2018, 19(4):587-597. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20171029001
Abstract:To establish an easy bioassay for evaluating the salt tolerance in potato, four typical genotypes with different life-habits were treated under different NaCl concentrations in MS medium to evaluate the optimum concentration by scoring plant height, total biomass, bud fresh weight and rooting rate. Fifty-two potato materials were stressed by optimum concentration (100 mmol/L). The salt tolerance was carried out by using membership function and cluster analysis. Out of that, two genotypes 'Longshu No. 5' and 'LZ111' were extremely salt tolerant, while 'Qingshu No.9', 'Longshu No.8', 'Zhongshu No.14' and '04P48-3' were extremely salt susceptible. Thus, this research provided an in intro method for screening salt tolerance accessions, and the identified salt-tolerance genotypes become valuable potential for potato breeding.
2018, 19(4):598-611. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20171205003
Abstract:Fusarium head blight (FHB) is an important disease affecting the yield and quality of wheat worldwide. Exploration of elite alleles and development resistant cultivars are considered as the most economical and safety method in controlling the disease. In this study, the resistance to spread of FHB was evaluated using Funo and its 264 derivatives in 5 environments. Genetic diversity, population structure and association analysis were studied based on 52 primers distributed on 19 chromosomes. A total of 19 markers were detected to be significantly associated with FHB scores. Of which, five loci on chromosomes 2B, 2D, 3A, 3B and 5A were identified at least in two of five environments and for average number of disease spikelets (NDS) of the five environments. The Xgwm493 linked to Fhb1 on chromosome 3B, and Xbarc117 closely linked to Fhb5 on the chromosome 5A were detected to be associated with FHB resistance, respectively. The result of calculating phenotypic effects of allelic variation showed that eleven alleles were detected to be associated with FHB resistance and among them, three alleles had reducing effect, with the Xgwm493-180 having the larger effect; seven alleles had improving effect, with the Xbarc117-225 showing the largest effect, and an allele had no effect. It was also found that the NDS was negatively linear correlated with the number of favorable alleles carried by the materials.
2018, 19(4):612-618. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20171228001
Abstract:In order to find out the distribution of germplasm resources in the Tibet autonomous region and to enrich the germplasm,The investigation and collection of germplasm resources of Bromus in south-central Tibet Autonomous Region were initially carried out. The survey collected 9 species of Bromus including Bromus inermis, Bromus japonicus, Bromus tectorum, Bromus sinensis, Bromus gracillimus, Bromus staintonii, Bromus pectinatus, Bromus racemosus and Bromus hodeaceus a total of 71 73 copies. Among them, there are three four new records unrecorded in "Flora of Tibet", namely, Bromus japonicas, Bromus pectinatus, Bromus racemosus and Bromus hodeaceus. Compared with the original national germplasm resources at three libraries collected in Tibet, which is 1 species of 1 copies, which greatly enriched the national forage germplasm resource pool; enlarged the existing recorded species distribution area; It laid the data and material basis for further study of wild forage resources in Tibet autonomous region, and provided raw materials for further domestication and breeding of wild pasture in Qinghai Tibet Plateau.
2018, 19(4):619-626. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20171105001
Abstract:102 SSR markers were used to analyze the genetic diversity of 162 wheat modern varieties in Shanxi. The average allelic variation richness of 102 markers was 3.94, the polymorphic information content (PIC) was between 0-0.810, and the average polymorphism information content was 0.446, indicating that the genetic diversity of wheat cultivars in Shanxi province was rich. Among the varieties analyzed, those registered during 2000-2005 have the highest genetic diversity. Cluster analysis based on the Nei"s genetic distance separated the 162 varieties into three groups, group classification is mainly related to breds and geographical distribution, the third group has the largest genetic difference. By analyzing the markers related to grain numbers, thousand grain weight and chlorophyll content, it was found that the frequency of favorable allelic variation gradually increased with years, indicating the potential in improving yield traits of wheat varieties in Shanxi.
2018, 19(4):627-632. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20171128004
Abstract:The high germination rate at relatively low temperature (HGR-LT) is one of the main factors restricting the development of seedling of direct-seeding rice. It is very important to study the genetic and molecular mechanism of HGR-LT for the breeding of fine varieties in direct-seeding rice. In this research, 140 backcross inbred lines (BILs), derived from a japonica super rice shennong265（SN265）as the recurrent parent and the Dongxiang wild rice ( Oryza wild rice Griff. ) as the donor parent, were used to detect the QTLs for HGR-LT. Total of 10 lines, with HGR-LT and good agronomic traits were selected according to the comprehensive performance under low temperature, providing the basic materials for the improvement of HGR-LT in super rice, SN265. It was found that 4 markers linkage to cold tolerance genes on chromosome 2 (RM324 and RM166), 5 (RM534) and 9 (RM257) with BSA (Bulked Segregate Analysis)．Meanwhile, a total of 15 QTLs were detected on chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 11 by linkage map, which explained 11.48% ~17.72% of the phenotypic variance. The 2 of these 15 QTLs, qGP-2-1 and qGP-2-4 on chromosome 2 were the same with the RM324 and RM166 obtained through the BSA selection, which could be used for molecular marker assisted selection of HGR-LT.
2018, 19(4):633-641. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20180206002
Abstract:Identification and screening of drought resistant germplasm resources are the basis of drought resistant breeding. In this experiment, the 68 germplasm resources of foxtail millet was screened by the method of extreme drought in the whole growth period, and the fuzzy subordinate function method was used to evaluate the drought resistance. The results revealed that under the extreme drought treatment period, the highdrought resistant materials were more vigorous than the non-drought resistant materials at seedling stage, and some of the non-resistant materials appeared "stuck neck drought" phenomenon. The influence of drought stress on panicle length was greater than that of plant height. The results showed that "Jigu 37, Tezao 1, Zhangza 10, Zhangza 11, Zhangza 12" reached the high resistance level, 15 varieties reached the level of medium resistance, 13 materials were weak resistance, and 35 materials were non-resistant.
2018, 19(4):642-656. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20171218002
Abstract:The breeding of foxtail millet in Northeast China has undergron a change from landraces to cultivars, but the changes in specific phenotpic traits are not yet clear. In this study, 120 foxtail millet varieties which contain landraces and cultivars were evaluated through phenotypic identification and diversity analysis of traits in Aohan. Main conclusions are as follows: Varieties with green color of seedling and leaf sheath, panicle of fusiform and loose, yellow color of grain and hulless grain was major typical model of foxtial millet in Northeast China. Compared with the landraces, the cultivated varieties were late maturing, large biomass and high yield. Mainly manifested in the times from seedling emergence to heading, to flowering, and to maturity, and the times from sowing to maturity of the cultivars were extremely significantly longer than those of the landraces (P<0.01). And the diameter of the main stem, the number of leaves and the width of the flag leaf of the cultivars were extremely significantly more than those of the the landraces (P<0.01). And the main panicle weight and the number of seeds in main panicle of the cultivars were extremely significantly more than those of the landraces (P<0.01), grain weight of main panicle and yield of the cultivars were significantly more than those of the landraces (P<0.05). But the 1000-grain weight of the landraces was extremely significantly higher than that of the cultivars (P<0.01). It shows that the yield increasing of the cultivars mainly depends on the increasing of the number of seed in main panicle. Phenotypic genetic diversity analysis found that the rank of average genetic diversity index was that yield traits (2.0063) > the morphological traits (1.9655) > the growth periods (1.7238) > the quality traits (0.6370). The genetic diversity index of glume color, grain color, and hulless grain color of the landraces were significantly higher than that of the cultivars. The genetic diversity index of other traits of the landraces were not very different from that of the cultivars, indicating that the color of grain and hulless grain was becoming more and more consistent in the process of foxtail millet breeding. Based on the standardized data of 30 phenotypic traits, tested materials could divided into two categories, category I was a representative group of early-maturing and low yield varieties, and the color of seedling and hulless grain are all green and yellow, respectively. Category Ⅱ was a representative group of late-maturing and high yield varieties. There is no obvious correlation between the results of clustering and the source of the varieties. According to the phenotypic of the 10 main traits, the varieties with good performance were selected, which could provide reference for the breeding of foxtail millet in Northeast China.
2018, 19(4):657-667. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20171219001
Abstract:To classify the genetic relationships of 105 elite Chinese cabbage breeding materials, 86 pairs of InDel PCR primers were screened based on whole genome sequences. Analysis with software Powermarker identified 189 polymorphic sites. Each primer pair detected 2 to 4 alleles while 82.6% of these primer pairs only detected 2. Each primer pair detected 2 to 4 alleles while 82.6% of these primers pairs only detected 2. The major allele frequency ranged from 0.3277 to 0.9664 with average at 0.6638. The polymorphic information content (PIC) for each primer ranged from 0.0629 to 0.6654 and averaged at 0.3444. The heterozygosity ranged from 0 to 0.1880 and averaged at 0.0511, with 94.2% of primers was lower than 0.1 meaning that the inbred lines were almost pure. The unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means (UPGMA) were used to classify the genetic relationship of inbred lines. The similarity coefficient among these accessions varied from 0.55 to 0.98 and two groups were detected when the similarity coefficient was 0.60. Most of pairing-type and folded-type accessions were clustered into Group 1 and Group 2, respectively. Accessions in Group 2 were further divided into four subgroups when similarity coefficient was 0.63. Four folded-type accessions with known significant heterosis fell into different subgroups or different branches of the same subgroup. Further analysis identified a set of primers suitalbe for detecting hybrid purity of these four accessions. These results provided not only the molecular evidence for heterosis usage but also the theoretical guidelines for high-efficient hybrid combination test in practical.
2018, 19(4):668-675. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20171124001
Abstract:Radish（Raphanus sativus L.） is an important vegetable crop which has undergone significant changes during domestication and has rich variability. The objective of this study is to understand the diversity of R. Sativus germplasm resources conserved in the national mid-term genebank of vegetable germplasm in China for further effective research and utilization. We screened 635 cultivated radish germplasm with representative characteristics from different countries or regions based on preliminary catalog data in the existing database, systematically investigated their 39 phenotypic traits on the upper parts. We carried out diversity analysis, principle component analysis and clustering analysis of 635 R. sativus germplasms according to these 39 morphological characters. Among the 19 qualitative traits, The Shannon-Weiner diversity index of hypocotyl color (1.72) was highest and the Silique setting posture was the least. The variable coefficient (CV) of quantitative traits were from 13.33% to 93.97%, the average variable coefficient was 37.96%.The CV of Distance between blobelets was the highest and the least variability was calyx length; The Shannon-Weiner diversity index (I) of 20 quantitative traits was varied from 1.20 to 2.15 and the average was 1.94. The diversity index of petal width and 1000-seed weight was the highest (2.15), followed by flower width, cotyledon length and petal length, sepal length and cotyledon notch depth. The principle components analysis on 20 quantitative traits indicated that the accumulative contribution of 7 principle components accounted for 72.87 % of total variation. UPGMA clustering analysis elucidated that the 635 radish germplasms could be divided into 5 groups, the group Ⅰ had one accession. Its silique color was purple, the length of the silique (204.70mm) and the proboscis length (122.90mm) was the longest respectively. The group Ⅱ had 4 accessions , the average of Cotyledon length（17.42mm），cotyledon width（23.47mm），cotyledon notch depth（1.39mm），petal length（17.28mm），petal width（5.65mm），flower width （17.68mm) , 6 quantitative traits values were the least in the 5 groups. The group Ⅲ had one accession with purple vein and Petiole Cotyledon width（31.75mm, petiole length of cotyledon（36.62mm），petal length（20.85mm），petal width（7.99mm），calyx length（9.34mm）, flower width（21.72mm）were the highest in the 5 groups. The group Ⅳ had 428 accessions, being classified into 2 subgroup. One subgroup had 50 accessions, mainly being long pod radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. caudatus (L.) L. H. Bailey) and oil radish（Raphanus sativus L. var. Oleiformis Pers）, and another subgroup had 378 accessions among which, 98.94% was the leaf with lobelets. The group Ⅴ had 201 accessions and all of them was leaf without lobelets. The study provideed valuable information for effective identification and utilization of cultivated radish germplasm resources. Key Words: Raphanus sativus L; Germplasm resources; Phenotype; Genetic Diversity
2018, 19(4):676-684. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20171221002
Abstract:To broaden the genetic basis of maize inbred lines and accelerate the integration and utilization of excellent foreign germplasm, SSR molecular markers were used to analyze genetic diversity of 122 maize inbred lines from the United States, Serbia and China. The results showed that a total of 115 alleles were detected by 29 polymorphic SSR markers, with an average of 3.97 alleles per SSR primer pair and with an average polymorphic information content (PIC) of 0.50, revealing high genetic diversity among the inbred lines. The observed heterozygosity (Ho) was only 0.03 indicating that the tested lines have high genetic stability and homozygosity. Among the four groups of American SS, American NSS, Serbs and Chinese inbred lines, the allele number (3.55) and Shannon's information index (0.93) in the American NSS group were the highest and the number of effective alleles (2.37) in the Serbs group was the highest indicating that the groups of American NSS and Serbs have higher genetic diversity than the other two groups. The genetic distances among the four groups ranged from 0.1403 to 0.4695 with being the largest genetic distance between American NSS and Chinese inbred lines and with being relatively smaller (0.1419，0.1403) between American NSS and American SS or Serbs. The genetic consistency of the four groups ranged from 0.7439 to 0.8669. The higher genetic identity among the groups of American NSS, American SS and the Serbs indicated that the genetic exchanges between American and Serbia inbred lines are frequent and their genetic relationship is relatively close. The clustering analysis showed that 122 maize inbred lines could be divided into 9 major groups. Two groups of American SS and NSS were clearly distinguished. The American SS was further divided into 2 subgroups (Ⅰ and Ⅸ). The American NSS was divided into six subgroups (II-VII), while the inbred lines from Serbia are dispersed in the NSS groups. The results of this study provide a reliable basis for the rational utilization of maize inbred lines from the United Statesand and Serbia.
2018, 19(4):685-693. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20171107001
Abstract:Foxtail millet with strong salt resistance and drought resistance was recognized as an important grain crop in North China. It played vital important role in ensuring the food security in arid and poor areas, especially in the adjustment and optimization of agricultural planting structure in saline and alkaline soil which is an important reserve cultivated land resource in China.In present study, 63 accessions of foxtail millet were employed as experimental material, and were cultivated in total nutrient germination medium that exposed to 1.0% salinity regimes for salt stress identification at germination stage. Deionized water without salinity was used as control, and kept in artificial climate incubator(day/night，30℃/20℃，photoperiod 14h/d) . Correlation analysis and principal component analysis were employed to evaluate the role of eight salt tolerance-related indexes. Membership function analysis and cluster analysis were also evaluated to identify the grade of salt tolerance of foxtail millet germplasm. The results showed that: There is wide variation of salt tolerance in foxtail millet germplasm resources. Under 1% concentration of salt, the germination rate, germination index, root length, germinal length, relative germinal length and relative root length of plant were positively correlated with each other, and the relative salt harm rate has a significant negative correlation with the 6 indexes. According to principal component analysis, germination rate percentage, germination index, relative germinal length and relative root length were used as indexes to evaluate salt tolerance of foxtail millet; 63 millet germplasm are divided into extreme salt tolerant germplasm, salt tolerant germplasm, salt sensitive germplasm, extreme salt sensitive germplasm with cluster analysis. Therefore, Fenghonggu, Jinfen 106, Jingu57, Fente11, Jigu 16 was selected as relative salt tolerant germplasm with comprehensive evaluation of membership function score based on Fuzzy Mathematics.
2018, 19(4):694-704. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20171216001
Abstract:Phenotypic evaluation is an essential step in identifying excellent soybean germplasm accessions with high yield, quality seed and resistance to stresses. For better use of soybean germplasm resources in Northeast China, 361 soybean landraces and released cultivars (breeding lines) kindly provided by breeding institutions in Northeast China were tested in an experiment using a blocks in replication design at Daqing Agricultural Academy in 2012-2014. The population was evaluated on thirteen agronomic and seed quality traits. The results are summarized, including: (1) The soybean accessions in Northeast China showed a great variation in Daqing area, with an average of 121 d growth period (ranging in 94 d-134 d), 40.686% protein content (36.66%-45.33%), 20.68% oil content (15.77%-22.90%), 61.36% Total protein& oil content (57.08-65.45%), 17.48 g 100-seed weight (9.69 -28.42 g), 66 cm plant height (33.1- 96.2 cm), 17 nodes on main stem (9.76-24.00), 1.25 branches (0.0-7.4), 1.4 lodging score (1.0-4.0). (2) In Daqing, the best fitted maturity groups are MG 0 and MG I, especially MG I, with the average values of various characters close to the population mean values in Daqing. MG000 - MG00 showed early-maturation and could not make full use of local ecological climate resources, consequently the other traits, such as plant height and yield-related traits were lower than those of MG 0 - MG I groups (20 cm shorter in plant height and 1.2 t/hm2 lower in biomass), even though their seed quality traits were similar to those of MG 0 -MG I. The majority of accessions in MG II and MG III were not fully matured, which led to abnormal performances of many traits. This resulted suggested the objective in soybean breeding for suitable MG (MG 0 –MG I), increased yield and protein content, higher oil content and enhanced stress-tolerance in Daqing area. Furthermore, the materials excellent in the target traits with the variation on maturity were identified and valuable for future breeding in Daqing area.
2018, 19(4):705-712. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20171103001
Abstract:In order to study the origin of common apricot and the phylogenetic relationship of different cultivars group, phylogenetic tree and median-joining network of chloroplast haplotypes were analyzed by using 9 cpSSR primers to detected 58 materials from 9 cultivars groups and used 3 Prunus mume as control. The 22 alleles consisted of 15 haplotypes in 61 materials. H01 (haplotype 01), H02 and H03 which had higher frequency in common apricot were 3 dominant haplotypes. Most of the cultivars groups had dominant haplotypes except for South China cultivars group. The common apricot in Northwest had only 3 dominant haplotypes, while the wild common apricot in the Ili River valley in Xinjiang had only 2 dominant haplotypes but no other haplotype. At the same time, the number of haplotypes detected in the Northeast cultivars group, the South China cultivars group and the Southwest local cultivers were more than that of the main producing areas. The phylogenetic tree of 15 haplotypes showed that all common apricot haplotypes were clustered into 2 major branches. The first branch is based on H01 and H03, while the second branch is based on H02. The dominant haplotypes H01 and H02 were in the center of the median-joining network. The evolution of common apricot chloroplast genome was obviously conserved and there were a few mutations in the chloroplast genome. In the spreading process of the common apricot, the germplasm resource in cultivars groups distant from the center of origin such as South China, Northeast and Southwest cultivars groups had more introgression in chloroplast genome and there were more adaptable mutations in their chloroplast genome.
2018, 19(4):713-721. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20180102003
Abstract:Tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs), localizing on the tonoplast or the vacuole formed body, belong to one subclass of aquaporins and are known to play important roles in plant abiotic stress responses. In the present study, 23 GmTIP genes were identified on the genomic level, using soybean genome database. Chromosomal distribution analyses suggested GmTIP genes were distributed on 17 chromosomes. Protein multiple sequence alignment analyses showed that all GmTIP proteins contained six representative trans-membrane domains (TM1 to TM6) and two conserved NPA (Asp-Pro-Ala box) domains. Protein feature analyses indicated that the number of amino acids of GmTIPs ranged from 237 to 255, the molecular masses ranged from 27.0 to 27.2 KDa and the isoelectronic points ranged from 5.08 to 10.01. Evolutionary relationship analyses showed that GmTIPs were divided into five clades (TIP1 to TIP5), which was consistent with Arabidopsis AtTIPs. And each clade was composed of the homologous TIPs from soybean and Arabidopsis, which may be functionally conserved. Furthermore, the responsiveness of 5 GmTIP candidate genes in response to abiotic stresses (drought and salt) and hormone signals (abscisic acid (ABA) and amino cyclopropane carboxylic acid (ACC)) were investigated using qRT-PCR. The results revealed that these environmental stresses and exogenous hormones could induce the up-regulation or down-regulation of these tested GmTIP genes in leaves or roots. Among them, GmTIP2;6 was most significantly up-regulated in roots after drought or salt treatment. However, for GmTIP2;1, GmTIP2;2 and GmTIP4;1, drought treatment provoked their dramatic down-regulation expression in roots and their dramatic up-regulation expression in leaves . For ACC hormone treatment, GmTIP2;2 was strong up-regulation in roots. These findings will facilitate further study of the functional roles and molecular mechanisms of GmTIP genes during abiotic stress responses and promote the application of GmTIP genes in molecular breeding of vegetable soybean.
2018, 19(4):722-730. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20171219002
Abstract:In this study, the alpha-galacturonosyltransferase (GAUT) family genes in the whole genome of Gossypium barbadense were identified and bioinformatics and the expression analysis during fiber development were carried out. The results showed that a total of 37 GAUT genes were systematically identified from G. barbadense and classified into three subfamilies. They were distributed over 18 chromosomes of G. barbadense and had four conserved motifs. A majority of GAUT protein were located in the cytoplasm. According to the change of the GAUTs expression at different stages of fiber development, they were divided into four expression patterns including high expression pattern of initial stage, high expression pattern of fiber elongation stage, high expression pattern of secondary wall thickening period and low expression pattern in the whole period. GAUT05, GAUT06, GAUT07, GAUT23, GAUT24, GAUT26 might play important roles in fiber development based on the expression of GAUT gene family. These results provide a useful reference for the study of the function of the GAUT gene family in the development of fiber in G. barbadense.
2018, 19(4):731-739. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20180124001
Abstract:The KUP/HAK/KT family gene plays an important role in regulation of potassium accumulation. In this research, we isolated the complete coding sequence of ScHAK9 and investigated the transcriptional levels in ROC22. ScHAK9 gene was composed of 2352 nucleotides that encodes 783 amino acids with 12 predictable transmembrane domains. The deduced protein was predicted to be a basic dewatering protein and localized to the cytoplasmic membrane. The secondary structure consisted of alpha spiral structure, irregular curling structure and extended long chain. ScHAK9 gene showed highly sequence identity with the homologous genes as compared with ZmHAK9 gene(Zea mays L). Real-Time PCR showed that the ScHAK9 gene highly expressed in the leaves, followed by the stem and the root at last. ScHAK9 gene expression was induced under drought stress, and the higher expression decreased after re-watering. Thus, our work provided first insight about ScHAK9, which might play a role in drought stress resistance.
2018, 19(4):740-747. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20180110002
Abstract:Disanthus including one species and one variety, is a small eastern Asian genus of the family Hamamelidaceae. D. cercidifolius , which occurs in Japan and D. cercidifolius var. longipes , which only occurs in south China. D. cercidifolius var. longipes was listed in the Red List of Endangered Plant Species and Second Grade of the List of Wild Plants Under State Protection in China. This species is significant for the study of phylogeny and floristic geography in east Asia. However, the insufficient number of useful SSR molecular markers hinders current genetic research in this species. We performed transcriptome sequencing of samples D. cercidifolius var. Longipes using Illumina HiSeq4000. After assembling of transcriptome sequences, a total of 32325 uni-genes were obtained. There were 13779 SSR loci identified using MISA, and the occurrence frequency of SSR loci was 42.63%. The distribution frequency of SSR was 1/2.95kb. The di-nucleotide repeat motif was the most abundant among different repeat motifs, accounting for 44.10% of the total number of repeat motifs. Mono-nucleotide and tri-nucleotide repeat motifs accounted for 37.90% and 16.71%, respectively. The AG/CT was the most abundant di-nucleotide repeat motifs, while the AAG/CTT was the most abundant tri-nucleotide repeat motif, followed by ATC/ATG, ACC/GGT, and AGC/CTG. 60 pairs of random-selected primers were used to test its availability in the random sample of 8 unrelated individuals from different populations using agarose electrophoresis. 46 pairs primers amplified with clear target bands, while 30 pairs were found to be polymorphic using TP-M13 -SSR technology. The amplifying rate and proportion of polymorphic loci were 76.67% and 65.22%, respectively. The results showed that the polymorphism of SSR loci developed based on the transcriptome sequences is higher. The large number of SSR markers in this study should be used for the study of population genetics and phylogeny of D. cercidifolius var. longipes, and provide the referential method of SSR developing for other species.
2018, 19(4):748-759. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20171221003
Abstract:In order to understand the genetic relationship of Yuetang sugarcane parental lines and improve the use efficiency of this germplasm resource, the genetic diversity and cluster relationships were conducted via determining thirty-five phenotypic traits in 106 Yuetang sugarcane parental lines and 10 major sugarcane varieties. The results indicated a higher genetic diversity in Yuetang sugarcane parents with Shannon's information index 0.782±0.082 and Nei' gene diversity 0.782±0.082. The higher phenotypic variations on leaf width and stem color exposed were observed. The range of genetic similarity was from 388 to 0.829. By cluster analysis based on the genetic similarity, 116 genotypes could be divided into two groups, 6 subgroups or 5 small groups. The genotypes released in the 1980s showed the highest genetic diversity. Seven groups could be clustered into three groups (Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ) and branch Ⅲ only included major sugarcane varieties. Thus, this result could provide a theoretical guidance for selecting cross parents and parental combination.
2018, 19(4):760-768. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20171027002
Abstract:In order to investigate whether fuzzy imported from Australia is imported in Chinese sugarcane breeding, a family trial by using12 families generated from fuzzy imported from Australia and 15 families from domestic fuzzy was conducted. The variance analysis, heritability, general combining ability (GCA) and special combining ability (SCA) of 6 important traits, including cane yield, sugar yield, plant height, stalk diameter, amount of stalks and brix were evaluated. The results indicated that: (1) no significant at more of the major traits among domestic families was detected, and the heritability was low; By contrast, the significant differences were observed among Australia families, and their heritability were much higher; (2) the GCA and SCA of sugar yield, cane yield, height, stalk and brix of Australia families were higher than domestic families for both plant and ratoon crops, but the GCA and SCA of diameter was lower than the domestic, 9 in planting stage and 10 in ratooning stage out of 12 families performed negative SCA,respectively , and most of the progenies performed thin stalks; (3) Australia families outperformed on cane and sugar yields, with an inferior of thin stalk which is not suitable for the cultivation system in China, so they were not recommended for commercial breeding in China;(4) the imported fuzzy could be utilized potentially in breeding via hybridization with domestic parental clones, thus being helpful in enlarging the Chinese sugarcane gene pool and also breeding for elite varieties.
2018, 19(4):769-779. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20171220001
Abstract:Based on transcriptome sequencing of Rosa longicuspis and R. odorata, 23 MLO-likegenes were identified from the transcriptome data and analyzed by using bioinformatical methods. The results showed that between R. longicuspis and R. odorata, the number of amino acids, base pairs and molecular weight of different proteins coded by genes did not vary significantly. Most of the protein were hydrophobicin with the average hydrophilic coefficients of -0.157-0.190. And these protein were rich in leucine and serine. By bioinformatics prediction, the deduced proteins of MLO–like genes were mostly located to the plasma membrane, with 5-9 predicted transmembrane motifs. Of that, the isoelectric point of one protein was less than 7.0, and two proteins contained predicted signal peptides. These 23 MLO proteins had 15 conserved motifs with length varying from 15 to 50 amino acids. The phylogenic analysis revealed that 23 MLO unigenes were highly homologous and conserved. By search for sequence homolog in Arabidopsis thaliana, six genes were identified to be associated with powdery mildew resistance in A. thaliana, two of which resembled the typical structure of MLO genes. qRT-PCR revealed up-regulation of these two genes was up-regulated post powdery mildew inoculation. Thus, this work suggested two MLO-like genes that possibly associated with powdery mildew resistance.
2018, 19(4):780-789. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20171214001
Abstract:Peanut pod rot is a fungal disease worldwide that directly affects the production and quality of peanut. In order to identify resistant germplasm against pod rot for peanut breeding, 116 accessions of peanut, including 77 American and 39 domestic germplasm, were evaluated in a two-year field experiment in this study. The results indicated that an extremely significant difference for peanut injury index was observed among the tested peanut accessions (P<0.01) and a significant difference was also found for injury index between 2016 and 2017 years (P<0.05) via variance analysis. Pod rot resistance of tested peanut accessions could be divided into 5 groups according to the cluster analysis of injury index. There were high resistance (HR), resistance (R), medium resistance (MR), susceptible (S) and high susceptible (HS). The result could be used as a resistance criterion to clearly evaluate the pod rot resistance of peanut. A total of 72 accessions were consistent in pod rot resistance in 2 years evaluation, including 2 highly resistant materials (HR) with average injury indexes of 16.67 and 21.91, and 4 resistant materials (R) with average injury indexes of 34.79, 26.33, 39.98 and 42.37, and 19 medium resistant materials (MR) with injury indexes from 45.19 to 54.67, and 42 susceptibility materials (S) with injury indexes from 60.18 to 74.60, and 5 high susceptibility materials (HS) with average injury indexes of 75.87, 77.83, 78.57, 80.74 and 81.11, respectively. The results could provide reference for evaluation of pod rot resistance and favorable materials for genetic improvement in peanut resistant breeding program.
2018, 19(4):790-806. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20171204003
Abstract:With 36 Japonica rice varieties which widely planted in Heilongjiang in 2017 as materials, based on 16 agronomic and quality traits, 9 principal component factors, such as active accumulated temperature, yield and gel consistency were determined, the discriminant function was clarified and 36 Japonica rice varieties were classified into four groups by using the principal component analysis, the cluster analysis and the discriminant analysis methods. On this basis, 19 parents were classified, the sequence of parental selection was cleared in the future breeding practice and the order was adjacent groups, one group interval and intergroup. 170 rice varieties certified during the recent 12 years in the Heilongjiang were also classified. All these works could provide directly, conveniently and quantitatively reference on parents selection for breeders and researchers. Breeding accuracy could be improve and blindness could be reduce by these methods. In this study, Japonica rice breeding parents in Heilongjiang were classified initially based on agronomic and quality characters which could provide scientific and effective theoretical reference for selection of parents for Japonica rice breeding and classification of species resource groups in cold region.
2018, 19(4):807-814. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20171117001
Abstract:Most of the European maize (Zea mays L.) germplasm has earliness, density-tolerance and resistance to lodging. Introgression of these elite germplasm is an effective approach to broadening the genetic base of Chinese germplasm. By analyzing and summarizing general combining ability effects and heterosis responses among maize populations from the southwest, southeast and northern Europe, 23 elite maize populations were identified, including ten Spain populations, six French populations, two Swiss populations, and five Portugal populations. Based on adaptation improvement and heterosis responses, we suggest that Enano Norte?o/Vasco, EZS22 could be introgressed into Chinese heterotic group A, and Ain, Alegia, Bade, Berrobi, Lazkano, Tuy introgressed into Chinese heterotic group B to form and improve semi-exotic populations or pools, respectively, in order to broaden the Chinese maize germplasm base.
2018, 19(4):815-820. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20171030002
Abstract:Chaling wild rice(O.rufipogon Griff.), an elite rice germplasm resource, which had grown in the harsh environment, retained and obtained many elite traits that are not found in cultivated rice. It can be utilized in genetic improvement of cultivated rice. Excavation and utilization of elite genes from wild rice is the hotspot of rice research nowadays. In this paper, the germplasm resources evaluation as well as the research and application of elite genes such as disease resistance gene, cold resistance gene of Chaling wild rice were systematically reviewed, furthermore, the application potential of it in future rice breeding was discussed, which provides foundation for better using Chaling wild rice.