2017, 18(1):1-9. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.01.001
Abstract:Low temperature seriously affects the growth and distribution of rice.Weedy rice may evolve out new cold tolerance mechanisms in the natural selection process of rice field, which could provide new gene sources to breed cold tolerance cultivars. 75 weedy rice populations and their coexisting cultivars were collected and germination experiments under 8 different treatments were processed, which were with or without breaking dormancy, normal temperature（25℃）or low temperature（15℃）, 7days or 14days , respectively. The results showed the germination ratio of weedy rice was extremely significant correlation with the germination of their coexisting cultivars under the treatment without or with breaking dormancy. Germination ratio of weedy rice with breaking dormancy was significantly or extremely significantly higher than that without breaking dormancy. Whether without or with breaking dormancy ,the results showed that cold tolerance of weedy rice was stronger than coexisting cultivar, which indicated weedy rice might had evolved a novel mechanism of cold tolerance at 15℃. Furthermore, the germination ratio of weedy rice and their coexisting cultivars at 25℃ was significant or extremely significant correlation with latitude, which showed that germination ratio increased and dormancy turned weaker with decreasing latitude.
2017, 18(1):10-18. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.01.002
Abstract:Pea is the third largest legume crops globally, and the demand for peas is increasing in the developing world. In order to understand the genetic diversity of foreign pea genetic resources and improve the efficiency of pea breeding programs in China, nine agronomic traits of 271 foreign peas from 57 countries had been analyzed for genetic diversity by using cluster analysis and principal component analysis. The results demonstrated a high level of genetic diversity among these peas. The genetic diversity index of first fruiting nodes (2.0590) was highest, followed by nods number of the main stem (2.0421). The coefficient variation (CV) of seed weight per plot (64.874%) was highest, followed by 100-seed weight (61.870%). In recent study, the principal components of 7 quantitative traits were analyed, and the results showed that the accumulation indices of the top three principal components was up to 66.022%. Cluster analysis showed that 271 pea accessions were classified into 4 groups. The Group Ⅱ had traits of tall stalks, big seeds and high yield, providing useful resources for hybridization breeding. The resources from the 17 countries of 4 continents showed significant genetic diversity, the genetic diversity index of India was highest. Comprehensive analysis of agronomic traits provided scientific information for effective use of pea genetic resources in pea breeding programs of China.
2017, 18(1):19-31. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.01.003
Abstract:Using automatic DNA analyzer multiple SSR-PCR fluorescent marker detection technology, we analyzed the genetic diversity of 259 maize germplasms and 11 kind of inbred lines through core 50 standard test simple sequence repeat loci which cover whole genome. Among 50 SSRs, the total No. allele was 214 for 270 inbred lines. The average of the gene diversity and PIC was 0.50 and 0.44, respectively. The 270 assays could be divided into 3 groups by UPGMA clustering method. Furthermore, we analysis the numerical value of heterosis group, in order to make clear the application of germplasm resources. The results in this study could provide the genetic basis for improving the efficiency of hybrid breeding.
2017, 18(1):32-39. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.01.004
Abstract:In this study, through the investigation of the 9 city 27 County which in Shanxi Province wild Scutellaria baicalensis growth environment and the climate conditions, found that Scutellaria baicalensis in Shanxi Province have a wide distribution.Scutellaria baicalensis from Shanxi mainly distributed in N34?6'19.78'-N40?4'17.71',E110?0'17.80'-E114?3'13.41'; the altitude between 705 - 1675 m, the most common mainly in 1000 - 1500 m. The average annual rainfall of the growth regional is between 400 to 800 mm, with an average annual temperature of 6.8 to 14 ℃. Community composition is single, most with their growth is low bushes and weeds, Chenopodium album, Rosa xanthina, Herba Taraxaci and some wild pea beans plant; small part with the advantage of the local plants. Among them, the Datong is mainly Stellera chamaejasme, Dracocephalum rupestre Hance; Changzhi mainly have Bupleurum chinese, Herba Taraxaci. Scutellaria baicalensis from Shanxi mainly distributed in the mountainside, some located in the top of the hill, Hill bottom position distribution is extremely rare.Scutellaria baicalensis from Shanxi distributed in semi sunny slope, a small part distributate in sunny slope, shady slope like a little distribution. The ecological environment just like the climate, elevation, rainfall and sunlight and human factors is the main factors which cause the uneven distribution of Scutellaria baicalensis in Shanxi. The results of this study have added the data and information of the Scutellaria baicalensis germplasm resources, and provide the basis for Cultivate good characters, provenance clear cultivars.
2017, 18(1):40-45. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.01.005
Abstract:As a class of endemic upland rice and the favorable food crop of Li and Miao minority people, the upland rice in Hainan was important with economic, social and ecological values. Rice quality traits of 17 Shanlan rice varieties were detected, and difference analysis and correlation analysis and cluster analysis were carried out. The results showed that gelatinization temperature and amylose content of most Shanlan rice varieties were low, which belong to medium gel consistency.The quality of cooking and taste were good. 17 Shanlan rice varieties were divided into 2 categories initially, thereinto 2 varieties were identified as high-quality glutinous rice. Preferable rice quality was found in one unique variety of black grain husk. The results provided reference for variety improvement and breeding utilization of Shanlan upland rice.
2017, 18(1):46-55. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.01.006
Abstract:Wild species of Subsect.Vagintae native to China were involved in the origin of the cultivated tree peonies, so they have extremely important value in conservation of biodiversity and improving varieties of tree peony. Based on field survey and literatures, we investigated the biological characteristics and the natural geographic distribution of wild tree peony species of Subsect.Vagintae at national scale in order to provide reasonable references for protection and utilization of wild tree peony resources. The results show that there are 5 wild species and 1 hybrid species. They are mainly distributed in mountains of Qin-ling and Bashan, the forest of the Loess Plateaus in Shaanxi, Gansu and northwestern Sichuan. Shaanxi province has abundant wild tree peony resources. Meanwhile, the newly records of P. qiui were discovered in shangnan and xunyang county of Shaanxi province. The population characteristics of Subsect.Vagintae were analyzed. Prospect for exploitation and utilization and scientific conservation strategies of wild resources of Subsect.Vagintae were discussed.
2017, 18(1):56-60. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.01.007
Abstract:Rice gall midge harm to southernrice become graduallyserious, so new resistantsources are urgently neededin the breeding.Guangxi local variety GXM-001-2 was used as male parent to hybridize、backcross and selfing with somevarieties and got group of F1、、F2、BC1F1. These varieties include an insect susceptible variety TN1 and carrier lines of known resistance genes W1236 (Gm1), IET2911(Gm2), BG404-1(gm3), OB677(Gm4), ARC5984(Gm5),Duokang1(Gm6).The resistance of parents and hybridize generation to Gall Midge were identified and genetic analysis, The results showed that GXM-001-2 was highly resistant to GM China typeⅡ and Ⅳ,and was all controlled by a dominant gene. The allelism test showed that this dominant gene was non-allelic to Gm1、Gm2、gm3、Gm4、Gm5 or Gm6, It suggested that this gene may be a new rice gall midge resistance gene.
2017, 18(1):61-69. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.01.008
Abstract:Nutrition and taste quality are two main indexes of grain quality of proso millet. Crude protein and fat are importment components of nutrition quality, while lysine and soluble sugar are two main ingredients of taste quality. The contents of crude protein, crude fat, lysine and soluble sugar of Shanxi Province representative 90 proso millet accession were tested and analysed. That proso millet in the differences of nutritional quality and taste quality, select a group of germplasm resources which is good in nutritional quality or taste quality or both, and provide the use in breeding, production and processing. The results showed that the average contents of crude protein, crude fat, lysine and soluble sugar were 11.88%,3.69%, 0.19% and 2.04% respectively. Some superior germplasm were screened out, such as 7 better nutritional quality germplasm with crude protein content and crude fat content more than 13.00%,and 4.00% respectively; 15 better taste quality germplasm with higher lysine content of 0.20% and soluble sugar content of 2.00% and 3 both better nutritional quality and taste quality germplasm with more than 13.00% crude protein content, 4.00%crude fat content, 0.20%lysine and 2.00% soluble sugar. Again at the same time analyzed the nutritional quality and taste quality and relevance of different types of germplasm, shows that nutritional quality of hard proso millet is better than soft proso millet,, taste quality of soft proso millet is better than hard proso millet, red grain germplasm nutritional quality and taste quality is the best, white, brown, multicolor germplasm is in the middle, yellow grain is the worst; Grain shape and nutritional quality and taste is not significantly related to quality. It will Provide reference which high quality character can be used in the future.
2017, 18(1):70-79. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.01.009
Abstract:Heat tolerance was evaluated of for 196 grape accessions from National Grape Resources Repository at Zhengzhou Fruit Research Institute of CAAS were evaluated using the chlorophyll fluorescence parameter Fv/Fm. The results showed that the range of the Fv/Fm was from 0.0792- to 0.6836, displaying varieties differences among the varieties, with the distribution frequency distribution of all heat tolerance Fv/Fm accorded within normal distribution. It represents a and belonged to quantitative trait controlled by multiple genes. Based on sequential clustering method, the grade of grape heat tolerance could be divided into 3 level, which was weak, medium and strong, . and the The corresponding threshold value was were ≤0.3,（0.3, 0.5] and >0.5, respectively. Based on the above evaluation, Forty-eight48 heat-resistant grape accessions were screened out, germplasm including Shuangxixianzhi03, Meilingshan-ciputao1301, Lingyeputao0945 and Hetianlv were screened,. tThe heat tolerance level of Chinese wild grape species were was, in general, higher than that of others Vitis species / varieties. on the whole. The result in from this study would provide valuable insights for breeding heat tolerant grapes and for studying the mechanisms of grape heat resistance.
Abstract:Deep-seeding is an important cultivation way to absorb soil water in arid and semi-arid areas of our country. In this study, we analyzed the physiological and morphological phenotypic characteristics with a deep-seeding tolerant maize germplasm CGJ and a commonly used control Zheng58 as materials under treatments of normal 2 cm-sowing and 20 cm-sowing depth, respectively. The results showed that the main phenotypic characteristic of CGJ was the elongation of sprout mesocotyl under deep-seeding treatment, with a length of 10.68 cm, which was 2.5 times longer than Zheng58. The results of electron microscopy showed that the cells in CGJ mesocotyl were significantly stretched, that was 14 μm longer than Zheng58. CGJ had an earlier germination stage compared with Zheng58. The auxin content in CGJ mesocotyl was increased by 47.72 ng/mL. This result provided phenotypic and physiological information for breeding of deep-seeding tolerant maize.
2017, 18(1):88-93. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.01.011
Abstract:Research on the quality characters of quinoa seed could be useful in quinoa breeding, processing, and consumption. The quality characters of 4 domestic and 56 overseas quinoa accessions were analyzed. The results showed that the average contents of thousand seed weight, ash, protein, starch, fat, crude fiber, total flavones, and total polyphenols in 60 quinoa accessions were 4.23 g, 2.28%, 14.03%, 57.71%, 6.53%, 2.46%, 1.83 mg/g, and 1.49 mg/g, respectively. Domestic quinoa accessions had higher content of ash 3.47%, protein 14.92%, and total polyphenols 1.78 mg/g. Peruvian quinoa accessions had higher content of fat 6.69%, crude fiber 2.66%, and total flavones 2.03 mg/g. American quinoa accessions had higher content of starch 59.91%. Bolivian quinoa accessions had higher content of thousand seed weight 4.32 g. Quinoa with different seed colors showed different quality. Black quinoa had higher content of protein, white and red quinoa had higher content of starch, and red and black quinoa had higher content of crude fiber, total flavones, and total polyphenols.
2017, 18(1):94-105. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.01.012
Abstract:A total of 228 accessions of cassava germplasm were collected from 19 regions of China and abroad. 22 morphological and agronomic characters including 15 descriptive morphological characters of stems and roots, as well as 7 quantitative characters related to yield, were evaluated. The aim of the study was to understand the genetic diversity of the germplasm and provide a theoretical reference for germplasm innovation, as well as introduction and selection of parents for breeding. Results showed that, the frequence and distribution of morphological characters of cassava resources from China and abroad are uniform. The majority are the types of open-branches with three bifurcation, 30 degrees to 45 degrees of branching angle, light-green endothelium, white fleshy roots with rough and brown epidermis, and yellow endothelium. Diversity indexes showed 1.895-2.073 and 0.435-1.889 for quantitative and morphological traits respectively. Broad range of variability from 8.91-44.60% of quantitative characters was observed among the 228 accessions. Root diameter of China resources was significantly higher than that of foreign resources, while dry matter content of the foreign resources was significantly higher than that of China resources, indicated that the root diameter and the dry matter content of domestic and foreign resources has obvious genetic differences. It was possible to choose high yield and good quality varieties from these germplasms. Two step cluster analysis obviously divided the resources into two similatity groups I and II. Group I is composed of open-branch types with medium to large branching angle, irregular population and thick stem, high tubers yield; Group II is composed of compact and upright plant types with small branching angle, regular population, thin stem and high dry matter content in the tuber. Future breeding work should integrate phenotypic differences of the parents into progenies by combination of elite characters to achieve expected objectives in breeding programs.
2017, 18(1):106-111. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.01.013
Abstract:Sixty tea germplasm from Qiannan prefecture were collected to construct DNA fingerprint database by SSR technique. The results showed that 147 alleles were detected with considerable polymorphism by 15 pairs of primers employed in the experimental design.The ranges of expected heterozygosities and polymorphism information content at 15 SSR loci of 60 cultivars were 0.128-0.939 and 0.124-0.927 respectively，with an average of 0.602 and 0.572 respectively.And a total of selected 23 alleles from 5 primers (QNSSR01、QNSSR02、QNSSR04、QNSSR06、QNSSR18、QNSSR23) were used for the DNA fingerprint construction. Sixty cultivars with different SSR fingerprints of each other can serve as the cultivars-specific patterns and as an important basis for cultivars identification.
2017, 18(1):112-116. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.01.014
Abstract:Improving the efficiency of nitrogen absorption in maize has important significance. In consideration of the characteristics of transportation of NO3- in CLC protein family, this study clones the CLC family genes ZmCLCa of maize by homology cloning method. Based on bioinformatics analysis, we find that the protein has a voltage-gated chlorine ion channel structure domain and subcellular localization result shows that the protein is located on the cell membrane. Under 200 mmol/L KNO3 processing conditions, the content of NO3- in transgenic arabidopsis of strain is obviously higher than that in wild arabidopsis. Therefore, ZmCLCa gene likely plays an important role in the process of nitrogen absorption of maize..
2017, 18(1):117-124. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.01.015
Abstract:A plant protoplast system can be used to study transient gene expression, protein subcellular localization, protein-protein interaction and protein activity as well as gene function. The application of heterologous protoplast systems to the expressed proteins may exhibit aberrant trait. To avoid this mistaking, it is necessary to establish and apply the host protoplast systems. In wheat, the PEG-mediated gene protoplast transformation is hampered by the release of nucleases from the protoplasts, which leads to extensive degradation of plasmid DNAs. In this study, in order to get the high efficiency of the wheat protoplast transformation, means including inhibiting the nucleases activity and enlarging the plasmid quantity were used. The results showed that the protoplast transformation efficiency could be improved through double-fold usage of the plasmid quantity and inhibiting the nucleases activity by low transformation temperate. Consequently, the wheat protoplast transformation efficiency was raised to 85 %. Moreover, this wheat protoplast transformation system was used to study the expression protein subcellular localization of 2 wheat disease-related genes. This research has reference value for the future relevant work
2017, 18(1):125-132. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.01.016
Abstract:Tillering angle affects plant population structure, photosynthetic efficiency and morphogenesis, ultimately affects the yield and quality. Studies of tillering angle had rare reports in wheat. For parsing the expression pattern of TaTAC1 and having a preliminary understanding of the molecular genetic mechanism and genetic relationship with the tillering angle,This study used CN16,SM969,Lan2399,SHW-1 as materials and homology-based cloning to separate TaTAC1,using bioinformatics software to analyze the characteristic of TaTAC1 sequence, applying real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR to analyze its expression pattern. In order to investigate the function of TaTAC1,this study used subcellular localization by transient expression of TaTAC1-GFP fusion protein on onion epiderm.The length of TaTAC1 is about 1.1~1.2 kb, including 780 bp complete ORF and 320~370 bp 3 'UTR. ORF encoded 260 amino acids. There were two types of TaTAC1 cDNA sequence. there was a base mutation at No.10 of the cDNA sequence in CN16-2 and SM969-2,which causes to terminate in advance so as to gene expression being block. In addition, there were 6 bases insert “CGCGCG” in 109-115 base location that led to protein β-pleated sheet decreasing. Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR analysis showed that TaTAC1 in leaf sheath, stem had efficient expression of tillering stage, tillering node, leaf and root expression quantity minimum.SPSS20.0 analyzed the gene expression in tillering node of each period and tillering angle had significant positive correlation. Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.677;Other organizations expression quantity and tillering angle had no significant correlation.TaTAC1 had subcellular localization in the cell membrane.TaTAC1 was expressed under different organization in different periods .It expressesd specificity organize time and space. The gene expressed in leaf sheath, stem, tillering node efficiently. Location expression quantity of tillering node was associated with a significant phenotypic and protein in the cell membrane. Thus speculate TaTAC1 had positive regulation with tillering angle at the mRNA level, and it may be involved in auxin polar transport process to change the size of tillering angle.
2017, 18(1):133-138. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.01.016
Abstract:OsERF96 in rice was previously found to upregulated by Xanthomonas Campestris attack, but its role in rice immunity and its expressional regulation remains elusive. In the present study, the transcripts of OsERF96 were analyzed in response to inoculation of Magnaporthe oryzae (M.oryzae) as well as exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA) and Methyl Jasmonate (MeJA). The results showed that the transcripts of OsERF96 were increased at 1-4 day post inoculation (dpi) of M.oryzae compared to that in mock-treated control plants, with the maximum at the 1 dpi. Additionally, the transcripts of OsERF96 were up-regulated steadily in response to exogenous application of SA. The GUS expression driven by OsERF96 promoter was consistently upregulated with inoculation of M.oryzae in transgenic lines. GUS activities are increased with treatment of M.oryzae or exogenous SA. The data collectively showed that OsERF96 could respond not only to Xanthomonas Campestris attack, but also to M.oryzae inoculation and its promoter is pathogen-inductive.
2017, 18(1):139-147. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.01.018
Abstract:long chain fatty acid acyl-CoA synthetase（LACS）plays an important role in fatty acid anabolism an catabolism. Based on seeds transcriptome Unigene sequence of Camellia oleifera named ‘Huashuo’（‘HS’）, cDNA with complete sequence 2114 bp encoded LACS was isolated and cloned from Camellia oleifera seed, designated as CoLACS1 (GeneBank accession number：KJ960228). CoLACS1 had an open reading frame with 2088bp encoding 695 amino acids. sequence analysis demonstrated that the CoLACS1 possessed three blocks, the typical molecular characteristics of LACS, and belonged to LACS family. Phylogenetic analysis showed CoLACS1 is highly conserved and had the similarity( 78 %) with AtLACS7 and the similarity( over 80 % )with LACS6（peroxisomal）of Jatropha curcas, glycine max and Populus trichocarpa et al. The expression vector of pET30a-CoLACS1 was transformed to BL21 ( DE3) bacteria successfully，which was induced by 1 mmol/L IPTG to succeed in expressing the recombinant protein with molecular weight about 76 kD. The gene expression changes by qPCR，which were similar to those of RPKM in transcriptome data，indicate that the CoLACS1 expresses stably in different developmental stage of Camellia oleifera seeds and there was striking relationship between the gene expression of CoLACS1 and the accumulating of lipid in Camellia oleifera seed. The studies provide a theoretical basis for the futher reseach of gene regulating in lipid accumulating and metabolism of Camellia oleifera.
2017, 18(1):148-154. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.01.019
Abstract:The objective of this study is to develop EST-SSR markers for further molecular evaluation of genetic resource for G. sinensis. Based on the transcriptome RNA-seq data from NCBI, a total of 41003 Unigenes were obtained by assembling the RNA-seq data of G. sinensis. The total length, average length and N50 of the Unigenes were 70.4 Mb, 1716 bp and 2533 bp, respectively. 8494 EST-SSR loci were detected in 7009 Unigenes, among which 1200 Unigenes contained two or more SSRs and 369 Unigenes contained compound SSRs. For all EST-SSR loci, 6494 primers were designed and 60 from them were randomly selected to validate their effectiveness. Consequently, 44 primer pairs can amplify target products, among which 17 primer pairs showed polymorphism and most polymorphism markers were identified to be located in UTR region. Furthermore, The PIC value ranged from 0.195 to 0.742, with an average of 0.501. Finally, we validated whether the primers could amplified target products in relatives of G. sinensis, among the 44 effective primers, 32, 31, 23, 24, 7, 40, 25, 18, and 18 primer pairs can amplified target products in G. tricanthos, G. japonica, G. japonica var. velutina, G. japonica var. delavayi, G. fera, G. australis, G. microphylla, Gymnocladus chinensis, Gymnocladus dioica, indicating the high transferability of our developed primers. The result demonstrated that mining EST-SSR loci using transcriptome data is one of the efficient ways for developing molecular markers in tree species, with the advantages of steady ampilification, high polymorphism and high transferability.
2017, 18(1):155-163. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.01.020
Abstract:Dwarf has widely been introduced in maize breeding to foster the ideal plant type and improve lodging resistance and yield. K123d was derived from the inbred line K123 via spontaneous. The main agronomic traits sensitivity to the gibberellins of dwarf mutant K123d and its wild type K123 were compared in this study. F1, BC, F2 obtained by using a maize dwarf mutant K123d as donor parents and three inbred lines K123, 626, K169 as receptor parents were used in this study to analyze the genetic model of plant height of K123d. K169/K123dF2 was conducted as mapping populations and SSR primers were used to locate the dwarf gene d123 in K123d with BSA. Primers designed from sequence information of br-2 were used to the homology-based cloning of d123. The results showed that: Compared with the Wild type, K123d was shorter stalk by 35.59%, lower ear location, shorter internodes, erecter leaves and poor fertility. The dwarf characteristics of K123d was weak sensitivity to gibberellins. In F2 and BC1 populations the segregation ratio of dwarf to normal plants fit the ratio of 3:1 and 1:1 as expected by χ2-test, the dwarf trait was controlled by one recessive gene. The dwarf gene d123 was mapped on the short arm of chromosome one by SSR markers to a region flanked umc1278 and bnlg1564 with distances of 12.8 cM and 7.3 cM, respectively. The physical distance between markers was 4.2Mbp. The homology-based cloning suggested that d123 be different from br-2 by 12 bases varied. Alignment of the br-2-like domain in d123 with that in br-2 revealed the replacement of glutamate by lysine at the fourth exon. Our results demonstrated that dwarf mutant K123d was a br-2 variable type and it has further research and application value.
2017, 18(1):164-170. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.01.021
Abstract:The novel approach we created for in vivo induction of homogeneous autopolyploid (IVIHA) via callus could effectively avoid mixploid formation and rapidly obtain pure polyploid in Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.). In vivo bud regeneration via callus (IVBR) is the basis of successful application of this new approach. Using this approach, the abilities of IVBR of 115 Chinese jujube genotypes and 4 sour jujube (Z. acidojujuba Cheng et Liu), the wild ancestor of Chinese jujube, were evaluated, and 4 genotypes of Chinese jujube were chosen for polyploid induction. The results showed that 94.78% Chinese jujube genotypes and 100% sour jujube genotypes formed calluses, and 80% Chinese jujube genotypes and 100% sour jujube genotypes regenerated buds via callus. The callus formation ratio differed with genotypes, ranged from 0%-100%, averaged of 76.48% with variation coefficient of 37%; Based on callus formation ratio the tested genotypes were classified into 5 groups, i.e., genotypes easy for callus formation, genotypes less easy for callus formation, genotypes less difficult for callus formation, genotypes difficult for callus formation and genotypes with no callus formation. The bud regeneration rate (average bud number per branch cross section) was also significantly different (0-10.33) among genotypes with average of 1.84, and thereby the tested genotypes were divided into 5 groups according to their bud regeneration rate. There is no significant co-relationship between callus formation ratio and bud regeneration rate, in other words, genotypes with high callus formation ratios not always have high bud regeneration rates. With the IVIHA approach (combining in vivo bud regeneration via callus with colchicines inducement), pure tetraploid germplasms of 3 Chinese jujube genotypes (Leling 1, Ningxiachangzao, Yunchengpopozao) and 1 pure triploid germplasm (Mopanzao) were firstly created.