中国野生金荞麦种质资源的调查与收集
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1.湖南科技大学生命科学学院;2.四川旅游学院食品学院;3.中国农业科学院作物科学研究所

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国家重点研发计划(2021YFD1200100, 2021YFD1200105)


Investigation and collection of wild Fagopyrum. cymosum germplasm resources in China
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Affiliation:

1.College of Life Science,Hunan University of Science and Technology;2.College of Food Science and Technology,Sichuan Tourism University;3.Institute of Crop Sciences,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences

Fund Project:

National Key R&D Program of China(2021YFD1200100, 2021YFD1200105)

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    摘要:

    金荞麦是我国广泛分布的一类多年生药用草本植物。为了研究我国野生金荞麦的分布特点,探明各地区的资源密度和遗传特性,野生荞麦资源调查队依托第三次全国农作物资源普查与收集行动,系统考察了中国13个省(区),62个县(市、区),共计采集到金荞麦种质资源530份。调查结果表明:我国野生金荞麦资源主要分布在E 90°.44′28″~119°.36′37″,N 24°.59′66″~33°.53′16″,海拔3500 m以下的亚热带季风气候区。金荞麦的群体数量和遗传特征呈现明显的区域差异,形成了西藏东南部高海拔的特殊型集中区,西南地区中低海拔的多样型适生区和长江中下游低海拔的单一型低适生区的分布特点。野生群体中存在诸多优异材料,可在医药、保健、畜牧、观光、育种多个领域中开发利用。该研究在珍稀植物保护、荞麦属的分类进化研究、种质资源的创新利用和作物遗传改良等方面具有重要参考价值。

    Abstract:

    Fagopyrum. cymosum(Trev.)Meisn. is a kind of perennial medicinal herb widely distributed in China. In order to study the distribution characteristics of wild F.cymosum in China and explore the Resource density and genetic characteristics in various regions, the wild buckwheat resource survey team systematically investigated 13 provinces (districts) and 62 counties (cities and districts) in China based on the third national crop resource survey and collection Action, A total of 530 F.cymosum germplasm resources were collected .The survey results show that the wild F.cymosum resources in China are mainly distributed in the subtropical monsoon climate area with an altitude of less than 3500 m, east longitude of 90°.44′28″-119°.36′37″, north latitude of 24°.59′66″-33°.53′16″. The population quantity and genetic characteristics of F.cymosum show obvious regional differences, forming the distribution characteristics of special type concentration area with high altitude in Southeast Tibet, diversified suitable area with low altitude in Southwest China and single low suitable area with low altitude in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. There are many excellent materials in the wild population, which can be developed and utilized in the fields of medicine, health care, animal husbandry, sightseeing and breeding. This study has important reference value in rare plant protection, taxonomic evolution of buckwheat, innovative utilization of germplasm resources and crop genetic improvement.

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  • 收稿日期:2022-01-18
  • 最后修改日期:2022-02-15
  • 录用日期:2022-03-09
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