbs at the late storage stage are mainly caused by anthocyanin accumulation. Anthocyanin is widely distributed and an important natural pigment in plants，and its biosynthesis is mainly co-regulated by structural and regulatory genes that interact with environmental factors. Anthocyanin accumulation after biosynthesis is regulated by transporter. The variety of flower color is beneficial to improve the ornamental value，while the violet red change might decrease the quality and commodity value of the edible lily bulbs. Therefore，this study reviews and summarizes the structure，biosynthetic pathway，transcriptional regulation and transport of anthocyanins of the ornamental lily flowers and edible lily bulbs，and the exploration fields and trends were conceived，in order to provide a reference for deciphering the molecular regulatory mechanism of lily anthocyanin glycosides，as well as improving its content and accumulation site.
Abstract: Chili（Capsicum annuum L.）crops have high economic value and extensive planting， and most of the chili cultivars in China have high plant type， many branches， easy lodging， not conducive to mechanized production， and the cost of artificial production is rising. With the improvement of agricultural production technology and the increasing shortage of labor， the transformation of traditional agriculture to modern mechanized agriculture is imminent. The proposal of ideal plant type makes plant type regulation a hot spot in genetic breeding， which can provide reference for the analysis of the regulation mechanism of chili plant type. This paper reviews the research results of recent domestic and foreign scholars on the genetic factors and molecular mechanisms of plant type regulation， the biological relationship between plant hormones and plant type， and the influence of the environment on plant type， and puts forward the idea of ideal plant type of chili. Good chili plant type can improve plant production capacity， facilitate management， alleviate labor shortage， and accelerate the process of mechanized production. At present， there are few research reports on the regulation mechanism of chili plant type， so exploring the breeding mechanism and genetic basis of plant type regulation is conducive to providing theoretical support for the creation of good plant type germplasm resources and accelerating the selection and breeding of new varieties， and laying the foundation for the genetic breeding .
Abstract: The industrial hemp （Cannabis sativa L.） as an important special economic crop， has implemented the development of the whole industrial chain. Its bast fiber is a significant raw material and has been widely used in textiles， papermaking， home furnishings， insulation materials， construction materials， and auto parts and composites. China has stronger academic and applied research experiences in industrial hemp， and the derived textile products are highly competitive in the global market. Due to the increasing yield and quality demand for textile fibers， it is necessary for researchers to breed high-quality， high-yield fiber varieties. The genome-wide association study （GWAS） can reveal the association between phenotype and genotype， thus becoming of interest in gene mining， stacking of multiple elite genes alleles， analyzing the population genetic structure and finally breeding for novel varieties showing high-yield， high-quality， disease resistance， and stress resistance. At present， GWAS is widely used in cotton， rice， corn， wheat and other crops， and increasingly used in industrial hemp and other major hemp fiber crop. Thus， the review summarizes the application of GWAS in industrial hemp and briefly proposes the research focuses that remained yet conducted， in order to provide insights for the application of GWAS technique in industrial hemp.
Abstract: By taking the opportunity of the Third National General Survey and Collection Action of Crop Germplasm Resources， rice landraces were investigated and collected from different counties and cities in Jiangxi province， P. R. China. From 2017 to 2019， 321 rice landraces were collected to identify the morphological characteristics， main agronomic traits， yield and quality traits in the field. Based on the collection sites， they were collected from 11 cities， with enrichments at six cities including Jiujiang， Shangrao， Yichun， Fuzhou， Jian and Ganzhou. These regions have more mountainous and impoverished with traffic inconvenience， in which farmers have the tradition to proceed food with rice landraces. There are two subspecies of Xian and Geng， mainly Xian， which can be divided into early rice， medium rice and late rice based on the maturity. The sticky rice and glutinous rice account for 38.0% and 62.0%. There have 35 red rice and purple black rice germplasm resources. These results showed that rice landraces germplasm resources with good genetic diversity in Jiangxi province， most of which are yellow， no or short awn， suitable panicle， moderate blade and stem angle， lodging resistance， and suitable seed holding. Fifteen elite germplasm resources with feasible head date， large panicle， high seed setting rate and big thousand grain weight， as well as 12 elite glutinous rice and colored rice were selected. Collectively， this study reported a resource of rice landraces which has great potential in breeding of new rice varieties.
Abstract: The yield and seed mineral nutrient quality are essential factors in breeding of rice varieties. Identification of rice germplasm resources with high yield and high quality can provide elite parents or intermediate lines in breeding. This study measured eight yield-related traits （plant height， spike length， grain number per panicle， filled grain number per panicle， thousand kernels weight， grain weight per panicle， seed setting rate and grain density） and six mineral nutrient quality-related traits （zinc， iron， calcium， magnesium， copper and manganese content） in 139 japonica rice germplasm accessions， followed by the correlation analysis and principal component analysis （PCA）. The plant height， spike length， grain number per panicle， filled grain number per panicle and grain weight per panicle were positively correlated （highly significant）， and the content of mineral nutrient was positively correlated with each other in different degrees. The content of Zn and Mg was significantly and negatively correlated with grain weight per panicle. PCA using either eight or six indicators suggested three principal components （PCs）， respectively， with the cumulative contribution rate of 78.432% and 71.697%， respectively. Four yield key indicators and five mineral nutrient quality key indicators were selected based on the loadings of these indicators in CI1-3. Two germplasm accessions with high yield and high content of mineral nutrient， namely， Hungarian No.1 and Mu 10-815， were identified by combining the results of comprehensive evaluation of yield and mineral nutritional quality. The cluster analysis suggested four groups within this collection， including Group-I that contained only two germplasms with very high mineral nutrient content， Group-II that contained 41 germplasms with relatively high Zn content but poor yield traits. Group-III and IV with 69 and 27 germplasms respectively， exhibited superior yield traits. Group-III， however， had relatively low mineral nutrient content， whereas Group-IV had relatively high amounts of Mn and Ca content. Collectively， this study can provide theoretical basis and excellent germplasm for the selection and breeding of new high yield and high quality rice varieties.
Abstract: This study reported the evaluation of the grain quality traits of rice landraces that were collected from "The Third National Action on Crop Germplasm Resources Survey and Collection" in 2017-2021. Out of 165 white and red grain samples， the highest variation coefficient was observed on the chalkiness of sticky rice， of which the coefficient of indica white grain was as high as 148.91%. The transparency was also detected with high variation coefficient， while the coefficient of brownish was below 5.0%. The variation coefficient of the waxy ratio amongst waxy rice was over 70.0%， the whiteness and the amylose content have lower value of the variation coefficient， while that of the three indexes including brownish， alkali elimination value and gel consistency were below 10.0%. In terms of the grain quality indexes that reaching the standard， the qualified ratio of whole grains or their chalkiness of sticky rice were below 50%， while the qualified ratio of other indexes were above 65.0%. For the glutinous rice， the qualified ratio of whole grains and the amylose content were around 50.0%， and that of the other indexes was higher than 65.0%. The cooking and edible quality is an important aspect in evaluating high-quality rice as well. Among all the varieties of sticky rice and glutinous rice， 60.7% and 35.4%， respectively， of which have reached or above the Grade 3 level issued by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs on the three indexes of cooking and edible quality. Compared with the landraces that were collected during the second national survey in Fujian， the amount of landraces with high value of cooking and edible quality has increased significantly within the third survey. Through this study， 10 landraces were identified reaching the high-quality standard issued by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs， which provide a material basis for the development of high-quality rice varieties in the future. In addition， 15 germplasms with high amylose content have been identified， which can be used as new raw materials for processing purpose specifically. The mid-colored rice were found with relatively rich amount in local landraces， accounting for about 20.0% of the total， they can provide valuable resources for future breeding and production of rice varieties with special function. In the future， works on the evaluation of grain quality for local landraces should be improved， and excellent germplasm resources would provide a material basis as well as promote the breeding of new superior rice varieties.
Abstract: Grain quality deterioration during rice aging storage has caused serious losses to rice production and management. It is of great significance to carry out research on storage tolerance and identify rice varieties with high storability. In this study， 197 semi-waxy japonica varieties， 117 common japonica varieties and 14 waxy japonica varieties were used. The storage tolerance characteristics was analyzed at the artificial high temperature and high humidity condition using the evaluation index of the storage tolerance index （SDI） that defines based reduction percentage of germination rate before and after aging. According to SDI， these genotypes were divided into four groups： group I was the high storability type， 75%≤SDI<100%， including 8 semi-waxy japonica rice and 15 common japonica rice； group II was the relative storability type， 50%≤SDI<75%， including 32 semi-waxy japonica rice， 44 common japonica rice and 1 waxy rice； group III was the less storability type， 25%≤SDI<50%， including 82 semi-waxy japonica rice， 32 common japonica rice and 4 waxy rice； group IV was non-storability type， 0≤SDI<25%， including 75 semi-waxy japonica rice， 26 common japonica rice and 9 waxy rice. The storage tolerance of semi-waxy japonica rice， which was higher than that of the waxy rice， was lower than that of common japonica rice. The analysis of storage tolerance among different growth-development types showed that only the early-maturing medium type in both of semi-waxy and common japonica rice had the lowest storability value. Using the reduction percentage of freshness value （RPFV）， semi-waxy japonica rice showing lower storability than common japonica rice and higher storability than waxy japonica rice was observed. Through the comprehensive evaluation of SDI and RPFV， four semi-waxy japonica rice （BG26， BG69， BG81 and BG164） and nine common japonica rice （Nanjing-qinggu， CG10， CG23， CG25， CG28， CG32， CG38， CG49 and CG71） were obtained with high storability. Collectively， the research provided germplasm materials applicable for the storability improving of rice varieties and exploring the storage tolerance gene resources.
Abstract: In order to improve the utilization efficiency of naked barley germplasm resources in China， 398 accessions of naked barley from different regions were used to analyze the phenotypic diversity at 18 traits， followed by the analysis of coefficient of variation analysis， diversity index analysis， correlation analysis， principal component analysis and cluster analysis. The results revealed abundant variations among phenotypic traits in different resources. The diversity index of the nine quality traits was 0.66 to 2.06， with an average value of 1.42， and the highest value in plant height， kernels per spike and the smallest value in kernel rows. The traits had 4.71% （kernel color） to 61.03% （heading date） of the coefficient of variation， with an average value of 26.59%. The correlation analysis of nine quantitative traits indicated that spikes per plant， spike length， kernels per spike， thousand kernels weight and setting rate could be deployed as the main target traits for high yield naked barley varieties breeding in the future. The results of principal component analysis showed that the cumulative contribution rate of the five principal component factors was 64.297%. Among them， heading date， plant height， row type and thousand kernels weight were the main factors contributing to the phenotypic differences of naked barley. Combined with the membership function analysis， the comprehensive scores （F value） were calculated. Jiangsuyuanmai No. 33， VII-131， Yumimai， Jiangsu yuan mai No. 58， Jianhutuanliulengzi， Daimaoyuanmai， Jiangsuyuanmai No. 65， Jiangsuyuanmai No. 23， Jiangsuyuanmai No. 20 and Jiangsuyuanmai No. 22 had the highest scores. These materials were divided into four groups by systematic clustering analysis and the clustering results were not strongly correlated with geographic location. These results could provide an important reference for the utilization of naked barley accessions and variety breeding.
Abstract: Drought is one of the most prominent factors that negatively affect the yield quantity and stability of wheat production. It is of great significance to select elite drought-resistant germplasm resources and cultivate drought-resistant varieties. In this study， the drought resistance of 180 wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium introgression lines was comprehensively evaluated at seed germination stage and adult plant stage. By measuring morphological indicators such as root length， biomass and yield-related traits， combined with principal component analysis， membership function analysis and correlation analysis， drought resistance at two growth stages was evaluated. The results showed that drought stress at two growth stages could result in significant decrease considering the drought-resistant related indicators. Shoot fresh weight， root fresh weight， shoot height and maximum root length decreased significantly at germination stage， and plant height and yield per plant decreased significantly at adult stage. The distributions of drought resistance coefficients of each indicator at different growth stages were significantly different. No significant correlation between the D value of comprehensive drought resistance evaluation at seed germination stage and adult stage was detected， but the D value at adult stage was significantly correlated with the drought resistance coefficients of yield per plant， the maximum root length and shoot dry weight at germination stage. The drought resistance of 180 derived lines was classified using the D value of comprehensive evaluation of drought resistance based on principal component analysis and membership function analysis. As a result， 24 lines at germination stage and 28 lines at adult stage were identified showing extremely drought resistant. Especially， 11 elite lines showing strong drought resistance at both germination and adult stages were obtained， which can be used as excellent germplasm resources for wheat drought-resistant breeding and genetic research.
Abstract: This study investigated a special tomato inbred line 85-6 with the parthenocarpy and self-incompatibility. Through the observation of flower appearance， pollen viability and ovule development， 85-6 was found with normal flower structure， pollen activity and ovule development， thus ruling out the abortion of pistil or stamen. Based on the fertility variations of self-pollination， and artificially-assisted self-pollination and hybridization experiments at different temperature， 85-6 showed self-incompatibility under normal temperature conditions， and produced seedless fruit after self-pollination， as well as normal hybrid offspring whenever serving as male or female parents. Under temperature stress （daily average temperature <10 ℃ or >35 ℃） at flowering stage， 85-6 became complete pollination and fertilization to obtain seeded fruits， and its offspring seeds showed 29.75% seed germination rate. After emasculation at the bud stage， whenever under normal or lower temperature conditions， t85-6 was able to produce seedless fruit， thus indicating the characteristics of parthenocarpy. Collectively， the material of 85-6， as a newly-identified germplasm showing the parthenocarpy and self-incompatibility， provided a basis for the parthenocarpy and self-incompatibility breeding， and further deciphering the functional mechanisms.
Abstract: To investigate the genetic diversity of volatile compounds in peach fruits， 36 peach varieties were analyzed by headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry， followed by ANOVA， coefficient of variation， correlation analysis， principal component analysis and partial least squares-discriminant analysis. The results showed that 77 volatile compounds were detected in 36 peach varieties， including terpenoids， aldehydes， esters， lactones， alcohols and ketones. In addition， the coefficient of variation in volatile compounds of 36 peach varieties ranged from 18% to 390%， indicating that the enrichment of volatile organic compounds diversity in different peach varieties. Based on the correlation analysis， 11 and 10 pairwise-traits were found with correlation and significant correlation， respectively， among which several traits including flesh color， variety type， stone adherence to flesh and flesh texture were correlated with aroma substance content. PCA analysis could clarify white-fleshed and yellow-fleshed peaches. Using variable importance in projection （VIP） >1 and P < 0.05 as criteria， nine characteristic volatile substances were identified and distinguishable in yellow-fleshed peaches from white-fleshed peaches， among which theaspirane was found with the highest VIP.
Abstract: The aroma profiles of core grape germplasm resources in the Turpan region were evaluated to provide reliable data for the improvement of the breeding efficiency of different aromatic grape varieties. In this study， the terpenoid profiles and the genetic loci controlling these components were analyzed in 27 grape varieties. The fruit aromatic phenotypes were analyzed and compared among the different varieties to identify aromatic types most suitable for breeding. These varieties were classified based on four flavors， namely， strawberry， no aroma， rose， and mixed aroma. Twenty-six terpenoids were detected in these varieties. While these terpenoids were found in all aromatic categories， there were significant differences in the compounds and concentrations between the different categories. The rose-flavored varieties showed higher terpenoid concentrations than the varieties with strawberry or no aroma. The significant differences were also observed among the different rose-flavored varieties.The content of nericanol， citronel and rose ether was higher than the average content of the other three fragrant varieties. The main terpenoids identified in the rose-flavored varieties were linalol， geraniol， nerolol， citronellol. At the major terpene regulatory genetic loci， three genotypes including the dominant homozygous T/T， heterozygous G/T， and recessive G/G were detected in the 27 grape varieties. Sunshine Rose and Zaokangbao were T/T； coreless white， Red Earth， Jufeng， white banana， coreless white heart， and SP1153 were G/G； other varieties were G/T. The findings suggested that Sunshine Rose and Zaokangbao were ideal breeding materials for the rose aroma. Zaoshou Musk， fragrant Concubine， noble Concubine rose， Italy， oasis gem， and seedless Cuibao varieties had strong or relatively strong rose aroma and carried the heterozygous G/T genotype， and these varieties could be used for breeding via by self-crossing or cross-breeding.
Abstract: This study analyzed the quality chemical composition characteristics and genetic diversity of Camellia yungkiangensis， a special tea germplasm resource in Guizhou， in order to provide scientific basis for its development and utilization and the cultivation of new special tea varieties. 121 Camellia yungkiangensis germplasms collected from Moon Mountain， Qiandongnan Prefecture， Guizhou Province， China， were subjected to analyze 21 main quality chemical components， such as water extracts， tea polyphenols， free amino acids. Their quality characteristics and genetic diversity were evaluated by genetic diversity analysis， principal component analysis， cluster analysis， correlation analysis， and the elite resources were identified. The variation coefficient of 21 quality chemical components in 121 resources was 5.70-119.69， with an average of 32.84%， and the genetic diversity index was 1.47-2.08， with an average of 1.95. Based on the correlation analysis results of 21 quality chemical component indexes， there were 42 pairs of traits with extremely significant positive correlation， 14 pairs with significant positive correlation， 10 pairs with extremely significant negative correlation， and 10 pairs with significant negative correlation. The principal component analysis showed that the characteristic values of the first seven principal components were over 1， with the cumulative contribution rate of 76.84%. The comprehensive score of the quality chemical components of each individual plant resource on each principal component was obtained by the factor score coefficient matrix， and 12 individual plant resources with high comprehensive score of the quality chemical components were selected. Cluster analysis showed that 121 Camellia yungkiangensis germplasm resources could be divided into 6 groups at the Euclidean distance of 18.0. The 121 Camellia yungkiangensis germplasm resources were identified with high tea polyphenols （≥20.0%）， low caffeine （≤1.5%） and high theobromine （≥2.5%）， of which 72 were high tea polyphenols （≥20.0%） and high water extracts （≥45%）. These Camellia yungkiangensis germplasm resources， which showed high tea polyphenols， low caffeine and high theobromine， represent rich genetic diversity and have the potential to cultivate new varieties of specific tea plants.
Abstract: The wheat grain hardness is an important index affecting the commodity classification， milling technology and flour final processing use. Molecular marker-assisted （MAS） technique can effectively improve the breeding efficiency for grain hardness in wheat. In order to explore and develop more molecular markers that are closely linked to the grain hardness of wheat， the recombinant inbred lines （RILs） population was constructed by crossing the hard wheat Yangmai 158 with soft wheat Xifeng， and genotyped by wheat 55K SNP array technique. The genetic linkage map is 2784.9 cM in length with 3830 non-consegregation SNP markers. Based on the kernel hardness phenotype in the 4-year experiment， the QTL affecting wheat grain hardness were mapped in the chromosome. A total of 12 repeatable QTL were identified on chromosomes 1A， 1B， 1D， 2A （2）， 3A， 4D， 5A， 5D， 6B， 6D and 7A， and each single QTL could explain 3.2%-15.2% of grain hardness variation. Among them， eleven QTL were derived from the soft wheat Xifeng， and one QTL from the hard wheat Yangmai 158. Seven QTL showed stable performance and were detected simultaneously in the 4-year experiment， and five QTL were newly identified. The newly discovered QTL， especially QTL on chromosome 5D， could account for up to 15.2% of the phenotypic variation. SNP markers closely linked to these QTL will provide help for marker-assisted selection in soft wheat in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River.
Abstract: In order to understand the molecular mechanism of tartary buckwheat against bacterial blight， we isolated the transcription factor gene FtEIN3 in Chuanqiao 1， a representative variety of tartary buckwheat.The FtEIN3 contains the CDS sequence length of 1623 bp， encoding 540 amino acids. The secondary structure of FtEIN3 protein was composed of α-helix （33.52%）， extended chain （6.67%）， β-fold （2.41%） and irregular coil （57.41%）. Phylogenetic tree indicated that FtEIN3 protein was closely related to GhEIN3 and DzEIN3 protein. Five different EIN3 sequence haplotypes were detected in 108 tartary buckwheat germplasm， and out of them Hap3 was an elite haplotype. qRT-PCR revealed that the expression of FtEIN3 gene in tartary buckwheat was induced by Rhizoctonia solani. The FtEIN3 gene in tartary buckwheat was localized in the nucleus under confocal laser microscopy. To further verify the function of FtEIN3 gene， FtEIN3 transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana were constructed and their resistance to blip disease was analyzed. The results showed that overexpression of FtEIN3 gene significantly improved the resistance of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana to bacterial blight compared with the wild type. These results proved that FtEIN3 gene was involved in the defense process of tartary buckwheat against bacterial blight， and laid a foundation for further research on the molecular mechanism of FtEIN3 regulation of tartary buckwheat resistance toblight.
Abstract: The transcriptome analysis of tartary buckwheat identified a flavonol synthase gene FtFLS1. In order to further understand its structure， function and diversity in tartary buckwheat genome， we identified 104 members of FLS gene family with 10 subgroups， in which FtFLS1 was found in DF8 subgroup. Promoter analysis revealed two MeJA response elements at the upstream of 1500 bp sequence. We analyzed the expression of FtFLS1 in different organs and its response to MeJA treatments. The transcriptional level of FtFLS1 in stems and leaves was comparable but higher in roots. Expression of FtFLS1 also increased significantly with the treatment of MeJA. We subsequently cloned the CDS sequence of FtFLS1， and then generated FtFLS1 over-expressed hairy root lines of tartary buckwheat and detected their flavonoid content. Over-expression transformants over accumulated the downstream products of FLS， which including kaempferol， quercetin and rutin， while the contents of dihydrokaempferol and dihydroquercetin， the substrates of brass synthetase， decreased significantly. Furthermore， we analyzed the diversity of FtFLS1 gene in different populations of tartary buckwheat， and found that Northern landraces， Southwestern landraces and Himalayan wild accessions present obvious differentiation. The results are helpful for understanding the FtFLS1-mediated synthesis of flavonoids and the domestication process of buckwheat.
Abstract: The species diversity of Calanthe R. Br. is rich. However， under the influence of global warming， extreme high temperature weather frequently occurs， which exacerbates the harm of abiotic stress on the survival and reproduction of Calanthe. In this study， six species of Calanthe were analyzed for heat tolerance via applying means of high-temperature semi-lethal physiological experiments. Calanthe argenteostriata C. Z. Tang & S. J. Cheng and C. tricarinata Lindl.， which were identified to be heat tolerant or sensitive， respectively， were used for transcriptome sequencing and identification of differentially-expressed genes （DEGs） under heat stress treatment conditions. In addition， their transcriptional profiles at different temperatures were detected by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR technology. The research results were included： （1） The heat tolerance of six species of Calanthe is ranked from weak to strong： C. tricarinata Lindl.， C. graciliflora Hayata， C. triplicata（Willem.）Ames， C. herbacea Lindl.， C. sinica Z. H. Tsi， C. argenteostriata C. Z. Tang & S. J. Cheng. （2） Gene families responsible to heat stress were identified， including HSP， HSF， LEA， XTH， TIL. （3） In C. tricarinata Lindl.， the up-regulated expression threshold of DEGs was 30 ℃， and the temperature over 30℃ might cause heat damage. In C. argenteostriata C. Z. Tang & S. J. Cheng， nine DEGs were highly expressed at 40 ℃， possibly resulting in an improvement of tolerance to heat stress. This study explored the response of Calanthe to heat stress at the molecular level， provided important clues for identifying key genes of heat tolerance and cultivating garden heat tolerant plants， which might provide reference in modern garden breeding.
Abstract: Wild adzuki bean are important gene resources for genetic improvement of cultivars， however， pod shattering and hard seededness are classical characters of wild genotypes， and are disadvantage traits in breeding. In the present study， we used a recombination inbred line （RIL） population， developed from a cross between a cultivar and a wild genotype（Vigna angularis var. nipponensis）， to identify QTL loci related with pod shattering and hard seededness using SSR markers. The results showed that the ratio of pod shattering （PS）， the number of pod curling （NPC） and the ratio of hard seededness （HSN） were not fitful for normal distribution， but had continuous variation. Eleven linkage groups were constructed using 111 SSR markers with a total length of 3813.5 cM and 34.35 cM for intervals. A total of 19 QTLs were detected for PS and NPC in 2021 and 13 were detected in 2022. Two QTLs were repeatedly detected to be related with the NPC and 3 were with PS. There were 4 QTLs that related with the hard seededness and the one on LG11 were also repeatedly detected with PS in 2021 and 2022， and NPC in 2022. The present results provided insights for fine mapping of these domesticate-related traits and investigating the functional mechanisms.
Abstract: Soybean is an important legume crop in the world， and serves as the main donor of protein and oil for human diet and animal feeding. The protein and oil content are genetically controlled by multiple genes， and are largely environment-dependent. It is of great significance to explore high protein and oil loci in targeted breeding of new soybean varieties. In this study， a genetic segregation population including 880 families was generated by Heinong 84 （high yield and quality） crossed with Jinghe 4 （high protein content）， and subjected for the protein and oil content quantification. The genotyping was conducted using ZDX1 SNP array and SSR molecular markers， combine. Two protein QTL and two oil QTL were identified through the complete interval mapping method （ICIM-ADD） using QTL IciMapping 4.2. qPro_11_1 and qOil_11_1 were co-localized in an interval of 126.27 kb between the molecular markers SSR_11_1087 and SSR_11_1090， showing the genetic contribution rate of 4.05% and 3.23% respectively， as well as five annotation genes in the region. qPro_14_1 and qOil_14_1 were co-localized between the molecular markers SSR_14_0421 and SSR_14_0429， with the interval size of 246.09 kb with 15 annotation genes， showing the genetic contribution rate of 4.67% and 7.13% respectively. Collectively， this study identified the QTL loci on protein content and oil content， thus laying a foundation for the marker-assisted selection breeding and gene map-based cloning of soybean with high protein and high oil content.
Abstract: Quercus mongolica Fisch is a native species at the temperate zone of East Asia， and is highly valuable considering its application and economic potential. Trihelix transcription factors are related to plant light response， growth and development， and abiotic stress. In order to study the performance of Trihelix transcription factors in Quercus mongolica under different shading and water stress， 34 QmTHs （designated QmTH01 to QmTH34） were identified from the genome of Quercus mongolica by bioinformatics analysis. By clustering analysis with 29 Trihelix transcription factors identified in Arabidopsis thaliana， the Trihelix transcription factors can be divided into five subgroups including GT-1， GT-2， GT-γ， SH4 and SIP1. QmTHs were found on 10 chromosomes of Quercus mongolica， encoding for the putative proteins ranged from 189 to 897 aa， with isoelectric points ranging from 4.58 to 9.78. A total of 14 different cis-acting elements were identified in the promoters of QmTHs， in which the elements related to methyl jasmonate response， abscisic acid response and light response were often found. According to gene expression analysis under different shading and water stress， the transcripts of QmTH01， QmTH14， QmTH22， QmTH24 and QmTH33 were relatively high under high light intensity， and significantly down-regulated with the decrease of light intensity， indicating that these five genes were involved in the growth physiology of Quercus mongolica under high light response. The expressions of QmTH06， QmTH17 and QmTH24 were significantly up-regulated under watering treatments （April， May， June， July and August； once per month）， indicating that these genes possibly mediated the response of Quercus mongolica to water stress.
Abstract: Wild populations are important germplasm resources， and studying their genetic diversity and variation pattern of local wild and cultivated populations can facilitate their scientific protection and sustainable utilization. This study is based on the natural and cultivated distribution area of Chinese chestnut in Beijing， collecting leaves from a total of 93 germplasm of 5 cultivated populations and 1 wild population， and collecting leaves from a total of 16 germplasm of 1 population （as an outgroup） in Yichang （YC）， Hubei. Sixteen pairs of microsatellite primers （SSR） were used to analyze the genetic diversity and genetic structure. The wild C. mollissima populations in Beijing was found with relatively high genetic diversity， and the genetic diversity of the wild Hongluosi population （HLS） was significantly higher than that of other populations. There was significant genetic differentiation between populations of C. mollissima （Fst = 0.232）， with low frequency of gene flow （Nm = 0.547）. AMOVA analysis showed that the intra-population genetic variation （57.70 %） was greater than that among populations （42.30%）. The genetic structure analysis showed that YC chestnut population was significantly different from Beijing chestnut populations. The HLS wild population was independent of Banliyuan population （BLY， an ancient tree population） and the other cultivated populations that were clustered into a group， indicating that cultivated chestnuts might come from the ancient tree population in Beijing. A coincidence was observed as well based on the UPGMA clustering， PCoA and PCA analysis. Treemix analysis showed that the chestnut populations in Beijing were likely from the YC population in southern China， indicating an evolutionary path for chestnut to migrate from central China to Beijing. The population history results indicate that the Beijing populations differentiated from the YC populations approximately 83，000 years ago， while the differentiation of local wild and cultivated species in Beijing occurred approximately 32，000 years ago. Our results support the hypothesis of chestnut migrating northward from central China. The domestication of cultivated species reduced the genetic diversity of chestnut germplasm resources in Beijing. The wild populations and cultivated ancient trees retain high genetic diversity， which should be protected preferentially.
Abstract: Camellia oleifera Abel.， which shows self-incompatibility （SI） and low natural fruit setting rate， has seriously affected its yield production and the following development in industry. To uncover the function of Peroxidase （POD） in self-incompatibility， four POD genes CoPOD1/2/3/4 were cloned from C. oleifera by reverse transcription cloning technology. The length of gene coding regions were 1086， 1011， 1020 and 1218 bp， encoding 361， 336， 339 and 405 amino acids non-transmembrane proteins with signaling peptides， respectively. Although lower sequence similarity among the CoPOD1/2/3/4 proteins is observed， they all contain peroxidase active sites and heme ligand sequences near peroxidase. The phylogenetic analysis revealed closely sequence homology of CoPOD1/2/3/4 to those of Camellia sinensis （L.） O. Ktze. Real-time fluorescence quantitative results showed that PODs were significantly up-regulated， followed by decreased expression within 24-48 h after self-pollination. The transcripts of CoPOD1/3/4 were higher than cross-pollinated in pistills at 36 h after self-pollination. The POD activity in the pistil of self-pollination was higher than that of cross-pollinated within 24-72 h， showing the highest expression peak at 36 h. The POD activity in the pistil of the cross-pollinated was in dynamic balance at early stage， with significantly up-regulated after 72 h. We speculate that the POD genes might be involved in the programmed pollen tube death of C. oleifera after self-pollination， thus participating in the self-incompatibility reaction. Collectively， this paper provides reference for further research on self-incompatibility mechanism in C. oleifera.
Abstract: As a new mutagen， lithium （7Li） ion beam plays an increasingly important role in crop mutation breeding. In this study， the characteristics of wheat DNA damage induced by 7Li ion beam irradiation treatment were explored by comet assay， and the transcriptional re-programming was preliminarily analyzed by transcriptome analysis. The wheat seedlings showed lower growth inhibition of wheat seedlings caused by 7Li ion beam irradiation， but seedlings leaf vein chlorosis to cracking， if compared with those treated by the conventional mutagenic gamma ray （γ）. Based on GO and KEGG functional analysis of differentially expressed genes （DEGs） induced by irradiation， DEGs induced by 7Li ion beam irradiation were mainly enriched in cell wall synthesis and metabolism and glycerolipid metabolic pathways， while DEGs induced by γ ray irradiation were mainly enriched in photosynthetic metabolic pathways. That suggested that cell wall synthesis and metabolism and glycerolipid metabolic pathways are likely modulated by 7Li ion beam irradiation， while photosynthetic metabolic pathways are likely modified by γ ray irradiation. Gained from the results of transcription factor analysis of two radiation-induced DEGs， several transcription factor families， such as MYB， WRKY， bHLH and NAC， might specifically respond to 7Li ion beam irradiation. The results of this study implied that 7Li ion beam irradiation specifically modify the transcriptional re-programming of Whirly family transcription factors to regulate DNA damage repair， while the conventional γ ray irradiation likely induced the E2F / DP family transcription factors to regulate DNA damage repair.
Abstract: Uvaria kweichowensis is a native plant species in China， and the wild populations are relatively small with narrowed geographic distribution. In order to systematically understand its quantity， distribution status and utilization in Guangxi province， we carried out the investigation and collection of Uvaria kweichowensis germplasm resources in nine counties through field visits and questionnaire surveys， and a total of 95 Uvaria kweichowensis sampleswere collected from 2016 to 2022. The survey results show that Uvaria kweichowensis is a perennial vine with mature leaf leathery， being mainly distributed in the karst rocky mountain area with the attitude of 650 to 1100 meters in nine counties such as Longan County and Tiane County in Guangxi. The number of germplasm resources in wild populations were scarce， and individuals often grew individually without protection. The local people have the traditional habit to collect the leaves of Uvaria kweichowensis for diseases treatment and tea drinking. In addition， we deployed the seed sowing or branch cottage， in order to collect and select the elite germplasm resources. The results showed that low survival rate of Uvaria kweichowensis， the germination rate of seeds from different sources was 25.7 % -34.4 %， and the survival rate of cuttings was 4.4%-14.4%. Collectively， this study discussed the main factors harmful to this species and the solution for protection of Uvaria kweichowensis， which might provide the reference for the protection， excavation and innovative utilization of the germplasm resources of Uvaria kweichowensis in Guangxi province， China.
Abstract: The main nutrient components of rhizome were determined and evaluated in 20 seleng wormwood germplasm resources preserved in National Germplasm Wuhan Aquatic Vegetable Resource Garden. The dry matter， protein， soluble sugar and crude fiber contents were 17.90%， 3.28%， 10.14% and 1.09%， respectively. Based on the stem color， the contents of dry matter， protein， and soluble sugar were classified （red > green > white）. The protein content of green if compared to white seleng wormwood was equal， and the crude fiber content was further classified （white > red > green）. According to the blade shape， the contents of dry matter， protein and soluble sugar of wormwood rhizome were higher in broken leaf-seleng wormwood in comparison to willow-leaf-seleng wormwood， while the crude fiber content was observed opposite in both types. However， for each of nutrient components， no significant difference was observed between each of two types. The nutritional quality of red seleng wormwood and broken leaf-seleng wormwood was relatively better. The highest value on the contents of dry matter， soluble sugar and crude fibre was detected in Lishilouhao， and the highest protein content was found in Shayanglouhao. The partial correlation between dry matter content and protein content and that between dry matter content and soluble sugar content were significantly positive. The partial correlation between protein and soluble sugar was significantly negative.
Abstract: The northern winter wheat region (NWWR) is one of the main wheat producing areas in China. A retrospective analysis of the nationally approved wheat varieties will facilitate rational utilization of wheat variety resources in wheat production in the region. Genotype by yield-trait (GYT) biplot analysis was used to cluster and comprehensively evaluate 47 wheat varieties nationally approved for NWWR during 2003-2023 based on the combinations of grain yield with other target traits including earliness, spike number per hectare, grain number per spike, 1000-grain weight, test weight, quality index, disease resistance index, and cold resistance index. The results showed that these wheat varieties could be classified into four distinct variety types. Type Ⅰ includes 8 varieties, i.e. Jingmai 179, Jingnong 16, Jinmai 3118, Jingmai 189, Jinghua 12, Nongda 3486, Hangmai 2566 and Zhongmai 93, characterized by outstanding combination of yield with earliness, disease resistance, cold resistance, 1000-grain weight and test weight, and excellent performance in the combination of yield and spike number, grain number per spike and a quality index, and therefore has the highest value in wheat production. Type Ⅱ varieties constituted of 13 varieties, including Jingmai 202, Jingnong 19, Lunxuan 158, Zhongmai 623, Jingmai 183, Jingnong 72, Zhongmai Z21, Chang 6794, Jingmai 186, Zhongmai 5051, Jingnong 14-62, Lunxuan 149 and Zhongmai 121, characterized by superior combination of yield with a quality index and spike number, but slightly poor combinaiton between yield and disease resistance and cold tolernace. These varieties are valuable in wheat production in the region as soon as diseases and winterkill are under control. Type Ⅲ varieties had the best combination of yield with disease resistance and cold resistance index, but were poor in combination between yield and other traits. Therefore, their value in production is limited, but could be used as disease-resistant parents in wheat breeding. Type Ⅳ varieties were poor in overall yield-trait combination; but some may be outstanding in a single and can be used as breeding parents. Based on the projection position of each variety on the average yield-trait axis (ATA) of the GYT biplot, Jingmai 179, Jingnong 16, Jinmai 3118, Jingmai 189, Jingmai 202, Jinghua 12, Jingnong 19, Lunxuan 158 and Zhongmai 623 were identified to have superior overall yield-trait combination. While the varieties Beinong 9549, Jinnong 4, Jingdong 12, Jinnong 207, Zhongmai 415, Shiyou 20, Han 4564, Chang 4738, Lunxuan 518 and Jinnong 7 had poor overall yield-trait combination. This study provided an example for the use of GYT biplot for comprehensive wheat cultivar evaluation and classification based on yield-trait combinations for the NWWR region, which can be applied to other crops and regions.
Abstract: The maize male-sterile 20s2 (ms20s2) is a pollen-free genic male sterility mutant that we identified in maize inbred line KWS49. Compared with wild type (WT), the mutant anthers were small and whitish, lacking pollen grains. However, there were no significant differences in agronomic traits such as plant height and ear height between the WT and ms20s2 mutant. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations showed that, compared to WT, no pollen mother cells undergoing meiosis were observed in the anthers of the ms20s2 at V9 stage; and the anther cuticular was abnormal, and no ubisch bodies were observed on the inner surface of the anther wall of ms20s2 at tasseling stage. Analysis of paraffin sections of anthers from different developmental stages showed that some middle layer cells and tapetum cells of the ms20s2 anther underwent abnormal division from S6 to S7 stages compared to WT, causing the anther wall shrinking, pollen mother cells cannot perform meiosis normally, and leading to the death of the pollen mother cells and male sterile phenotype. The genetic analysis revealed that the male sterile phenotype of the ms20s2 mutant was controlled by a single recessive nuclear gene. By analyzing the genotypes of 60 sterile plants in the F2 mapping population with the maize 10K SNP chip, the mutation was preliminarily mapped to the 6.21Mb region on the long arm of chromosome 2 of maize. After developing new InDel markers and expanding the mapping population, the gene was fine mapped to the 590kb region, which contains a known protein-coding gene MS32 (Zm00001eb106620). Sequencing analysis of MS32 gene revealed that there is a 3166bp insertion in the exon 4 of ms20s2, which may affect the protein function of MS32, resulting in abnormal anther development and male sterility phenotype of ms20s2 mutant. Allelism test showed that the ms20s2 was a new allelic variation of maize male sterile gene MS32. The tissue specific expression analysis showed that the gene was expressed in maize anthers at S6 and S7 stages, which further verified that the gene played an important role in regulating the development of tapetum and middle layer of maize anthers.
Abstract: To investigate the floral aroma metabolism pathways and differentially expressed genes involved in the biosynthesis of terpenoid aroma compounds in different parts of tropical waterlily organs. The transcriptome sequencing technique was used to analyze the petal (PE), stamen (ST) and pistil (PI) of the flower organ of N. ‘Paul Stetson’. According to the results, the Clean Data obtained from the three sites were greater than 6.30Gb, all of the Q30 base percentage was higher than 90.09% , and the GC-content was 48.42~50.31%. The analysis results of DEGs in three site samples showed that the number of differentially expressed genes in PE vs PI, ST vs PI, and ST vs PE was 7853, 7501, and 2526, respectively. The number of DEGs in the first two groups was similar. GO classification and enrichment analysis showed that the DEGs of the three comparative groups were mainly involved in biological regulation, cellular processes, metabolic processes, and stimulus response biological processes; KEGG classification and enrichment analysis showed that the KEGG pathway with significantly enriched DEGs in PE vs PI was the most abundant, followed by ST vs PI, with ST vs PE being the least. 98 DEGs involved in the terpenoid metabolism were selected from 794 DEGs in three comparative groups, which were enriched in four terpenoid floral aroma synthesis pathways, and the number of DEGs in PE vs PI and ST vs PI was higher than that in ST vs PE. In petals and stamens, the genes responsible for synthesis of acacia aldehyde and diterpenoid kaurene, were expressed at higher levels than in pistils. A total of six genes were randomly selected from 98 DEGs for qRT-PCR verification, and ttranscriptome sequencing confirmed the trend of gene expression. The results provide a scientific reference for the molecular mechanism of terpenoid aroma compounds biosynthesis in tropical waterlilies.
Abstract: Isopentenyl-transferases (IPT) are key enzymes that catalyze the biosynthesis of cytokinin and are also important rate-limiting enzymes of cytokinin. In plants, IPT exists in the form of ATP/ADP IPTs and TrnA-IPTS, and IPTs mediate the synthesis of two types of CKs in plants: the ATP/ADP pathway and the tRNA pathway. Ginger is an important vegetable that can been used as medicine and food, but it is tend to be affected by various biotic and abiotic stresses during its cultivation, which is detrimental to the safe production of ginger. Here, 10 ZoIPT were identified from ginger genome through systematic bioinformatics analysis, and they were named as ZoIPT1-ZoIPT10. Gene structure analysis showed that all ZoIPTs gene family members contain introns. The amino acid length of the encoded protein ranged from 283 (ZoIPT8) to 491(ZoIPT10) aa, the molecular weight was 31.14 (ZoIPT8) to 54.02 (ZoIPT10) kD, and the isoelectric point was 4.97 (ZoIPT8) to 9.37(ZoIPT6) pI. The analysis of protein characteristics showed that all ZoIPTs were hydrophilic. Subcellular localization analysis showed that 8 ZoIPTs were localized in chloroplasts and 2 ZoIPTs were localized in mitochondria and cytoplasm. Transcriptome data analysis showed that ZoIPTs had tissue specific expression patterns and could respond to stress such as disease and low temperature, ZoIPT3 and ZoIPT5 were highly expressed at different growth stages, different tissues, and in response to low temperature and disease stress. qRT-PCR analysis showed that ZoIPTs was responsive to drought, flooding and salt stress. Under flooding and salt stress, the expression of ZoIPT3 in rhizomes was significantly increased. Under drought stress, the expression of ZoIPT5 in leaves and rhizomes were significantly increased. In summary, through systematic identification, evolutionary analysis, characteristic analysis, promoter analysis, expression pattern analysis, and expression patterns analysis under drought, salt, and flooding stress, this study provided a theoretical basis for in-depth research on the biological functions of ZoIPT in regulating growth and development and stress resistance of ginger.
Abstract: To explore the distribution area, morphological characteristics, and genetic diversity of agronomic traits of Jiulong ancient tea germplasm resources in Ganzi. The 21 descriptive and 12 numerical agronomic traits of 67 Jiulong ancient tea germplasm resources were used to evaluate the genetic diversity by using basic statistical analysis, principal component analysis and cluster analysis.
Abstract: In recent years, wheat fusarium crown rot(FCR)has been seriously appeared in many wheat regions of China, and posing a great threat to grain production. In addition, many toxins and secondary metabolites such as DON and NIV were produced during the disease occurrence, which brought serious problems to food safety and human or animal health. As the effort of current research mainly focuses on the isolation of FCR pathogens and the investigation of materials resistance, the progress of FCR study is far behind the speed of disease development. Therefore, it is of great significance to screen excellent resistant resources to control this disease. This study used millet grains as pathogen medium to inoculate the 163 wheat germplasm accessions in the Huanghuai valley of China. The results showed that there were no immune or highly resistant materials have been identified, but the resistance level estimated by disease index (DI) of the identified accessions was obvious difference with a normal distribution from 10.27 to 83.33. The correlation coefficient between seedling and field investigation results was 0.79 which indicated a highly correlation of seedling resistance to adult resistance. Furthermore, the genome-wide association study (GWAS) results showed that the significant SNPs were widely distributed on all the wheat chromosomes, and mainly focus on 2A with an interval from 725 Mb to 763Mb. The bulked segregant analysis (BSA) results suggested that the significant SNPs were mainly distributed from 730 Mb to 750Mb on 2A. Overall, the GWAS and BSA analysis indicated that a significant resistance locus on chromosome 2A from 730 Mb to 750Mb was identified to associate with FCR infection. This study can provide important reference for resistant materials investigation and resistance loci excavation on wheat FCR.
Abstract: To characterize the resistance of the novel rice mutant ALS179 to acetolactate synthase(ALS) inhibiting herbicides. In this study, wild-type Huahang31 (HH31), imidazolinone-tolerant rice ALS627 mutant and Ethyl Methyl Sulfone (EMS)-mutagenized novel rice mutant ALS179 were used as experimental materials to further determine the resistance of ALS179 to four types of ALS-inhibiting herbicides by seed coating and seedling spray treatment at different concentrations. The phenotypes and related enzyme activity indexes were further determined to investigate the resistance of the mutant ALS179. The results showed that the mutant ALS179 showed different degrees of resistance to benensulfuron, imazethapyr, bispyribac-sodium and pyroxsulam after seed coating and seedling spraying, and the activities of acetolactate synthase, peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase tended to decrease with increasing herbicide concentration. The enzyme activities of ALS179 were higher than those of wild-type HH31 under all treatment conditions except for imazethapyr treatment at high concentrations.In this study, we found that the Ala179Val mutation conferred broad-spectrum resistance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides and provided genetic germplasm resources for the subsequent breeding of ALS-inhibiting herbicide broad-spectrum resistant rice lines.
Abstract: A two-year agronomic trait survey was conducted on 179 foxtail millet accessions which are homonyms of the four famous landraces (Qinzhouhuang, Taohuami, Longshanxiaomi and Jinmi), 51 accessions including the four original varieties were selected for nutritional quality analysis. The results showed that the quantitative traits of 179 accessions were significantly different from each other, while the quality traits did not differ much among the varieties. The correlation analysis showed that there are strong correlation between ear diameter and ear weight as well as stalk weight and kernel weight of single ear. Principal component analysis showed that the first four principal components explained 84.51% of the cumulative variation. The composite score F-value was calculated based on the results of principal component analysis, and the highest composite score was obtained for Yintianhan-19 (F=2.25) and the lowest composite score was obtained for Bocaigen-75 (F=-1.33). Cluster analysis based on agronomic traits revealed that the 179 accessions were classified into four clusters with relatively concentrated clustering within homonyms varieties and greater similarity of agronomic traits. The differences in nutritional quality among the four categories of famous foxtail millet were small, and the differences in all nutritional quality indexes except crude fiber were not significant. The correlation analysis revealed that crude protein and crude fat showed a strong positive correlation; starch showed a strong negative correlation with protein and fat. The principal component analysis showed that the first six major components explained 88.41% of the cumulative variation and could basically cover the information of the 10 nutritional qualities. Based on the principal component analysis of nutritional qualities, the top ranked varieties were Bocaigen-77, Bocaigen-33, Bocaigen-44, Papocao-15, Jugenqi-25 and Yintianhan-13, combined with the comprehensive scores of different accessions.
Abstract: Abiotic stress limits plant growth and development, leading to a reduction in crop yield. Plants have developed a series of stress response mechanisms to adapt to abiotic stress during evolution, including the myo-inositol (MI) metabolic pathway. MI is a class of small polar molecules with stable chemical properties. Plants can respond to a variety of abiotic stress by participating in osmoregulatory pathways through accumulating the glycoside derivatives of MI. Myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase (MIPS), inositol monophosphate phosphatase (IMP), and myo-inositol oxygenase (MIOX) are involved in the MI metabolic pathway. They can participate in the synthesis of L-ascorbic acid (L-AsA) and partial cell wall polysaccharides by regulating the content of MI, and ultimately response to abiotic stresses such as salt, drought, alkali, and low temperature. This paper reviewed the research progress of the structure, biological functions of MI, MI metabolic pathway-related enzymes and its derivatives in plants response to abiotic stresses, providing an outlook to its future research directions. The aim of this study is to provide a theoretical basis for enhancing plant resistance to abiotic stresses by utilizing MI metabolism and breeding stress-resistant plant varieties.
Abstract: Through cooperation with the fruit industry authorities of various counties (districts) in Gannan and visits to fruit farmers, the systematic investigation and collection of wild Fortunella Hindsii germplasm resources were carried out in Gannan, and a total of 716 wild Fortunella Hindsii germplasm resources were collected, identified and evaluated. The results showed that the Gannan Fortunella Hindsii was distributed in Anyuan, Longnan, Zhanggong, Chongyi, Yudu, Xinfeng and other counties (districts). The trait statistics showed that there were differences in tree posture, internode length, thorn number, thorn length, leaf length, leaf width, petiole, leaf shape, wing leaf, leaf tip lack of engraving, single fruit weight, fruit surface main-color, fruit surface variegation, seed number, oil cell obviousness, peel thickness 16 personality traits, and further cluster analysis based on those difference traits found that they could be divided into 4 categories and 8 subcategories. Disease resistance identification preliminarily screened a batch of single plants resistant to Citrus Bacterial Canker Disease, Citrus Tatter Leaf Virus, Citrus Exocortis Viroid and Citus Tristeza Virus. According to the needs of citrus industry, thornless, seedless, big-fruit, late-ripening and disease resistant plants were screened, which have clear utilization value for the selection and breeding of new varieties of camellis and the development of citrus industry.
Abstract: Sugars and acids are important components that contribute to the flavor of fruits. In this study, we systematically identified and evaluated the sugar-acid flavor indexes of jujube variety resources, and analyzed the compositional differences in sugar-acid flavor among different resources. Finally, an evaluation system for sugar-acid flavor in jujube fruit were established. The results are of great significance for efficient utilization of resources. A total of 210 jujube varieties fruits at the crisp ripening stage were used as experimental materials. The contents of soluble solids, titrable acids, and sugar components were measured, and correlation analysis was performed. The results were as follows: (1) The coefficient of variation ranged from 9.81% ~ 34.70% for the 10 indexes, with smaller coefficient for soluble solids, sweetness value, and total sugar. Sucrose showed the widest range, with a difference of 83.54 times between the maximum and minimum values. Eight indexes, including fructose, glucose, sucrose, total sugar, titrable acid, sweetness value, solid-acid ratio and sugar-acid ratio, followed a normal distribution, while soluble solid and sweet-acid ratio did not follow a normal distribution. (2) The results of correlation analysis showed that fructose, glucose and sucrose were significantly positive correlated with total sugar content. There was a significant positive correlation between fructose and glucose content. There was a significant positive correlation between total sugar, soluble solid and sweet value. Titrable acid was significanlty negatively correlated with solid-acid ratio, sugar-acid ratio and sweet-acid ratio. The solid-acid ratio, sugar-acid ratio and sweet-acid ratio were significantly positive correlated with each other. (3) Factor analysis extracted three main factors with a cumulative contribution rate of 91.781%. Combined with the cluster analysis of various indexes, five indexes, including fructose, sucrose, soluble solid, titrable acid and solid-acid ratio, were selected to evaluate the sugar-acid flavor of jujube fruit. (4) Based on the five evaluation indexes, cluster analysis divided the 210 jujube varieties into five groups. According to the different indexes profiles, these clusters were defined as low sucrose type, high acid type, fructose dominant type, intermediate type and sucrose dominant type, with the sucrose dominant type containing the largest number of varieties. The evaluation of sugar-acid flavor in jujube fruit can be performed using the five indexes of fructose, sucrose, soluble solid, titrable acid and solid-acid ratio. Sucrose dominant type was the main type of fruits in different varieties. Different types of fruits have different flavors. In production, targeted applications can be developed based on the sugar and acid indexes of different varieties resources.
Abstract: The significant reduction of rural labor forces urgently requires light and simplified production methods. Direct seeding of rice is an efficient and economical cultivation mode, which is urgently needed by modern agricultural production. The low emergence rate caused by hypoxia stress under submerged condition is the primary factor hindering rice direct seeding. Identifying genes for tolerance to hypoxic germination in rice and developing submergence tolerant varieties are effective ways to solve this problem. This article reviewed the physiological characteristics, identification and evaluation methods, genetic analysis, and molecular mechanism of rice germinability under submerged condition. The results would be expected to provide theoretical reference for studying the molecular mechanism of hypoxia-tolerant germination of rice and selecting direct seeding rice varieties.
Abstract: Through field survey in conjugation with specimen classification analysis, We found two newly recorded genera viz. Sauropus Blume and Maesa Forssk of angiosperms in Shaanxi Province, China. The corresponding newly recorded species are Sauropus garrettii Craib and Maesa hupehensis Rehd. In this paper, the background of the two newly recorded genera is briefly introduced, and the morphological characteristics of the two newly recorded species are described in detail. At the same time, the field photos of the two species and the photos of plants, leaves, flowers, and fruits are provided. The discovery of two newly recorded genera and species is not only of great significance to the study of plant distribution in Shaanxi Province but also provides an important reference for the compilation of records of related taxa in this area. The voucher specimens were deposited in herbarium of Shandong Forest and Grass Germplasm Resource Center (SDFGR) and Herebarium of Xi''an Botanical Garden, Shaanxi Province (XBGH) .
Abstract: To provide reference for pear breeding, the genetic law of fruit trait was studied by using F1 generation of 7 cross combinations with ‘Yanbiandaxiangshui’ as female parent through three consecutive years. The results showed that the seven traits of F1 hybrids, including single fruit weight, fruit diameter, fruit length, stalk length, stalk thickness, fruit shape index, and soluble sugar content that all showed a central tendency. Among of them, single fruit weight has a strong genetic tendency towards small fruit; The coefficient of variation of soluble solid contents and fruit shape index was small, the genetic transmissibility and heterosis rate were highs; The inheritance of stalk diameter tended to be medium to low, while the inheritance of stalk length, fruit diameter and fruit length tended to be medium to high;.The studies suggested that background color, sepals, eye basin, flesh texture, juice, and flavor were greatly influenced by the maternal parent; The flesh texture type inherited tend to medium and greatly influenced by male parents , which was same as to aroma;Cover color could be?inherited?in?other?generation. The results provide reference value for studying the genetic laws of pear fruit traits and selecting parents for hybrid breeding.
Abstract: In order to explore the fruit traits related to the fruit cracking of pitaya (Hylocereus spp.), 279 pitaya accessions were used as test materials in this study. Genetic variation analysis, correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis were performed on 13 fruit traits including individual fruit weight, fruit longitudinal diameter, fruit transversal diameter, fruit shape index, fruit navel diameter, fruit navel depth, fruit navel shape index, skin thickness, fruit bract length in fruit navel, number of fruit bracts, fruit edible rate, soluble solid content (SSC) of central pulp, and pulp margin SSC with fruit cracking rate. The results showed that there were abundant genetic variations in 13 fruit traits and fruit cracking rate. The correlation analysis showed that the correlation coefficient between fruit cracking rate and fruit navel shape index was the largest and had a highly significant negative correlation. Fruit cracking rate was negatively correlated with fruit shape index and skin thickness, but positively correlated with edible rate and pulp margin SSC. Further multiple linear regression analysis showed that fruit navel diameter and navel depth were the two most important factors affecting fruit cracking rate, accounting for 39.30% of the variation, while other fruit traits could not significantly affect fruit cracking rate. In conclusion, the morphological structure of the fruit navel is very important to fruit cracking of pitaya, and the fruit navel shape index can be used as a key index in the breeding of cracking tolerance varieties.
Abstract: In this study, 134 maize inbred lines were used as experimental materials to conduct phenotypic identification of 9 root traits at seedling stage of maize, and 44935 SNP markers distributed in maize genome were used to conduct Genome-wide association study (GWAS) based on FarmCPU model. The results showed that the phenotypic variation range of 9 root traits ranged from 10.86% to 55.96%, and the correlation between most phenotypes reached a highly significant level (P<0.001). The correlation coefficient between lateral root length and total root length was the highest, reaching 0.996, followed by the number of lateral roots and total roots reaching 0.993. A total of 32 significantly associated SNP loci were identified (P=1.01e-11-9.74e-5), with phenotypic contribution rates ranging from 0.54% to 22.34%. 4, 8, 3, and 9 significant SNP loci were detected for main root length, total root length, maximum root length, and lateral root length, respectively; 10, 7, and 1 significant SNP loci were detected for total root number, lateral root number, and adventitious root number, respectively; 14 SNP loci are associated with multiple root traits simultaneously. Twelve significant association sites are located within the known QTL (Quantitative trait loci) range of root related traits. A total of 49 root candidate genes were identified, among which GRMZM2G028386 (ABI4), GRMZM2G135713 (PUB23), GRMZM5G870592 (MYB98), GRMZM2G156861 (LOX1), GRMZM2G160005 (AUX16), GRMZM2G126936 (NAC2) and other important root candidate genes were identified. This study provides important reference for cloning genes related to maize root development and analyzing the molecular mechanisms of maize root development.
Abstract: Protein Disulfide Isomerase (PDI), a member of the thioredoxin family, is an oxidoreductase widely exists in animals, plants and microorganisms. In plants, the formation and isomerization of protein disulfide bonds are mainly catalyzed by disulfide bond proteins, which are crucial in participating in the correct assembly and folding of proteins. In this study, based on the gene sequence information of Arabidopsis PDI family genes, 21 PDI genes were identified from maize by homologous sequences alignment method, which were unevenly distributed on the 9 chromosomes of maize. The phylogenetic tree analysis showed that the maize PDI gene family was divided into four evolutionary branches and 11 developmental groups, and the gene structure and conserved motifs of the same development group were similar. The analysis of cis-acting elements showed that the promoters of the PDI gene family contained cis-acting elements that respond to stress, plant hormones and endosperm specific expression. The expression pattern analysis showed that the PDI gene family had a high expression level in embryo, endosperm and grain, and then showed a downward trend after reaching the peak in endosperm 10 and 15 days after pollination, and then showed an upward trend. Subcellular localization found that ZmPDIL1-1 was located in the endoplasmic reticulum. This study provides a reference for the functional analysis of PDI family genes in maize.
Abstract: Soil salinization has a significant negative impact on the yield and quality of soybean. It is one of the effective ways to improve the yield and quality of soybeans under salt stress by breeding salt-tolerant soybean varieties. ERF transcription factors play an important role in plant response to biotic and abiotic stresses, however, there are few relevant studies in soybean. Based on RNA-Seq data under salt stress, 549 Soybean resequencing data and salt tolerance index data that have been reported in our previous study, as well as the soybean tissue expression data in the Soybean Expression Atlas database, the ERF genes that can respond to salt stress in soybean were identified. Meanwhile, the excellent alleles of ERF genes that can respond to salt stress were identified in 549 soybean resequencing data, and the domestication and artificial selection have also been analyzed. U. The transcriptome data of soybean plants under salt stress showed that 40 of 153 ERF genes were differentially expressed after salt stress, among which 11 genes were up-regulated and 29 genes were down-regulated. Among the 11 up-regulated ERF genes, 8 genes were enriched in roots and distributed on 6 chromosomes. The natural allelic variations of 8 ERF genes that mainly expressed in roots, were identified in 549 natural soybean populations. The results showed that only three ERF genes exist natural variations, among which ERF158H1, ERF166H2, ERF170H1 haplotypes were excellent allelic variations, which could significantly promote salt tolerance of soybean. Nucleotide polymorphism analysis of those excellent alleles showed that ERF170H1 was weakly artificially selected during soybean domestication, while ERF158H1 and ERF166H2 were gradually reduced or lost during domestication process. Therefore, Eight ERF genes that may be involved in the response of soybean to salt stress were identified, and three of them were found to have excellent alleles that can significantly promote soybean salt tolerance. Our findings provide a great significance to enrich and improve the molecular mechanism of soybean response to salt stress and breeding programs for salt-tolerant soybean varieties.
Abstract: Sorghum is a type of forage crops with the most potential of saline-tolerance, which is known for its strong tolerance to high level of salt and alkaline. Biomass is an important trait of forage sorghum and plant height is positively correlated with it. In this study, a KASP marker associated to plant height was developed based on the haplotype of two functional SNP loci of gene SbPH11 using an association mapping population including of 237 sorghum inbred lines. The marker was then used to genotype a subset of the association mapping population and other 30 sorghum germplasms resources, and the results confirmed that the KASP marker could accurately identify the two functional SNP loci of SbPH11. There are three haplotypes in SbPH11: SbPH11-Hap1, SbPH11-Hap2 and SbPH11-Hap3, the plant height of sorghum corresponding to SbPH11-Hap2 was significantly higher than that of SbPH11-Hap1 and SbPH11-Hap3, and the plant height of sorghum corresponding to SbPH11-Hap1 was significantly higher than that of SbPH11-Hap3. These results suggested that the KASP marker can efficiently and accurately predict the plant height of different sorghum germplasm resources, and can be applied to early screening and molecular marker-assisted selection in the breeding for sorghum plant height.
Abstract: In order to comprehensively evaluate and analyze the resistance of Hainan common wild rice to leaf blast and ear neck blast, 2002 common wild rice materials from 11 different cities and counties in Hainan Province were artificially inoculated with leaf blast at the seedling stage and identified by natural disease resistance in the field for two consecutive years in 2022 and 2023, and 995 common wild rice materials that had been pumped were artificially inoculated for ear neck blast resistance.The results showed that：Among the 2002 leaf blast identification materials, 494 (24.68%) were artificially inoculated with anti-leaf blast materials，among which 7 were immune and 17 were highly resistant；In the field, 1160 (57.94%) were resistant to leaf plague, of which 24 were immune and 233 were highly resistant；Among the 995 artificial inoculation and identification materials against ear neck plague, 506 were resistant to ear neck plague, accounting for 50.85%, among which 23 were immune and 136 were highly resistant;The results showed that common wild rice in Hainan was generally resistant to leaf blast or ear neck blast. Most of the resistance resources were semi-erect or inclined,and a few were upright or creeping.Materials with high leaf distemper resistance are also generally resistant to ear neck distemper after heading, and materials with high immune or ear neck distemper resistance are also generally resistant to leaf distemper；A total of 128 common wild rice materials with double resistance to leaf blast and ear neck blast were identified and evaluated.This study provided a reference for the study and breeding utilization of rice blast resistance in Hainan wild rice.
Abstract: Abstract: The embryo in high-oil maize is larger and has higher nutritional value. In this study, the embryonic proteome at 15 (G15), 25 (G25) and 35 (G35) days after pollination was isolated by two-dimensional electrophoresis in high-oil maize inbred line GY220, and the isolated proteins were identified by tandem mass spectrometry. The function of differentially expressed proteins were analyzed. The results showed that 41 differential proteins were identified in the three stages after pollination, among which 18 proteins were up-regulated expression and 19 were down-regulated expression by comparing G25 and G15, and 18 proteins upregulation and 25 down-regulation in G35/25, 7 proteins up-regulation and 22 down-regulation in G35/15. GO annotation analysis and KEGG enrichment analysis showed that the differential proteins were mainly enriched in small molecule metabolism, REDOX and carbohydrate metabolism. According to the transcriptomic database of inbred line B73 and RT-PCR analysis of differential protein encoding gene in inbred line GY220 showed that the expression of differential protein, glycerin-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and fructokinase, significantly increased in late embryo development, and they were highly homologous with related genes in soybean, peanut and rape. This study laid a foundation for further improving grain quality and mining functional genes of embryo development in maize.
Abstract: Bulked Segregant Analysisis (BSA) is a method of identifying gene loci through constructing the DNA pools with extreme traits. Because of its "fast, accurate, economical and practical" characteristics, BSA has become a widely used method of gene mapping. With the rise of high-throughput sequencing technology, BSA based on whole-genome resequencing has been widely applied in locating many genes for agronomic traits of grain and oil crops, vegetables, flowers and other species. This study briefly introduced the methods and procedures of BSA, summarized the research progress in genetic mapping of agronomic traits, stress resistance traits and male sterility traits in soybean, and discussed the opportunities and challenges of BSA under the background of NGS, as well as the development trend of BSA in soybean molecular marker assisted selection (MAS) breeding. This study will provide theoretical basis for the cultivation of high quality soybean varieties.
Abstract: Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the fruit color traits of hawthorn germplasm resources via measurements of the chromatism index and anthocyanin content of 51 hawthorn cultivars (Crataegus pinnatifida var. major) that were preserved at the national hawthorn germplasm resource repository (Shenyang). The peel and flesh of these hawthorn resources were initially determined using a colorimeter to identify their chromatism index (L*, a*, and b*), after that the h°, C*, and CIRG (color index of red grape) values were calculated. The content of anthocyanins in the hawthorn peel and flesh was measured using a microplate reader. The relationship between fruit color traits and anthocyanin content in these hawthorn resources was established using correlation analysis, principal component analysis, and cluster analysis. The findings revealed that the anthocyanin content of hawthorn peel was considerably correlated with the CIRG value of the peel, and the anthocyanin content of the flesh, respectively. The a*, C*, and CIRG values of the flesh as well as the CIRG value of the peel were greatly influenced by the anthocyanin content of the hawthorn flesh. 51 hawthorn resources could be divided into four groups based on fruit chromatism index and anthocyanin content. The a* value and anthocyanin content of the flesh were both highest in the first group, while the peel has the lowest a* value and the highest anthocyanin content The a* value and anthocyanin content of the peel were highest and lowest in the second group, respectively, while they are lowest in the flesh. The peel of the third group''s fruit has a medium a* value and a high anthocyanin level, whereas the flesh has a higher a* value and a higher anthocyanin content. The higher a* value and medium anthocyanin content of the peel, and medium a* value and anthocyanin content of the flesh were found in the fourth group. The fourth group contained both the peel''s higher a* value and medium anthocyanin levels as well as the flesh''s medium a* value and anthocyanin content. To provide a reference basis for enhancing the evaluation of hawthorn germplasm resources, this study digitally assigned fruit color trait and assessed the relationship between fruit color traits and its anthocyanin concentration.
Abstract: QTL mapping of germinability under submergence condition and pyramided effect analysis of stable sites were carried out to lay a foundation for fine mapping of QTL for germinability under submergence condition and marker-assisted breeding. Using an F2:3 population with 144 individuals derived from a cross between WR-4 (a weedy rice with strong germinability under submergence condition) and Guangbaixiangzhan (a susceptible indica variety, GBXZ), a high density genetic map with 825 bin markers was constructed based on 1K mGPS SNP chip. As a result, ten QTL conferring tolerance to hypoxia were identified by complete interval mapping (ICIM), which were located on chromosomes 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, and 10, with LOD values ranging from 3.6 to 21.3, explaining phenotypic variation of 3.0%-21.1%. Among them, two major QTL (qGS4-1 and qGS7-1) with high LOD value and high phenotypic variance, were repeatedly detected, and these two loci could be the candidate loci for subsequent gene function studies. According to the genotyping of bin markers, different progenies were divided into WR type and GBXZ type in each QTL interval. Further data processing and analysis were performed to analyze the pyramided effect of QTL. It was found that individuals with more pyramided synergistic alleles showed longer coleoptile under submergence condition. The identified lines with multiple synergistic alleles provide innovative resources for breeding rice cultivars with high germinability under submergence condition.
Abstract: Whirly is a kind of plant specific transcription factor which can combine with single strand DNA molecules, and plays a wide and complex role in the nucleus and organelles.To understand the function and evolutionary relationship of eggplant Whirly genes, bioinformatic analysis were performed to identify and characterize Whirly genes in eggplant genome, including the evolutionary relationship, gene structure, conservative motifs, cis acting elements in promoters. The expression mode of the genes wasalso analyzed in different tissues and under the treatments of exogenous hormone, low temperature and pathogen. The results showed that there were two Whirly gene members in eggplant genome, named SmWHY1 and SmWHY2, which were closely related to the tomato Whirly genes. Their expression can be detected in various tissues. SmWHY1 showed higher expression level than SmWHY2 in leaves, while SmWHY2 showed higher expression level than SmWHY1 in other tissues. The expression of two genes could be induced by abscisic acid, methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, low temperture and pathogen, and the responses varied by gene and/or by treatments .Above results indicated that SmWHY1 and SmWHY2 may played important roles in the regulation of growth, development, and response to stress.
Abstract: Awn is a specialized extension at the tip of lemma or glume of floret in cereal species, consisting of chlorenchyma cells and vascular bundles which support photosynthesis and nutrients transport, respectively. The awns play important roles in plant defense, photosynthesis and grain filling, as well as facilitate the threshed grains embedding in soil and the geminated seedlings come up. Cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) has awn remained during domestication, and various morphological diversifications of the awns have been observed within natural population. Studies on genetical regulation and distribution of the barley awn variants have both theoretical and practical significance. In this study, a barley mutant with hooded awns was identified and genetically attributes to a single dominant mutation; by use of bulked-segregants-analysis (BSA) the mutation was mapped towards the end of short arm of the barley chromosome 4H, with the barley gene HvKNOX3 resides in the interval; a local duplication of 305 bp fragments in the fourth intron of HvKNOX3 co-segregates with the hooded phenotype. HvKNOX3 is a homeobox protein with function in transcriptional regulation, it expressed specifically in young spikelet and the rachis at early development of the inflorescence. Sequence diversity analysis of the HvKNOX3 among 20 representative landraces of the barley pan-genome revealed that the coding sequences are highly conserved while rich amount of variations occurred in its intron or untranslated regions. With a co-dominant marker which captures the 305 bp fragmental duplication, 238 Chinese barley landraces were genotyped and a significant high ratio of the hooded genotype was observed amongst germplasms that collected from Tibet; it provides evidence for the presumption that the hooded awn variant was originated from Himalayan area.
Abstract: Soybean is rich in protein, but soybean Lox and 7S globulin resulting in an unpleasant beany taste and allergenicity of soybean, which also limit people""s consumption of soybean. Therefore, breeding soybean varieties with Lox and 7S globulin deficiency or high 11S/7S ratio can not only improve the nutritional value of soybean,, but also make more people accept soybean products. In this study, the method of soybean protein extraction was optimized, and the protein subunit content of 2713 soybean germplasms was analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The results showed that the year had a significant effect on the content and ratio of 7S and 11S globulin. Among the tested soybean varieties, the 11S/7S ratio of local varieties was higher than that of cultivar varieties. There was a significant negative correlation between 7S and 11S globulin. There was no significant correlation between 7S and 11S globulin, and their subunits with protein and oil content. In addition, this experiment also screened 15 soybean specific germplasm resources, accounting for 0.51 % of the total number of tested soybeans, including 4 materials with 11S/7S ratio greater than 3.0, 5 materials with lox deletion, 1 material with α "" subunit deletion, 2 materials with α subunit deletion, 1 material with low β subunit content, 1 material with 11S/7S ratio higher than 3.0 with lox deletion, and 1 material with 7S subunit deletion. Collectively, this study provided the material basis for quality improvement and processing of soybean products.
Abstract: The Northeast Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region is an important production area of soybeans in China; it is also the location of the genetically modified soybean safety production test field. In order to understand the local wild soybean resources and provide reference for the safe planting of genetically modified soybean,We investigated the general situation of wild soybean populations in 61 discontinuous field plots of lands in Zhalantun, Arun of Hulunbuir and Keyouqian of Xingan League, Northeast Inner Mongolia. The results showed that 54 plots (88.52%) had wild soybean distribution, including three populations types: the pure wild populations, mixed populations of both the wild and semi-wild soybeans, and a population of entirely semi-wild soybeans which was discovered for the first time. Wild soybean populations in these regions were heavily fragmented, mostly small in area, with about 70.4% of the populations less than 1,000 m2 and about 55.6% less than 500 m2. In about 46% of the plots, the frequency of wild soybean samples was above 80%, in about 41% of the plots, the frequency of wild soybean samples was 40%-60%, and in about 13% of the plots, the frequency of wild soybean samples was below 20%. Seeds of 836 single plants were collected from 54 wild soybean populations, and the seed coat color included 6 types of black, bicolor, brown, brown-green, green and yellow-green, and three species of leaf shapes: long oval, oval and lanceolate. The 100-seed weight of wild soybean in this region was relatively small accounting for 84.57% of the types below 1.5g, with an average of 1.19±0.49g. According to the survey results, it is estimated that approximately 17.92%, 29.48%, and 40.10% of the remaining idle lands in Zhalantun, Arun, and Keyouqian may have potential distribution of wild soybeans. This investigation found that a higher level of development in the planting industry will reduce the plant density of natural populations of wild soybeans; the greater the perennial soybean planting area, the higher the probability of the semi wild type appearing in the area. This article also discussed measures for the safe cultivation of genetically modified soybeans in the Northeast Inner Mongolia in the future, as well as for the protection of wild soybean resources.
Abstract: The growth, leaf morphology, chlorophyll synthesis and photosynthetic parameters of diploid and triploid leaves. (2) The total content of chlorophyll, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b synthesized by triploid leaves was higher Passiflora edulis ‘Mantianxing’ were measured and analyzed, respectively. The results showed that: (1) Compared with triploid plants, the triploid plants showed shorter stalk and petiole, narrower leaves and shorter distance between than that of diploid leaves, and the content of carotenoid was no significant
Abstract: This study was to analyze the degree of variation, heterosis and genetic tendency of floral organ traits in hybrid progenies of Camellia oleifera. 322 hybrid progenies and their parents of C. oleifolia were used as experimental materials, and eight quantitative traits including flower transverse diameter, flower longitudinal diameter, petal number, anthers number, stigma dehiscence number, stamens group length, stigma length and pistils length were investigated and measured for genetic variation analysis, test of normality and probability grading, heterosis analysis and cluster analysis. The results showed that: ① The level of variation in 8 floral organs in the progeny group was high. The coefficient of variation ranged from 11.74% to 22.10%, with an average of 16.26%, among which the largest was stigma length (22.10%), followed by stigma dehiscence number (18.75%) and anthers number (18.39%), and the smallest was flower longitudinal diameter (11.74%). ② The K-S normality test and frequency distribution showed that the flower transverse diameter, flower longitudinal diameter, anthers number and stamens group length conformed to the normal distribution; the number of petals, stigma length and pistils length exhibited approximate normal distribution; stigma dehiscence number was positive skewness distribution. The highest proportion of frequency distribution is in class Ⅲ, with an average of 43.05%, and grade Ⅴ accounted for the lowest proportion, with an average of 8.07%. ③ The mid-parent heterosis of floral organs ranged from -28.48% to 5.65%, the over high parent heterosis ranged from -49.29% to -9.12%, and the over low parent heterosis ranged from -18.06% to 29.12%. Except for the over high parent heterosis was all negative which suggested a certain degree of heterosis decline, the other two indicators showed a trend of positive and negative bidirectional distribution, among which the stigma dehiscence number and anthers number were positive in the mid-parent heterosis and the over low parent heterosis, and the advantages were obvious and stable; the stigma length and the pistils length are positive in the over low parent heterosis. The results of relative heritability showed that the male parent was superior than the female parent in number of anthers and stigma dehiscence, and the progenies had a paternal tendency. For the remaining 6 quantitative traits, female parent was more dominant and the progenies had a maternal characteristics. ④ The test materials were divided into three groups by cluster analysis, among which the group Ⅱ had the best comprehensive performance and heterosis utilization value. The genetic variation of hybrid progeny is abundant, The heterosis showed a trend of positive and negative bidirectional distribution, and the heterosis of anthers number, stigma dehiscence number, stigma length and pistils length was significant, which could be used as the selection index. The study layed a good foundation for investigating the phenotypic traits and exploring high-quality new varieties of C. oleifolia.
Abstract: Sweet?potato?stem?nematode?disease (SPSND),?caused?by?the?Ditylenchus destructor Thorne,?is?a?quarantine?disease?that?seriously?affects?the?yield?and?quality?of?sweet?potato.?Identifying?resistance?genes?and?breeding?resistant?varieties?through?molecular?design?is?an?effective?way?to?control?SPSND.?In?this?study,?the?resistant?sweet?potato?variety?''American?Red''?was?used?as?the?male?parent?and?the?susceptible?variety?''Xuzishu8''?as?the?female?parent?to?construct?a?segregating?population?of?274?F1?progenies?through?controlled?pollination?and?sexual?hybridization.?The?F1?progenies?were?evaluated?for?their?resistance?to SPSND?using?an?artificial?inoculation?method.?The?results?showed?that?the?resistance?to?SPSND?was?continuously?distributed?with?a?skewed?peak.?The?relative incidence?volume?ratio?of?SPSND was?significantly?positively?correlated?with?the?expansion?diameter?and?expansion?length,?but?not?correlated?with?the?tuber?diameter,?tuber?length,?and?length-width?ratio,?indicating?that?the?size?and?shape?of?the?tuber?had?no?impact?on?the?resistance?evaluation?results.?The?heritability?of?the?relative?incidence?volume?ratio?of?SPSND?resistance?was?75.7%,?indicating?that?resistance?was?mainly?controlled?by?genetic?factors.?Based?on?the?previously?constructed?sweet?potato?SNP?genetic?map,?QTL?mapping?for?resistance?was?performed,?identifying?10?tightly?linked?QTLs?explaining?6.6%-10.7%?of?the?phenotypic?variation.?The?candidate?gene?functional?annotation?revealed?that?pathways?such?as?phenylpropanoid?biosynthesis,?plant?hormone?signal?transduction,?and?plant-pathogen?interactions?were?involved?in?disease?resistance?stress.?We selected 5 key candidate genes for quantitative expression analysis. The expression level of the candidate gene itf13g19570 was significantly increased after inoculation with stem nematode. The?research?results?provide?important?references?for?the?identification?of?SPSND?resistance?genes?and?the?analysis?of?resistance?mechanisms.
Abstract: Abstract: Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is an important legume crop in China. Southern China is the autumn planting area of faba bean, which mainly produces large-grained fresh faba beans. Therefore, the correlation analysis of the seed size-related traits of the faba bean resources in the autumn planting area was carried out to explore the associated molecular markers, which is helpful for molecular marker-assisted breeding of fresh faba beans. In this study, phenotypes of seed size-related traits of 90 faba bean resources in the autumn planting area were collected in 2019 and 2020, together with 67 pairs of polymorphic SSR markers were used for genotyping, and a total of 278 alleles were amplified. The average allele number was 4.1, and the resource was divided into 3 groups by cluster analysis. Among the 3 groups, accessions with higher values of seed length, seed width and 100-seed weight are mainly distributed in the A group (30/36). Based on the analysis of population structure, the MLM models (Q+K) of tassel software were used to conduct associate studies of seed size-related traits and 67 SSR markers.. A total of 50 significantly associated markers (P<0.01) were detected by mixed linear model (MLM) of TASSEL, of which 29 markers had a P-value less than 0.001. In multiple environments analysis, ICS48 and ICS455 were significantly associated with both grain width and grain weight. According to the association stability and contribution rate, three dominant alleles (ICS48-H1, ICS51-H1 and ICS455-H3) related to seed size were obtained(P<0.0001; r2>18%). This study will contribute to the molecular marker-assisted selection and molecular design breeding of faba bean in autumn planting areas in China.
Abstract: Hemp is an annual herb, a versatile, sustainable crop with little impact on the environment. A variety of biological and abiotic stress-related genes have been discovered and applied to crop improvement in hemp, indicating their agronomic, economic, feed and breeding values. So far, few studies have been conducted on the genetic structure of hemp. In this study, EST-SSR molecular markers were used to analyze the genetic diversity and population structure of hemp, so as to evaluate the genetic differentiation related to functional traits of hemp. The results showed that a total of 113 scoring bands were amplified using 20 pairs of primers, 113 of which were polymorphic (100%). The Shannon information index of 200 individuals ranged from 0.7204 to 2.4625, with an average value of 1.5368. The materials of hemp were grouped into three groups based on population genetic structure, principal coordinate analysis and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) analysis. The results were similar among the clustering methods, but the distribution of the few individual plants was different among the three models. The clustering results, genetic diversity and genetic similarity coefficient showed that the individuals were closely related to each other. The results of this study provide a reference for future breeding, genetic improvement and collection of core germplasm resources of hemp.
Abstract: Based on 220 maize inbred lines, 6 bract related traits were identified by field experiment at two locations in two years. Genetic diversity analysis, principal component analysis, clustering analysis and stepwise regression analysis were used to evaluate bract traits and screen evaluation indicators. The results showed that the genetic variation of bract related traits was abundant, with the coefficient of variation ranged from 13.41% to 51.79%, and the genetic diversity index ranged from 1.71 to 2.08. Principal component analysis simplified the six traits into three principal components, and the cumulative contribution rate was 86.674%. The first principal component was mainly related to the bract mass and the bract length. The second principal component and the third principal component were mainly related to the bract wrapping degree and the bract number,respectively. The comprehensive evaluation D value ranged from 0.161 to 0.728, of which 101314 had the highest D value and 7026B had the lowest. 220 inbred lines were divided into three groups by cluster analysis, among which 62 inbred lines were in group I, with few bract numbers, shorter and narrower bracts, lower bract mass and wrapping degree. Stepwise regression analysis showed that bract length, bract width and wrapping degree could be used as the important indicators for the comprehensive evaluation of bract traits in maize. These results provided a theoretical reference for the selection of bract traits in the breeding of machine harvestable maize varieties.
Abstract: In order to obtain the sequence information of castor salt tolerance genes and explore the differentially expressed genes and related metabolic pathways under salt stress, the true leaves of '' Tongbi 5 '' seedlings treated with salt stress ( 300 mmol/L NaCl ) for 0,12 and 24 h were used as experimental materials. The results showed that a total of 65.05 Gb Clean bases were obtained from 9 samples with 3 time gradients, and Q30 exceeded 93.45 %. The pearson correlation coefficient was greater than 0.8 under the same treatment. The results of differentially expressed gene analysis showed that 4 822 and 3 103 differentially expressed genes were identified at 12 and 24 h of salt stress, respectively, and the number of up-regulated genes was more than that of down-regulated genes. The co-expression pattern clustering analysis of 1 872 differentially expressed genes shared at 12 and 24 h showed that these genes had three expression patterns. KEGG metabolic pathway analysis of differentially expressed genes showed that valine, leucine and isoleucine degradation ( ko00280 ), plant circadian rhythm regulation ( ko04712 ) and starch and sucrose metabolism ( ko00500 ) were significantly enriched in the process of seedling salt stress adaptation. GO functional enrichment analysis showed that a large number of differentially expressed genes were enriched in biological processes, among which the cell process ( GO : 0009987 ) and the response to abiotic stress ( GO : 0009628 ) process enriched the largest number of differentially expressed genes. The heat map of differentially expressed transcription factors showed that a total of 19 transcription factors were found to be involved in the salt stress response of castor beans, among which ERF109 was continuously up-regulated at 0-24 h of salt stress. A total of 42 differentially expressed genes were enriched in the plant hormone signal transduction pathway, of which 97.6 % of the genes were up-regulated at 12 and 24 h, respectively. In addition, DEGs involved in salt stress of castor seedlings were screened, including photosynthesis pathway, antioxidant regulation, Na+, K+ and Ca2+ transport. The results of qRT-PCR proved that the above test results were reliable. In summary, the above results can provide a theoretical basis for salt tolerance gene mining and salt stress adaptation mechanism analysis of castor.
Abstract: Haynaldia villosa is an important genetic resource for wheat genetic improvement. The 2V chromosome in H. villosa carries many excellent genes, such as powdery mildew resistance, glume ridge bristles, photoperiod response, longer spikes and more grains, which are not available in common wheat. However, it lacks sufficient molecular markers to accurately identify the 2V chromatin introgressed into wheat. In order to develop specific molecular markers on chromosome 2V, two sets of primers were designed in this study. One was 30 pairs of sequence-tagged site primers designed based on the expressed sequence tag sequences of different segments of the 2nd chromosome of common wheat, and the other was 296 pairs of intron targeting primers designed based on the homologous comparison between wheat 2D and rye 2R sequencing results. 2 and 33 specific molecular markers on chromosome 2V were developed, accounted for 6.7% and 11.1% of the total primers, respectively, indicating that designing intron targeting primers based on next generation sequencing technology is an efficient method for developing chromosome specific markers. The results further showed that most of the genes on the 2D chromosome of wheat could correspond to the genes on the same segment of the 2V chromosome, but there are some exceptions, indicating that there is a complex collinearity between the 2V chromosome of H. villosa and the 2D chromosome of common wheat. A total of 35 markers were developed and verified in this study, of which lfz8187-1100 was located at 2VS FL0.68-1.00, lfz8387-280, LFZ8452-760 and LFZ8450-200 were located at 2VS FL0.00-0.26, and the other 31 markers were located on 2VL. These molecular markers provide an effective tool for identifying structural variation of 2V chromosome, and also provide a technical support for identifying beneficial genes carried by 2V chromosome of H. villosa introgressed into common wheat.
Abstract: qPh-3D is a major stable quantitative trait loci (QTL) for plant height (PH) in wheat. It could be repeatedly identified in 14 data sets from different environments in the recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from the cross between Kenong 9204 and Jing 411 (denoted as KJ-RILs). qPh-3D was mapped to the chromosomal region of KN3D:515.08-539.08 Mb, with allele reducing PH from parent Jing 411. In this study, we aimed to further characterize the genetic mechanism of PH reduction by qPh-3D, and clarify its genetic effects on yield-related traits using the KJ-RILs population comprised by 187 lines as well as a natural mapping population consisting of 316 breeding varieties (advanced lines). The result of phenotype data analysis based on the KJ-RILs showed that the reduced allele of qPh-3D from Jing 411 could significantly reduce PH by reducing all internode lengths; but it had no significant effect on spike length (SL). Moreover, the allele of qPh-3D from Jing 411 could reduce kernel yield per plant (KYPP) in some degree. Two closely linked markers of qPh-3D, i.e., AX-110160363 and AX-111109273, were selected for further genetic effect analysis on yield-related traits and the selection effect of qPh-3D based on the natural mapping population. The results showed that the reduced allele of qPh-3D had a positive effect on SL, but it had significant negative effect on KYPP. Breeding selection effect analysis of qPh-3D showed that the utilization rate of the reduced allele of qPh-3D was higher in Beijing and Shanxi in China, but lower in Shandong, Qinghai, Sichuan and the foreign countries, and it was also lower in varieties from different ages. With with passage of time, the utilization rate of the increased allele of qPh-3D is increasing. In addition, a closely linked PCR-based InDel marker for qPh-3D were developed. The findings of this study will provide theoretical guidance for future applications of qPh-3D in molecular breeding programs.
Abstract: In order to study the classification and attribution of wild yellow type Medicago ruthenica, and for providing identification and classification basis of this species. The pollen morphological characteristics of wild yellow type M. ruthenica, M. ruthenica and M.falcata were observed and measured, and also compared differences among them. The results showed that both of the pollens in wild yellow type M. ruthenic, M. ruthenica and M. falcata were N3P4C5 type single pollen. The pollen size of the two types of M. ruthenica were similar, which were both smaller than M. falcate. There are significant differences of pollen exine ornamentation among the three forage species. There are waxes distributed on the pollen surface of yellow-flowered M. ruthenica and M. ruthenica, while the pollen surface of M. falcate is lack of wax. The pollen exine ornamentation of yellow type M. ruthenica is mainly foveolate with slight cerebroid. The pollen exine ornamentation of M. ruthenica is generally foveolate, while the pollen exine ornamentation of M.falcata is generally cerebroid. These results showed that the pollen exine ornamentation of yellow type M. ruthenica was similar to M. ruthenica, but significantly different with M.falcata, which could be used as the identification and classification basis for distinguishing M. ruthenica species and different germplasms.
Abstract: The evaluation of macadamia nut fruit quantitative traits is usually based on single fruit weight, seed yield, and kernel yield, and these traits have rich diversity differences. In this study, in order to determine the Macadamia germplasms with the best performance applicable for breeding programs, 100 macadamia germplasms used as experimental materials and a comprehensive evaluation analysis was conducted on 12 fruit quantitative traits through statistics methods such as correlation, cluster analysis, and principal component analysis, etc. The results showed that the coefficient of variation of 12 quantitative traits ranged from 9.66% to 23.62%, with a significant degree of variation in traits of single fruit weight and kernel weight, the coefficient of variation of single fruit weight and kernel weight were 23.62% and 21.20% respectively. On the contrary, the coefficient of variation of fruit transverse diameter and seed emergence rate were the smallest, with 9.66% and 9.70%, respectively. There was a positive correlation relationship between quantitative traits of macadamia, the relevant traits indicate a highly significant positive correlation between single fruit weight and kernel weight, which is the standard for selecting large fruits. however, in breeding program, it is still necessary to consider reducing the two trait indicators of peel thickness and shell thickness. The cluster analysis results divided 100 germplasms into two groups, with group I fruits having poor appearance quality, such as small fruit size, relatively low seed rate and kernel yield rate, belonging to the type of seedling germplasm resources. Group II fruits have good appearance quality, such as large fruit size, high seed rate and kernel yield rate, which meets the market and breeding program demands. Principal component analysis divided 12 quantitative fruit traits into 4 principal components, with a cumulative contribution rate of 79.902%. The Initial Eigenvalues and Cumulative contribution of the first principal component are 4.280 and 35.667%, respectively. The Initial Eigenvalues and Cumulative contribution of the second principal component are 2.421 and 20.177%, respectively. The Initial Eigenvalues and Cumulative contribution of the third principal component are 1.563 and 13.026%, respectively. The Initial Eigenvalues and Cumulative contribution of the fourth principal component are 1.324 11.032%, respectively. The first principal component was associated with the size of the fruit traits, the second principal component was associated with the kernel traits, and the third and fourth principal components were related to the seed and kernel yield of the fruit, respectively. Functional expression analysis was performed to obtain the comprehensive score, followed by final ranking and screening. The comprehensive evaluation score of fruit traits is ranged from -2.333 to 0.983, and the top 10 excellent germplasm with comprehensive traits were selected as following sequence “Pattern”, “SS14”, “Zhuangyuan 1”, “Lincang 47”, “Guire No. 1”, “Nanya 2”, “A4”, “B2”, “Lincang 1”, “Gui 3”. Furthermore, selected “FS3” with the largest single fruit weight, “Guire No. 1” with the heaviest kernel, “Breeding 8” with the highest seed yield, and “A4” with the highest kernel yield, respectively. Some elite germplasms are not reflected in the comprehensive evaluation or individual evaluation, and should be evaluated by the combination of industry standards and new plant variety protection rights. In a word, through these comprehensive evaluation data and selected germplasms, important references are provided for later breeding or hybridization in Macadamia.
Abstract: Improving flower fragrance characteristics through hybrid breeding is an important way of fragrant flower breeding. In this study, Headspace-Solid Phase Microextraction-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) was used to determine the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in blooming flower petals of ‘Mantingfanghua’ and its parents. Comparation analysis of VOCs showed that 25, 36 and 22 volatile organic compounds were identified in blooming petals of ‘Mantingfanghua’, Rosa beggeriana Schrenk and ‘Queen Elizabeth’, respectively. Total 59 components can be divided into 8 compoud classes based on their chemical structures, including: alcohols, terpenes, esters, hydrocarbons, ethers, aldehydes, ketones and acids. ‘Mantingfanghua’ has 10 common components with Rosa beggeriana Schrenk, 13 common components with ‘Queen Elizabeth’, and 2 exclusive compounds. Its VOCs were more similar to the female parent. The total content VOCs of ‘Mantingfanghua’ was 579.70 ng/g, which was lower than that in male parent (13939.42 ng/g) and the female parent (1157.10 ng/g). The contents of terpenoids and benzenoids/phenylpropanoids were lower than their parents, however, contents of sesquiterpenoids were higher than their parents. Meanwhile, the content of fatty acid derivatives was fell in between their parents. Principal component analysis show that β-Cubebene, β-Cadinene, β-Caryophyllene were the main volatile components that may affect the ‘Mantingfanghua’ fragrance. Our study can provide reference for the genetic improvement of rose floral fragrance metabolism, which has important theoretical value and practical significance.
Abstract: Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a devastating disease of wheat, which seriously reduces grain yield and quality. It is an effective way to prevent the damage of FHB by improving the resistance of wheat varieties with resistance genes. In this study, L06486, a wheat line carrying the FHB resistance genes Fhb1, Fhb2, Fhb4 and Fhb5, was used as the donor to cross with the high-yield and widely suitable variety JiMai 24 in Huanghuai wheat area, then the Dwarf wheat line 206A was used to cross with the F1. A large spray facility was used to evenly spray the spore-fluid of scab into the ears of wheat to identify the BC1F3- BC1F6 populations by fog-way inoculation. The resistance of the selected BC1F7 stable lines was evaluated by floret-inoculation method and detected with markers for Fhb1, Fhb2, Fhb4 and Fhb5. The result showed that 106 wheat BC1F7 lines had higher resistance to FHB than the recipient parent JiMai 24. Out of 106 lines, 98 lines were obtained with moderate susceptible or higher resistance level, 105 lines carried 1-4 FHB resistance genes. The detection frequencies of Fhb1, Fhb2, Fhb4 and Fhb5 were 96.23%, 41.51%, 18.87% and 87.74%, respectively. Lines with one QTL or multiple QTLs showed better resistance to FHB than those without QTL. The more resistance genes were carried, the stronger the resistance to FHB. Altogether, these materials will be beneficial to improve FHB resistance of wheat in Huanghuai wheat region in the future.
Abstract: Double haploid technique has been widely used to accelerate plant breeding, and in recent years, maize (Zea mays) lines containing mutations in DUF679 membrane protein (DMP) with an unknown functional domain have been used as haploid inducible lines. This new haploid induction mechanism has been extended to several other plants and is not limited to mono and dicotyledon plants. In order to explore the molecular mechanism and biodiversity of GmDMP gene in soybean, we searched and compared two soybean DMP genes with more than 60% homology with ZmDMP gene in maize through amino acid sequence similarity. Phytozome and other websites and databases were used for bioinformatics analysis, and the polymorphism of DMP gene sequences in soybean germplasm was analyzed in combination with 2000 resequencing databases in the laboratory. The results showed that there were two genes GmDMP1 (Glyma.18G097400) and GmDMP2 (Glyma.18G098300) in soybean with high homology to ZmDMP gene of maize. The total length of the genes was 645bp, and the encoded proteins were stable proteins with homology rate of more than 95%. The two genes were closely related to maize DMP genes, and α helix, extended chain and random curl were the main components of the secondary and tertiary structure of the two genes. GmDMP1 and GmDMP2 genes share the same DUF679 domain, the number of amino acids encoded in the proteins of the two genes is completely consistent with the isoelectric point, and the phosphorylation distribution is only different at one site, which is more likely to be located in the endoplasmic reticulum. Both genes are transmembrane non-secreted hydrophilic proteins. Resequencing data were used to analyze the mutation sites of DMP genes in soybean germplasm. It was found that there were three non-synonymous mutations in GmDMP1 and GmDMP2 genes, consisting of three haplotypes and two haplotypes respectively. Compared with GmDMP2, the three haplotypes of GmDMP1 have been strongly selected during evolution, and the mutation sites of GmDMP1H1 and GmDMP1H2 haplotypes are located in the DUF679 domain. The two DMP genes of soybean may also be used as haploid induction lines after mutation, so as to shorten the breeding life of soybean.
Abstract: The genus Hordeum belongs to the Triticeae tribe of the Poaceae family. The Hordeum species are distributed in wide geographical regions showing diversified local climates, making them as important adapted germplasm resources facing climatic changes. However, the morphological similarity among Hordeum species often complicated their classification on efficiency and accuracy in the survey and germplasm collection. The construction of the retrieving key of Hordeum species and a unique electronic ‘identity card’ for each species will provide an reference for species classification and rapid identification of Hordeum species, valuable in the survey, collection, evaluation and utilization of Hordeum germplasm resources. In this study, 37 genotypes of 32 Hordeum species were grown under greenhouse conditions in 2020 and 2021, in order to investigate 47 qualitative and 15 quantitative traits. Based on photographing important phenotypes and analyzing the subtle differences, each Hordeum species was classified. As a result, a taxonomic key table for the Hordeum species and the electronic ‘identity card’ for each species were achieved.
Abstract: Capsicum spp. belongs to the Solanaceae family. At present, the annual sown area is more than 2 million hm2, accounting for 8%~10% of the total sown area of vegetables in China, which has brought great economic benefits to farmers. It is of great significance to study the genetic diversity of pepper germplasm resources to determine the stability, evolution ability and environmental adaptability of pepper, so as to take scientific and effective protection measures to protect the genetic resources of pepper and cultivate new varieties. In the study of germplasm resources, morphological markers are the most simple, and also the most direct and fast compared with other genetic marker methods. Based on Guidelines of the conduct of tests for distinctness, uniformity and stability—Capsicum, using 47 characteristics as morphological markers, 457 pepper germplasm resources mostly new varieties were analyzed by morphological markers, including quantitative characteristic analysis, characteristic correlation analysis, cluster analysis and multi-year cultivation stability analysis, to study the pepper cultivation characteristics and genetic diversity in China. These 47 characteristics cover the whole growth stage of pepper, including multiple organs or parts of plants, like hypocotyl, stem, leaf blade, flower, immature fruit, mature fruit, placenta, time of beginning of flowering and time of maturity, etc. The analysis of 11 measured quantitative characteristics found that the tested varieties showed the good polymorphism distribution. The coefficient of variation between the varieties was from 23% to 93%. However, the average coefficient of variation within the varieties was less than 20%. The average coefficient of variation within the variety was from 10% to 18%. It is indicated that the tested varieties have relatively consistent expression in the variety and abundant intervariety expression status. The characteristic correlation analysis found a significant correlation among 4 groups of quantitative characteristics. The correlation coefficient from high to low were “Fruit: shape of apex” and “Fruit: shape in longitudinal section”, “Leaf blade: length” and “Leaf blade: width”, “Fruit: weight” and “Fruit: diameter”, “Fruit: diameter” and “Fruit: depth of interloculary grooves”. The cluster analysis can classify 457 varieties into 10 major clusters at a genetic similarity coefficient of 0.52, and most of the varieties are concentrated in three major clusters. The largest group contained 265 varieties, mostly Capsicum annuum L.; the second group of 83 varieties were mostly Chaotian pepper or line pepper; the third group contained 55 varieties, mostly sweet pepper varieties. Interannual stability were analyzed by two-year cultivation experiments. The results showed that the annual performance of the varieties was relatively stable, and the average correlation coefficient was 88.0%. The annual note correlation among single measurement characteristic is better than that of group visual characteristic and group measurement characteristic. The group measurement characteristic has the lowest stability between years. This study using morphological data from 457 pepper new varieties analyzed the cultivation characteristics of these germplasm resources by multi-level comprehensive analysis. Further through the stability analysis between years, this study analyzed the current characteristics of pepper cultivation varieties in China. This study provides the basis for the objective and rigorous evaluation of pepper variety resources and the pepper variety breeding.
Abstract: Dwarf cotton has the characteristics of lodging resistance and suitable for dense planting, which is conducive to shaping cotton ideotype, optimizing population structure, improving photosynthetic productivity and increasing yield per unit area. A plant type development mutant was found in the distant hybrid line N31. After continuous self-crossing for many generations, a stable genetic homozygote was obtained and named df31. Phenotypic identification results showed that df31 exhibited lower values for plant height, branch angle, internode length, and longer growth period than N31. Genetic analysis showed that the mutant phenotype was 1:3 separated from the normal phenotype in the F2 isolated population, which indicated that the short stature mutation was controlled by a recessive single gene. The results of cytological observation showed that compared with N31, the number of parenchyma cells in unit area of petiole and stem of df31 increased, with more vascular bundles and less developed cambium. With the vegetative growth, GA3 and BR in df31 showed an obvious downward trend, IAA content was stable, and the growth rate was slow. In this study, the comprehensive phenotype of dwarf mutant and the genetic basis of dwarf gene were analyzed, and the changes of dwarf mutant were analyzed at the cellular and physiological levels, which laid the foundation for further gene localization and cloning.
Abstract: Anthocyanins and betalains are both natural water-soluble pigments with similar distribution and functions in plants. The former is a phenylalanine-derived pigment, and the latter is a tyrosine-derived pigment that contains the chromophore betalamic acid. Anthocyanins are widely distributed in plants, but in Caryophyllaceae plants, betalains have has replaced anthocyanins. It is worth noting that anthocyanins and betalains have never been found in the same plant at the same time. This mutual exclusion may be caused by accident in evolution, or because the co-existence of two pigments will cause problems for plant survival, this question remains unsolved. This article reviews and discusses the general situation of anthocyanins and betalains, the biosynthetic pathways and their regulation, the cases of artificially induced co-existence of the two pigments, and the possible reasons for the mutual exclusion of the two pigments. In addition, the possible mechanism of the mutual repulsion of the two pigments, the research directions that can be carried out in the future, and the potential application value in molecular breeding are also prospected. It is hoped that through these studies, we can better understand the relationship between anthocyanins and betalains, reveal the reasons for their mutual exclusion, and provide new ideas and methods for research and application in related fields.
Abstract: Rice is one of the most important food crops in China. Dry direct seeding method can effectively improve rice production efficiency and reduce human and resource consumption. Mesocotyl length (ML) is an important trait that affects the emergence and seedling vigor of dry direct seeding rice. It is the most economical and effective way to promote the popularization of dry direct seeding method to explore the genetic loci of mesocotyl elongation and select long mesocotyl varieties. Dry direct seeding has been popularized in Indica rice areas in South Asia and Southeast Asia, but less in Japonica rice areas. A number of candidate genes related to mesocotyl elongation have been found, but their reliability and applicability have yet to be verified. Based on 97 reported candidate genes for mesocotyl elongation, this study carried out candidate genes association analysis in two natural populations of Japonica rice, TROP and TEMP, and have identified four significant candidate genes, each explained 4.7-6.3% and 5.7-6.7% phenotypic genetic variation. Of these, LOC_Os01g44130、LOC_Os03g50560 and LOC_Os05g27790 was significantly in both TROP and TEMP populations, while LOC_Os11g10990 and LOC_Os10g20860 was significant in the TROP and TEMP populations, respectively. The proteins encoded by the above four genes are mainly involved in plant hormone synthesis and metabolism, signal transduction and plant growth process. Six and three superior haplotypes that can be used for molecular marker assisted breeding were further identified in TROP (LOC_Os05g27790-Hap3 and Hap6, LOC_Os03g50560-Hap1, LOC_Os01g44130-Hap1 and LOC_Os11g10990-Hap1 and Hap3) and TEMP (LOC_Os05g27790-Hap6, LOC_Os01g44130-Hap1 and LOC_Os10g20860-Hap5) populations. The significant associated candidate genes and their corresponding superior haplotypes identified in this study can be applied to molecular breeding practice of rice long mesocotyl.
Abstract: Landrace varieties are important parent source in wheat breeding and plays vital roles in the breeding progresses by its outstanding traits. Using allele-specific markers of wheat vernalization genes Vrn-A1, Vrn-B1, Vrn-D1, Vrn-B3 and photoperiod gene Ppd-D1, the allelic distribution of these genes among 445 Gansu landrace wheats was detected, and their relationship with winter-spring growth habits was analyzed in order to use adequately their superior characters in breeding programs. The results showed that (1) the frequencies of the dominant alleles of the four vernalization genes in Gansu landrace wheats were 2.5% (Vrn-A1a), 11.3% (Vrn-B1a), 1.6% (Vrn-B1b), 0.5% (Vrn-B1c), 73.7% (Vrn-D1) and 0.5%（Vrn-B3）, respectively, and the average frequency of the photoperiod-insensitive Ppd-D1a allele was 19.8%; (2) the varieties with different combination of dominant alleles were detected in spring wheat regions except for Vrn-B1a+Vrn-D1. The frequency distribution of dominant vernalization alleles decreased gradually from spring wheat to winter wheat regions, whereas all recessive allele composition at Vrn1 and Vrn-B3 loci increased constantly. The Ppd-D1a was detected in Gansu landrace germplasm from different wheat regions, and its frequency in winter wheat region was much higher than that in spring wheat region, with the highest frequency (35.6%) in Longdong dry land winter wheat area, and the lowest (5.1%) in Taomin high and cold spring wheat region. (3) The consistency of winter-spring character based on the genotypes of vernalization genes detected by molecular markers and vernalization requirement recorded from wheat resource catalogue of Gansu Landrace was judged, in which a lower consistency was observed in winter and strong winter landrace varieties than that in spring and weak winter wheat, while the consistency level decreased gradually for the landrace varieties from the spring wheat to winter wheat regions. (4) Eighty-three spring wheat, 119 weak winter wheat and 82 winter wheat were screened from 445 Gansu landrace varieties, which can be applied in spring wheat region (Central and western Gansu province, high and cold Taomin wheat area) and autumn wheat planting regions with warmer (Longnan Jialing River Upstream and Upper Wei River in South Tianshui) and colder winter (Pingliang, Qingyang Jing River basin, North of Dingxi and Tianshui), respectively. The study can provide a guide for mining excellent traits of landrace varieties in modern wheat breeding.
Abstract: Panicle apical abortion is very general phenotype appeared in rice production, which impairs the number of grains per panicle，the seed setting rate and the yield of single plant, and should be avoided in breeding practice. The dense and erect panicle is a plant type adaptable to dense planting. It is important to isolate and clone the genes related to these two traits for planning molecular design breeding. Here, we present the research result to a rice panicle mutant zhao1, which displays a double mutant phenotype combining dense panicle and panicle apical abortion. Both traits of dense panicle and panicle apical abortion could independently segregate from the F2 population originated from the cross-combination of zhao1 to IRAT129. Genetic analysis shows that the dense and erect panicle trait is controlled by a single dominant gene, while the panicle apical abortion trait may involve no more than two pairs of genes. Linkage analysis and map-based cloning were carried out for these two traits respectively, and DEP1 was found to be the candidate gene for the dense panicle trait in zhao1, with the identity mutation mode as the dep1. The result of linkage and map-based cloning to the trait of panicle apical abortion finally delimited the candidate gene to the range of 6.85-6.93 Mb on chromosome 3, involving 8 putative genes, among them the gene LOC_Os03g12790 showed the most significant decrease in gene expression level, and suggesting the possibility of the candidate gene. Our research lay the foundation for the final cloning of the candidate gene of panicle apical abortion.
Abstract: In order to discover elite local germplasm resources and improve the efficiency of maize breeding in Guangxi, 169 maize landraces from Guangxi were genome-widely genotyped via 10K SNPs in the present study. Genetic diversity and population structure of these landraces were dissected via SNP-based genptyping. The results showed that the average gene diversity and polymorphic information content (PIC) of 5877 screened SNP markers among 169 landraces were 0.37 and 0.30, respectively, exhibiting relatively higher diversity level of maize landraces from Guangxi. Among all landraces, those from Northeastern Guangxi exhibited the highest diversity level (gene diversity =0.39, observed heterozygosity =0.27, minimum allele frequency =0.30, PIC=0.31). Based on the analyzing of population structure and principal components, 169 landraces were divided into two major populations. The genetic relationship and structured assignment among populations were not entirely correlated with geographical originations of all landraces. Besides, all landraces exhibited relatively larger heterozygosity but relatively lower genetic similarity coefficients. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that 2% of genetic variation was detected to be among populations, while the rest 98% was observed within populations. The genetic differentiation coefficient (FST) between populations was 0.049，indicating a relatively low level of genetic differentiation among populations. In summary, results of the present study identified the polymorphism and genetic relationship of maize landraces from different geographical regions of Guangxi, providing a theoretical reference for the improvement of maize germplasm and practical guidance of new variety development in these regions.
Abstract: Chinese woad (Isatis indigotica Fort.) is a traditional Chinese medicinal plant widely used in China, and also provides a germplasm for crop genetic improvement. This paper reviews the progresses in its genomic structure, bioactive compounds and their biosynthesis, and wide hybridizations with other species. Its genome is about 300 Mb and keeps the primitive tPCK karyotype with x=7. From its high quality genome sequencing results, the candidate genes and synthesis pathways of main bioactive compounds are revealed. In its sexual crosses as male with Brassica rapa and B. napus, the non-classical hybrids containing its few chromosomes and fragments are produced, due to the chromosome loss. The somatic hybrids with radish have the chromosome sum of both parents, but give no progenies after selfing and backcrossing. The somatic hybrids with B. rapa ssp. chinensis（L.）P. Hanelt have its duplicated chromosomes and are male fertile. The somatic hybrids with B. napus derive the whole set of rapeseed-woad additional lines, after successive backcrossing with B. napus. Some additions present stronger resistance to many viruses than the woad. The recombinant mitochondria DNA molecule produced during the somatic fusion causes the new cytoplasmic male sterility, and the fertility restoration is realized by the introgression of the gene(s) from one particular chromosome of woad. Finally, these novel additions are discussed in the perspectives for the further study of woad genetics and the utilization of novel vegetable for human and fodder or feed additives for animals.
Abstract: Fragrance volatile organic compounds play key role on exploitation and utilization in ornamental plants. In this study, headspace solid phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography mass spectrometry was used to determine and analyze the volatile organic compounds in five rose petals. Our results showed that 91 VOCs were identified and divided into 9 types: terpenes, alcohols, esters, aldehydes, alkanes, phenols, ketones, ethers, acids. 45 components were detected in Rosa centifolia L. and 0 exclusive compounds; 52 components were detected in R. ‘Morocco’ and 5 exclusive compositions; 40 compounds were detected in R. ‘de Grasse’ and 2 exclusive compositions; 57 compounds were detected in R. ‘Duc de Fitzjames’ and 8 exclusive compositions; 63 compounds were detected in R. × damascena Mill.and 11 exclusive compositions. 2-Phenylethanol, Geraniol, β-Citronellol, Geranyl acetate were the mainly components of five roes petals. R. × damascena Mill. had the highest content of VOCs, reached 3622.68 ng/g, the contents of VOCs in ‘Morocco’, ‘Duc de Fitzjames’, ‘de Grasse’ Rosa centifolia L. were 2507.07 ng/g, 2445.9 ng/g, 1394.54 ng/g, 883.38 ng/g, respectively. Heatmap cluster analysis and cluster analysis showed that R. × damascena Mill. and ‘Duc de Fitzjames’ had the the most similar in compositions, and terpenes VOCs varied greatly in petals of five rose. This research can provide more reference for exploitation and utilization of Rosa genus resources.
Abstract: Broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) is a representative crop in dryland agriculture and has been cultivated for
over 10,000 years. Wild broomcorn millet, widely distributed in fields alongside the cultivated broomcorn millet and in woodland
edges and grasslands across Eurasia, plays a crucial role in studies of broomcorn millet origin and domestication history. This review
summarizes the research progresses achieved in China in germplasm collection and conservation, identification and evaluation, and
genetic diversity analysis of wild broomcorn millet, and in the relationship between the wild broomcorn millet and cultivated
broomcorn millet, and proposes further project development and the core mission of collection, utilization and research of wild
broomcorn millet resources in China.
Abstract: In recent years, facility cultivation in watermelon has become one of the main ways in China, and dwarf germplasm resources have been of interest considering their application for their unique advantages in facility cultivation. Dwarf is one important agronomic trait in modulating plant architecture, and dwarf watermelon varieties are adaptable for high-density planting, mechanizing management and pest control, which can effectively reduce costs and meet the current needs of simplified watermelon cultivation. In this study, 14 dwarf germplasms, which were collected from domestic and foreign countries, were subjected for self-pollination with several generations to obtain homozygous inbred lines. Fourteen dwarf germplasms were subjected for diallel crosses, and F1 hybrids and derived F2 populations were analyzed for plant architecture related agronomic traits. Based on allelic tests for 14 dwarf germplasms, two types (class-I and class-II) on the dwarf phenotype were observed. The dwarf trait in class-I mutants d1, d2, d3 and d6 was controlled by the same recessive gene Cldw1, while the dwarf trait in class-mutants was controlled by another recessive gene Cldf. The F1 hybrid derived from inter-crosses between two classes were observed with long vine, and the segregation ratio of the vine type in F2 population was 9:3:3:1, thus confirming that the dwarf trait in two types of mutants were controlled by two different recessive genes. The analysis of different dwarf germplasm mutants in this study provided better understanding of watermelon dwarf resources, which has implication in breeding for new watermelon dwarf varieties.
Abstract: The allotriploid interspecies (BCC) were obtained by reciprocal crosses between Brassica carinata (2n=4x=BBCC=34) and Chinese kale (2n=2x=CC=18). The interspecies displayed a stronger growth than parents; the plant and flower type tended to parent B. carinata; and the flower color was the same as parent Chinese kale. Meiosis observation of the allotriploid showed that 9 bivalents and 8 univalents (9Ⅱ 8Ⅰ) were formed at diakinesis, and the two kind of chromosomes (B and C) tended to separate into two groups; at metaphaseⅠ, 9 bivalents of CC genome arranged on equatorial plane and 8 univalents of B genome distributed around the equatorial plane ; and at anaphaseⅠ, the distributions of chromosomes with 13/13 or 12/14 were in the majority. The obtain of this allotriploid (BCC) provides an important material for production of CC B alien addition lines and for study of chromosome homology between B and C genome.
Abstract: The project of “investigation of biological resources of agriculture in Yunnan province and its peripheral area”belongs to National Basic Task Program of the Ministry of Science and Technology. The project has passed the acceptance inspection from the Ministry of Science and Technology in May, 2012, after it has been carried out for 5 years. Yunnan and its peripheral area are low latitudes and high altitudes, also the concentrative areas inhabited by minority nationality people, where the species of agricultural crops are quite abundant, so are the biological and genetic diversity, as a result, the wild relatives of agricultural crops are plenty. In this paper, the authors have introduced the wild relatives of food crops, economic crops, vegetable crops and fruit trees collected in Yunnan and its peripheral area in order to provide basic information and scientific evidences for the researches and development, and constituting the national conservation policy of the diversity of wild plants and scientific researches.
Abstract: In this study, we investigated the phenotypic diversity of 18 characters on five main natural populations of Paphiopedilum hirsutissimum that were collected from three provinces Yunnan, Guangxi and Guizhou in China. The statistical methods used included nested variance analysis, coefficient of variation, correlation analysis, principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis. The results revealed significant difference at most phenotypic traits among populations if compared to that within populations. The mean phenotypic differentiation coefficient (VST) was 75.18%, indicating that the population diversity was largely contributed by the variation among populations. The average variation coefficient of the 18 phenotypic traits was variable from 6.36%–18.51%, with a higher degree of dispersion. PCA showed that plant height, length of ovary, scape height, length of maximum leaf, diameter of flower and length of synsepal were the main sources of phenotypic variation. Pearson correlation analysis showed that plant height, width of synsepal and width of dorsal sepal were significantly or extremely significantly positively correlated with the majority of plant traits, whereas only the length of synsepal was extremely significantly correlated with geographic factors. Cluster analysis revealed three groups from the five populations, which could be explained by the geographic distribution. This study found that populations of Paphiopedilum hirsutissimum have high genetic diversity, and the variation between populations is much higher than that within the population. The phenotypic diversity indicates that wild Paphiopedilum hirsutissimum populations should be protected as much as possible. Moreover, it is recommended that germplasm is preserved in nurseries and libraries in addition to in-situ conservation, and that an artificial reproduction system is established enhance our conservation efficiency.
Abstract: The root system architecture (RSA) determines the composition of the root system and plays an irreplaceable role in crop growth and development. It is of great significance to analyze the genetic mechanism of wheat root architecture and the selection of varieties with better RSA traits in breeding for elite wheat varieties. Genome-wide association study (GWAS) is an effective method to analyze the genetic mechanism of complicated quantitative traits (i.e. RSA) in wheat. In the study, GWAS for RSA-related traits(total root length, total root surface area, total root volume, average root diameter and number of root tips) were conducted in 160 wheat accessions from Henan and Shandong, which were previously genotyped by wheat 660K SNP chip. Twenty-three loci associated with RSA related traits were detected from chromosomes 1A, 2A, 2B, 3B, 4A, 5A, 5B, 5D, 6A, 6B and 7B, and each explained the phenotypic variation variable from 7.2% to 12.8%. Among them, eleven loci are found to coincide with the formerly-reported loci, and the remaining 12 loci are newly identified. Taken together, this study is of significance to uncover the genetic structure of the root architecture with a potential in future breeding of high-yield and stress-resistant wheat cultivars.
Abstract: Abstract: tassel is an important reproductive organ of maize and the appearance of different kinds of maize differ in thousands of ways .molecular markers, tightly linked with tassel color, could be screened by genetic analysis and QTL mapping of the color of the maize tassel. these molecular markers can be used as an useful tool for maize variety protection and species identification. Mean while, higher pigment content of anthocyan in purple tassel is closely related to the insect resistance of maize tassel. In this study, a black SDM of maize inbred lines were used as a common male parent and respectively hybrid with the white maize inbred lines of wood and yellow maize inbred line Mo17 to build two F2: 3 groups, respectively named MuS (Mu6 x SDM), and MoS (, Mo17 ?SDM).these two groups were planted in two different environments in Yunnan and Chongqing, then conduct QTL mapping about two traits, the anther color (COAn) and the anther capes color (COCa). The results showed that: the anther color and the anther cape color are both quantitative traits, jointly controlled by major genes and minor genes. Seven QTL related to anther color are detected from the two groups in two different environments. They are located in chromosome 2,3,6 and 10.The QTL within marker interval umc1196a-IDP8526 on the chromosome 10 both expressed in Chongqing and Yunnan, and the contribution rate of the phenotype were 23.17% and 19.98%; nine QTL related to anther cape color are detected from the two groups in two environments, located in chromosome 3, 6, 9 and 10 .Among them, three QTL are environmental insensitive (they express in both two environments and the contribution rate are greater than 10%), which respectively in the marker interval umc1979-umc1796 mmc0523-umc2006 in chromosome 6 and the marker interval umc1196a-umc2043 in the chromosome 10 and the contribution rate of the phenotype ranges from 10.69% to 59.30%. The location and effect of the major QTL detected from these two groups have a high degree of consistency, and the major QTL controlling the two traits of anther color and anther cape color have the phenomenon of chain of distribution, mainly near the marker mmc0523 at bin6.04 and the marker IDP8526 at bin10.04. QTL that located on chromosome 6 and 10, and that are stable in different environments and genetic backgrounds can be regarded as the target sites used for further fine mapping. They can also provide a valuable reference for marker-assisted selection of maize tassel color.
Abstract: Broccoli is an important cruciferous vegetable, it has a good anti-cancer effect, with the expanding cultivation area of broccoli and the developing of anticancer drug, the demand for broccoli seeds are increasing. Using male sterile line to produce F1 generation seeds is an important way to utilize of heterosis, but the cytoplasmic male sterile lines commonly used in production have the problems of the buds death are heavier in the early, nectar volume is less and seeds production are low. Our group makes excellent broccoli inbred lines as male parent. cabbage dominant genic male sterility material 79-399-3 and cytoplasmic male sterile material OguraCMSR3 629 as the infertility sources, we have obtained multiple dominant genic male sterile lines and cytoplasmic male sterile lines of broccoli through backcrossing method, in order to further effectively use of broccoli male sterile lines and search for better infertility sources, The the differences of the bud death numbers, floral organ structure and number of or frequecing bees visiting flowers among dominant genic male sterile（DGMS）lines，cytoplasmic male sterile（CMS）lines and inbred lines of broccoli 8554, 8590 and 93219 were studied. The results showed that the differences of the bud length, bud diameter, death buds of single branch, corolla diameter, stamen length, anther length, petal length, the times of visiting bees, the number of visiting bees and the time of bees staying on the flower between DGMS and CMS of lines 8554, 8590 and 93219 were significant. On As athe whole, above characteristics in DGMS lines were significantly better than CMS lines.
Abstract: Most agronomic charateristics and complex biosynthetic pathways are determined by the coordination of multiple gene expression ,and gene pyramiding molecular breeding combined with conventional breeding techniques have become the main means for the crop breeding.Gene pyramiding molecular breeding includes genetic transformation molecular breeding and marker-assisted selection molecular breeding. The research progress of crop genetic pyramiding molecular breeding in recent were reviewed. The research methods, the countermeasures on the existing problems of gene pyramiding molecular breeding were discussed and the prospects were described as well in this paper.
Abstract: Barbarea vulgaris is an excellent cruciferous plant, particularly being ideal as a model species to study saponin biosynthesis, insect resistance, and coevolution of plants and insect pest. In order to make full use of B. vulgaris germplasm, the genetic diversity was analyzed among the 34 accessions conserved in the national mid-term gene bank for vegetables, based on the phenologic, morphological and insect resistance data from the field investigation. The results showed significant morphological diversity in B. vulgaris germplasm from Europe. Among the 34 accession, BV13-BAR13 bolted earliest, 47 days earlier than the latest bolting material (BV13-BAR9). Most of the B. vulgaris germplasm have glabrous leaves, strong tillering ability and more leaf numbers. The range and coefficient variation (CV) of the plant height, silique length and inflorescence length are the highest among all traits. Only 9 of 34 B. vulgaris are susceptible to the diamondback moth, most accessions are highly resistant to the pest. The clustering analysis showed that 34 accessions can be divided into 3 groups. The resistant and susceptible germplasm were distributed to different groups, reflecting their genetic relationships. Our research will provide useful materials and information for the genetic breeding of insect resistant B. Vulgaris and cruciferae crops.
Abstract: High molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) in the doubling haploids from stable cultivars and the crossing hybrids between different varieties of common wheat were analyzed to explore the possibility of improving the subunit compositions by anther culture and commercial crossing. Double haploids from five wheat genotypes of Alondra, Orofen, Xinchun9, Verry, and Bainong3217 were obtained by anther culture, and different hybrids were made each other from different wheat lines with different HMW-GS constitutions such as Xingchun9, Jing771, CB037, CS, Ningchun4, Bobwhite, and yangmai12 by crossing. Then, SDS-PAGE was used to analyze the populations of the doubling haploids and the crossing hybrids for HMW-GS combinations. The results indicated that frequent variation of HMW-GS happened in the doubled haploids with a rate up to 61.8% in the test genotypes, among which Alondra and Bainong3217 gave higher variation frequency than other three varieties, and several subunits might be new ones which are not present in the corresponding wild types, but need to be identified further. Comparing with the donor lines, the typical double haploids varied in HMW-GS were not changed in main agronomic characteristics such as plant height, growth period, and grain weight. In most F1 hybrids, the expression of all HMW-GS appeared to be co-dominant, but the expression of one or two HMW-GSs was did found to be suppressed in a few F1 crosses. Cytoplasm of female parents was found to have some effect on the expression of very few subunits in a few crosses. At the same time, 2-3 possible new subunits that did not exist in the parents were observed in the two crosses, Ningchun4/CB037 and Jing771/Ningchun4. By continuous self-crossing and tracing of the new subunits, stable lines expressing the putative new subunits were obtained from the two crosses mentioned above. Variation of HMW-GSs constitution or new HMW-GS can be induced by anther culture and normal cross. Co-dominant of HMW-GS expression did not definitely exist in all F1 crosses. Cytoplasm did effect the expression of HMW-GS in some cases. The present study is theoretical and practical valuable for the improvement of wheat processing quality and the further understanding of the genetic and structural features of HMW-GSs encoding genes.
Abstract: China is one of the major origin centres of Vitis species, and has lots of grape species and inherited resource in the world. There are 40 species, 1 subspecies and 13 varieties originated from China. According to the “description standard and data standard for grape (Vitis L.)”, taking a number of character index as a identification parameters, the genetic. diversity of 23 Chinese wild grape species were analysised by identifying botany characteristics and agronomic traits.The results showed that Chinese wild grape had rich diversity in main phenophase, young shoot down, young shoot color, blade shape, blade color, teeth, berry size, skin color, berry flavor, floral organs and so on, with abundant genetic diversity. It can provide reference for classification,evolution and breeding of vitis . It is suggested that “description standard and data standard for grape (Vitis L.)” for further revision and improvement, in order to adapt Chinese wild vitis resource diversity evaluation research.
Abstract: Leaf color is usually determined by the number, structure, and photosynthetic characters of the chloroplast. Isolation of the functional genes in leaf discoloration mutants of the C4 model plant foxtail millet and deciphering their functions is a way to disclose the regulation mechanism of C4 plant chloroplast biogenesis, development and photosynthesis. In this study, a stripe-leaf mutant t122 was identified from the EMS-induced mutant library of the foxtail millet variety Yugu1. The mutant t122 was observed with developmental retardation, and irregular white stripes on leaves. In contrast to the wild type, the significant decrease on the plant height, leaf length, leaf width, main panicle diameter, main panicle weight, and seed setting rate was observed in t122 mutant, whereas an increase on the panicle number per plant was detected. The photosynthetic capacity of t122 was impaired. By the leaf anatomy analysis, no significant difference in the distance between leaf veins, the number of cell layers between vascular bundles, and the cross-sectional cell area of leaves was observed in t122; however, an increased on the leaf cell length was detected. The ultrastructural observation of chloroplasts showed that, in t122 the chloroplasts showing functional structure were only detected in subsets of leaf cells. The segregation analysis suggested that the stripe-leaf trait of t122 was controlled by a single recessive nuclei-encoding gene. Using the method of MutMap, the candidate gene was mapped to the region of 24.0 Mb - 30.0 Mb on chromosome 3. Collectively, these results laid a good foundation for future cloning and functional characterization of the stripe-leaf gene in foxtail millet.
Abstract: Hengduan mountains lie in southwest of China,which is famous by the extending from south to north.There widely distribute wild Dactylis glomerata germplasm resources,which belongs to subspecies glomerata,and subspecies himalayensis.The distribution range of two subspecies is nearly the same,but much difference existed in the morphological characters and phenological development in two subspecies.Through hybridization of subspecies himalayensis and subspecies glomerata in artificial condition,triploid offspring may be obtained.But no definite evidence has been found that hybrid triploid offspring was existed by crossbreeding of two subspecies in natural condition.In recent decade years,many basal studies about the two subspecies have been done in China,but a few were about the protection and utilization.Thinking about the origin,it can be sure that subspecies himalayensis belong to natural origin ecotype,but subspecies glomerata was likely to belong to naturalization species.Because of the competing threat from the subspecies glomerata,it is necessary to reinforce the protection and utilization studies about the subspecies himalayensis.
Abstract: To understand the genus Fragaria resources distributed in the south of Qinling Mountain in Hanzhong City, Shaanxi Province of China, the wild strawberries were surveyed during 2019-2021 (latitude, 32°49′46″ to 33°19′38″; longitude, 106°09′23″ to 106°40′23″). The investigation sites include eight villages of three counties (Mengjiahe Village and Wangjiazhuang Village in Lueyang County; Erliba Village and Dashuya Village in Ningqiang County; Liziba Village, Lijiagou Village, Qiuqiya Village and Toudaohe Village in Mi'an County). A total of 57 wild strawberry accessions were collected in this survey. These accessions were identified and classified into three Fragaria species including Fragaria nilgerrensis Schlect., F. chinensis Lozinsk. and F. pentaphylla Lozinsk. (white-fruited), and two types including F. pentaphylla pink-fruited genotype and F. pentaphylla red-fruited genotype through botanical character observation and ploidy identification. Among them, F. pentaphylla was found to be predominant in population. These wild strawberries were found in the vertical space of 849 - 1352 m above sea level, such as mountains, forests, streams, roadsides, barren fields and rock walls. We provided the characters of the collected Fragaria species in detail, and proposed the suggestions on the protection and utilization of local wild strawberry resources.
Abstract: Cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogea L.) is an important oilseed and economic crop in China. Oleic content and linoleic content of peanut seed add up to 80%. Oleic acid is an important factor that affects physical and chemical stability and nutritional value of peanut oil. Breeding peanut variety with high oleic content is an important breeding objective of peanut quality to promote international competitiveness and meet domestic consumption demand since 2000. Increasing oleic content in peanut significantly improves the nutritional quality. In this paper, we summarize mutants of high oleic peanut, the genetic characteristics of high oleic acid content and analyse pedigree relationship of high oleic acid peanut varieties and developing methods. Our purpose is to improve high oleic breeding of China peanut.
Abstract: Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) widely mediated stress signal transduction, and plays an important role in the control of normal growth of human cells and in the promoting tumor cell development. At present, HSP90 has become forefront projects of cellular immunity, signal transduction and anti-cancer investigation. The physiological function of HSP90 start later in plant than in animal and fungi. Recent researches revealed that plant HSP90 plays an important role in development, environmental stress response and disease resistance. This paper discussed the molecular functions of HSP90, and systematically reviews latest progresses on molecular mechanism of plant HSP90 as well as improvement of plant resistance to facalitate broaden work.
Abstract: Rice blast is one of the main diseases in rice, and improvement of rice blast resistance is of great significance in rice breeding. In this study, we constructed a new restorer line M630-Pi9 by making crosses in the rice variety 9311-Pi9 that carries the broad-spectrum blast resistance gene Pi9 with the excellent rice restorer line M630, followed by backcrossing combined with molecular marker-assisted selection and background detection. No significant difference on agronomic traits and rice quality was observed in M630-Pi9 and its hybrid Huiliangyou 630-Pi9 if relative to M630 and Huiliangyou 630, respectively. By test for rice blast resistance at the seeding stage was conducted in M630-Pi9 and M630 by using a mixture of predominant isolates from Anhui province, M630-Pi9 represented improved resistance than that of M630. Natural inoculation showed that the improved restorer lines and derived hybrids had significantly improved rice blast resistance. Moreover, a metabolomic analysis was conducted in order to identify the metabolites involved in rice blast resistance. 212 metabolites in M630-Pi9 compared with M630 were found, including 155 down-regulated and 57 up-regulated components. The contents of substances annotated for cell wall and alkaloids which have toxic or immunizing effects on the organism are significantly increased and decreased, respectively. The contents of flavonoids involved in adverse biological process have been modified, implying that the rice blast resistance gene Pi9 trade off the invasion of pathogens via possibly regulating the contents of metabolites. Collectively, this work provided an example of deciphering the mechanism of rice blast resistance and producing new germplasm for rice breeding.
Abstract: Ankyrin repeats, as one of the most commonly protein motifs, are involved in diverse protein-protein interactions in various life activities. Based on Snap Bean genome database and bioinformatics method, we obtained Snap Bean ANK family genes and analyzed their molecular biological characteristics. A total of 30 ANK genes were systematically identified from Snap Bean and located on 9 chromosomes. The chromosome 5 has 13 genes, which is more than other chromosomes. Protein structure domain analysis showed that ANK25 still contains a RING domain besides an ANK domain. Ring proteins are mainly involved in gene transcriptional regulation, DNA repair and recombination. The transient expression in Arabidopsis protoplasts displayed that ANK protein mainly contributed in plasma membrane. Expression pattern analysis found that ANK25 is responsive to drought, salt and exogenous ABA. This study provides valuable information regarding the classification and functions of ANK genes in Snap Bean.
Abstract: An economical detection method of simple sequence repeat with tailed primer M13(TP-M13-SSR) was used in genetic diversity analysis of 25 regional apple cultivars . The ranges of gene diversity, PIC and locus heterozygosity on 5 SSR loci were 0.5032～0.8448, 0.3952～0.8268 and 0.4400～0.9600，respectively. UPGMA cluster analysis showed that the apple species were classified into two groups, correlatively with geographic origin and relationship. The method has the advantages of high-throughput, sensitiveness, cost-effectiveness and high accuracy. And it had been used in studies on genetic diversity analysis of apple successfully. In addition, the merits and demerits of the TP-M13- SSR technique as well as the potential of application in analysis of genetic diversity in fruit tree were assessed.
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