Abstract:Based on the approaches of ethnobotany and taxonomy, the traditional medicinal market of the Dragon-boat Festival in Bijie region, a city in Guizhou province, Southwest China, was investigated and reported. The medicinal plants collected and sold by the local people were diverse. More than 250 medicinal plant species were interviewed and recorded bye five times, in which 131 species belonging to 55 families and 121 genera were identified by taxonomists. An inventory of 131 medicinal plants was documented in the present paper, including names (eg. local name if available), part used, uses and prepared methods. Suggestions for sustainable development of the traditional medicinal market in Bijie were proposed.
Abstract:To find out the resource distribution of Chimonanthus praecox, provide important reference for the local government in formulating economic development planning, protecting and reasonable development of plant resources, and scientific research, this study investigated the wild resources of Chimonanthus praecox in Wanyuan Sichuan Province. The results showed that the wild Chimonanthus praecox in Wanyuan were well preserved, widely dispersed and relatively concentrated over the area with the bad extremely habitat. The preliminary investigation showed that there were 33 variant types, which were relatively abundant. The accompanying plants were mainly shrubs and grasses, and the protection and utilization were initially proposed based on the exploitation and protection status, development and application prospect of wild Chimonanthus praecox in Wanyuan.
Abstract:A total of 601 accessions of representative on-farm conservation rice landraces from 15 prefectures of Yunnan in two different periods (1980 and 2007, respectively) were cellected to dissect the phenotypic variation and the Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H′) difference. Totally, thirteen agronomic traits were phenotyped in Xishuangbanna Yunnan and Sanya Hainan, i.e. days to heading, plant height, panicle length, panicle number per plant, spikelet number per panicle, seed setting rate, 1000-grain weight, grain length, grain width, ratio of length to width for grain, panicle exsertion, flag leaf length and flag leaf width. Days to heading, plant height, spikelet number per panicle, grain width, ratio of length to width for grain and panicle exsertion showed significant or even highly significant difference between the two periods. In addition, days to heading, spikelet number per panicle, and ratio of length to width for grain of population collected from 2007 (named G2 population) were higher than that from 1980 (named G1 population). By contrast, the means of plant height, grain width, and panicle exsertion from G2 population were higher. In these two planting places,, the coefficient of variations (CV) of the two populations showed non-significant difference, while the diversity index H′ showed significant difference in Yunnan. In both planting places, the average H′ of different prefectures or cities showed non-significant difference between G1 and G2. In the two subpopulations collected from these two periods, the H′ (1.845/1.867) in 2007 was higher than in 1980 (1.791/1.830) in indica subpopulation, while it was higher in 1980 (1.898/1.888) than in 2007 (1.875/1.835) in japonica subpopulation. Japonica subpopulation was of higher H′ than indica subpopulation in both periods and planting places. All these results indicated that the phenotypic variation of on-farm conservation rice landrace varieties in 2007 was similar to in 1980. However, days to heading, spikelet number per panicle, and ratio of length to width for grain went up, while plant height, panicle exsertion went down. in addition,, the phenotypic diversity tended to be increasing.
Abstract:In this paper, the research progress was summarized based on collection，preservation ，identification and evaluation of rice germplasm in Shanghai.It also summarized the rearch of rice important physiological functions genes and utlization of rice resources.It will be a guide in germplasm resource researching.
Abstract:In order to provide theoretical basis on useing of foreign restore resources in rice breeding.73 rice restorers resources which were collected in Asia, the test in two environments include Sichuan province Deyang and Luzhou. Principal component and cluster analysis were conducted based on agronomic traits such as plant height,tillers per plant,1000-grain weight,biomass per plant,grain yield per plant,seed setting rate,filled spikelets per panicle,spikelets per panicle,grain yield per daily,harvest index.The results showed that the 11 agronomic traits were composed of 5 independent principal component,wich include grain yield factor,biomass fator,tiller factor ,grain weight factor.4 principal components could present 87.640%(Deyang) and 88.861%（Luzhou）information of the raw data. Through cluster analysis baised on 4 principal components ,73 rice restorers resources were cluster 4 group in two environments.In Ⅰ group, which 60.71% of the restorers resources from China , that characters of clusterⅠ were heavy grain weight, heighter plant height , better yield. In Ⅱ group, which 45.45% of the restorers resources from India , that characters of clusterⅡ were light grain weight, better grain yield and harvest index. Three clusters had obvious feature ,cluster analysis result were Generally agree with local origin. Key words: Asia; Restorers Lines; agronomic traits; Principal Component Analysis ;Cluster Analysis.
Abstract:Two generations(BC4F3 and BC4F3:4) of chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs), which were derived from a cross of CCRI45 (Gossypium hirsutum L. ) as the recipient parent and Hai 1 (Gossypium barbadense L.) as the donor parent, were used to evaluate the phenotypic traits related to fiber yield and quality . The results showed that the average value of all traits in two generations were near to those of recurrent parent CCRI 45, but there were still abundant genetic variation among the individuals, and some of them had better yield and fiber quality than CCRI45, in which 20lines showed stability for fiber length with above 30.00 mm and fiber strength with above 31.0 cN/tex. These CSSLs with excellent trait genes from G. barbadense could further be used for cotton quality breeding.
Abstract:In order to study the affinity differences of hybrid cassava between different parents, respectively, South China 5, South China 6 and South China 7 were as the materials, to conduct reciprocal cross, then fertility rates was calculated between different combinations. The proteins from stigma after fertilization were also analyzed, due to exploring the regulation mechanisms of stigma influence on hybridization affinity. The results showed that: fertility rates in SC5 (♀)× SC7 (♂) was highest, 26.22%, while SC7(♀) × SC5(♂) was lowest, 11.13%. By two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry analysis of pollinated stigma protein changes in female parent SC5 and SC7, 27 differential expression proteins were identified in which 19 were up-regulated, these differentially expressed proteins involved in carbon metabolism and energy metabolism, molecular chaperone and amino acid metabolism, while 8 protein spots were down-regulated, its involved in protein synthesis and hydrocyanic acid metabolism. It indicated that these metabolic processes were related with high affinity of cassava.
Abstract:SRAP and SSR analysis were performed on 20 main black sesame cultivars released in China with 23 pairs of primers for analyzing genetic diversity. The results showed that: A total of 672 DNA bands were amplified by 23 pairs of SRAP primers, with 152 of them were polymorphic, resulting polymorphic ratio of 22.26%, and the total and polymorphic bands amplified by every primer pair averaged 29.21 and 6.61, respectively. In SSR, 92 DNA bands were amplified by 23 polymorphic primer pairs, each primer amplified 3-6 total bands and 1-5 polymorphic bands, the average was 4.00 and 3.09, respectively, and the degree of polymorphic bands was 77.17% averagely. Genetic similarity and genetic distance of 20 black sesame cultivars were 0.8547-0.9804 and 0.0159-0.0921, indicating limited genetic diversity and narrow genetic basis. The clustering results showed that 11 cultivars from main producing area Jiangxi were obviously clustered together, and the genetic similarity of Jiangxi black sesame cultivars was higher than that of the cultivars in other provinces, with the genetic distance lower than other province and the differences of them all reached a very significant level. Strengthening the introduction and utilization of germplasm is an urgent need for broadening the genetic basis of black sesame cultivars in China.
Abstract:The 13 agronomic characters of the 65 Coix germplasm resources collected were studied the principal component analysis and cluster analysis in this paper. The results showed that the main agronomic characters could be reduced to the 6 principal components of leaf width, plant height, stem diameter, total bract surface characteristics, total bract texture, total bract color, fructification type and 100-grain weight. And the 65 germplasm resources could be divided into three groups. The first group including 15 materials had the best comprehensive characteristic for the highest height and the largest 100-grain weight. The study on recent collection of Yunnan Coix plant resources evaluation of diversity, and provides a theoretical basis for the use of Coix germplasm heterosis and parent selection.
Abstract:Ipomoea batatas（L.)Lam, is an important food crop which can be used as an industry material, a new energy resource and forage crop in the world. The main method of sweet potato breeding has commonly been selecting excellent materials from sexual reproduction F1 generation. In order to optimize the sweet potato’s hybrid breeding methods so as to match reasonable hybrid combinations and improve breeding efficiency,in this experiment, hybrid groups of sweet potato were studied based on SSR markers and 13 angronomic traits,and the cluster diagrams of the groups were gotten.High-yield strains were selected through this experiment. From cross group of SSR markers’ clustering analysis results, the distance between group materials and parents was far, group materials were clustered in three classes ,while parents gathered in another kind. The cluster analyses based on 13 angronomic traits of sweet potato hybrid groups herded parents with some group materials together,then its variation of genetic distance was up to 30% when group materials and parents were taken as a whole, which was far higher than that of SSR markers.
Abstract:Using molecular markers to analyze genetic diversity become an important method, because they can reflect genetic variance on DNA level. Research advance of sorghum genetic diversity analysis based on molecular markers were summarized, and their application in germplasm enhancement were also identified. Futhermore, suggestions for futher research on genetic diversity analysis of sorghum were put forward.
Abstract:In order to improve the efficiency of utilizing Salvia splendens germplasm resources, the phenotypic genetic diversity was evaluated based on 20 quantitative traits and 5 qualitative traits of 20 major varieties in China. The results indicated that the phenotypic genetic diversity was abundant in Salvia splendens cultivars and there was high variation among 20 accessions in phenotypic traits．The total variation degree and abundance in phenotypic traits of exotic varieties was similar to that of domestic varieties. Shannon-Weaver diversity index of 25 phenotypic traits ranged from 0.23 to 1.97, and in quantitative traits it was higher for main stem diameter, crown diameter, petiole length, flowering time and internode length, while in qualitative traits it was higher for leaf bubble protuberant degree, petiole color intensity. Five principal components were screened using PCA based on the variance cumulative contribution rate of 83.96%, which could reflect the integral phenotype of Salvia splendens. The Euclidean distance among all the 20 accessions varied from 2.26 to 12.72, with average about 7.0. The 20 accessions could be classified into two groups clustered by UPGMA based on the Euclidean distance at about 8.5：the high plant group and the dwarf plant group. The former included only 1 variety (Gouhuo) and the later included 19 cultivars which could be further divided into 4 sub-groups at the Euclidean distance about 7.2.
Abstract:Sepal is an important part of flower and fruit in tomato, which affect the commodity quality of fruit. Based on 40 tomato accessions of different types, we investigate the developmental process of sepal, indexes which can describe sepal morphology and diversity of sepal morphology. The results show, morphology of tomato sepals, which are called persistent calyx, changes during development of flower and fruit. The sepal development process was subdivided into 7 stages: close, slightly open, fully open, close again, open again, morphological change, final morphology. The final morphology divided into five types : flat spread, upwarp, upright, up-curl and down-wrap. The coefficient of variation of 7 sepal traits are crimpness (SEC, 84.43%), surface area (SESA, 45.54%), upwarp degree(SEUD, 40.93%), shape coefficient (SESC, 36.05%), length (SEL, 35.02%), thickness (SET, 29.46%) and width (SEW, 24.61%) from high to low. Correlation analysis reveals, significantly positive correlation is found among the SEL, SEW, SET and SESA; significantly positive correlation is showed between SESC(SEL/SEW) and SEL, but not between SESC and SEW; the correlation between SEC and SEUD is significantly positive, but there are not significant correlations between these 2 traits and other 5 traits. The PCA shows that the first 3 PCs can represent the 7 traits, the cumulative contribution rate of PC1 (size traits), PC2 (shape traits) and PC3 (morphology traits) add up to 87.5%. 5 types of sepal morphology are described with the morphological indexes.
Abstract:The research studied 13 wine grapes which were first introduced from America to Beijing in botanical characters, the quality of their berries, cold hardiness and disease resistance. We compared the data among American wine grapes, traditional Vitis vinifera wine grapes and rootstock grapes. The results showed their differences. Our study selected the well behaved America wine grapes and provided important theoretical basis for cultivation of American wine grapes in China.
Abstract:The members of Rho family of small GTP-binding proteins isolated from plant species form a plant-specific one designated Rop (Rho-related proteins of plant）family. They play important roles in regulating plant development, stress tolerance and defense responses. In this study, a full-length cDNA encoding a Rop protein was isolated from the cDNA library of the near-isogenic line (Taichung29*6／Yr5) of wheat stripe rust resistance gene Yr5 using homologous cloning method, and it was designated TaRop2（Triticum aestivum Rop2). It contained a 591-bp open reading frame encoding a 197-amino-acid protein, whose molecular weight is about 21.52 kDa with isoeletric point (pI) 9.49. It was confirmed that TaRop2 were mainly distributed in the nuclei and on the membrane in tobacco epidermal cells through subcellular localization experiment. By RT-PCR expression analyses, TaRop2 expression level was increased after salt treatment or inoculation with incompatible race of stripe rust pathogen and compatible mixed powdery mildew strains, but was suppressed by treatments of drought, heat, cold and ABA. Based on these results, we proposed that TaRop2 may be involved in regulation of wheat development, defence and stress responses.
Abstract:Fruit firmness is considered as essential trait for tomato fruit quality and ranks as second important of the tomato evaluation index after fruits flavor. In this study, by using the introgression line （IL）population derived from S. pennellii LA0716, the firmness of tomato were measured in three part of the red mature fruits including fruit shoulder, mid-part and pedicel through puncture test. Our results indicated that there is a significant correlation among different parts of the fruits for the firmness. Based on the genetic map of the introgression line, five QTLs named qF-p-1, qF-p-2, qF-p-3, qF-p-4 and qF-p-11 for increasing the fruit firmness were located on Chromosome 1, 2, 3, 4 and 11 respectively. In addition, two QTLs（qS-p-4 and qS-p-10）for reducing the firmness of tomato fruit were located on Chromosome 4 and 12. Among these QTLs, qF-p-4 accounted for the highest firm variation and qS-p-10 accounted for the highest soft variation. Compared with the firmness QTLs that previously identified from other wild tomato species, we found that most of the QTLs were co-localized on the tomato chromosomes. It indicated that the tomato fruit texture might be a trait which was been selected during the domestication. Results obtained in this study will be of great benefit for fine mapping and cloning of the major QTLs which control the tomato fruit firmness, and a foundation for the firmness improvement in tomato breeding.
Abstract:To study the genetic regularity of tobacco black shank resistance of different parents, and to identify the genomic locations contributing to the resistance, 220 F2 populations were constructed from a cross between Beinhart1000-1 and susceptible variety, xiaohuangjin1025. Through disease inoculation and genetic analysis, we found that the resistance to black shank of Beinhart1000-1 was controlled by the dominance genes. 70 stable SSR primers were used for QTL mapping of resistance to black shank. We got 14 linkage groups which included 52 SSR markers. Five QTLs are discovered on No.2, No.3, No.3, No.6 and No.12 genetic linkage groups, and account for 6.2%, 6.0%, 6.7%, 5.6% and 5.1% of the phenotypic variance, respectively. In order to further study the genetic regularity of tobacco black shank resistance of different parents, and to posit the resistance gene loci, the 5 SSR markers has certain value in marker-assisted breeding. These results could facilitate our understanding of the inheritance of resistance to black shank in tobacco by marker-assisted selection.
Abstract:Start codon targeted polymorphism (SCoT) is a novel gene-targeted marker that could achieve tightly linked target gene and follow the tracks of the traits properly. As a new kind of marker, it has been widely used in diverse plant species. In this paper, we summarized the principles and the characteristics of SCoT, as well as the primer design and the optimization of SCoT-PCR system. Its applications, such as genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship analysis, germplasm identification and fingerprinting, gene expression profiling, and genetic linkage mapping, were also reviewed. Besides, the potential problems and the future prospects of SCoT marker were further discussed.
Abstract:Ammopiptanthus mongolicus, the only evergreen broad-leaf shrub in the northwest desert of China, shows very strong resistance to cold and drought stresses. The complete coding region cDNA and genomic DNA fragments of the transcription factor AmDREB2C were cloned by PCR approach from A. mongolicus. Both the fragments contain 1191 base pairs, therefore AmDREB2C is intronless. The predicted AmDREB2C protein is composed of 396 amino acid residues, with a conserved AP2 domain and a nuclear localization signal. Expression analysis revealed that the transcription of AmDREB2C was induced by cold and drought stresses. Moreover, the cDNA fragment for AmDREB2C was successfully constructed into plant expression vector, laying a foundation for further functional analysis of this gene.
Abstract:Creating mutants is an effective way of germplasm innovation and useful basis of functional genomics research in Chinese Cabbage. In this study, the inbred line ‘A03’ of Chinese cabbage was selected as wild genotype for constructing one mutant library because of its self-compatibility and easy microspore culture. The influences of EMS treatments on vigor of M1 and M2 seeds and seedlings were investigated. The variations in phenotypic traits of M2 population at heading stage, harvest stage and reproductive growth stage were further investigated. The results showed that the more suitable mutant scheme of creating mutants was considered to soaking seeds with EMS 0.4% and with time 16 h. The way of continuous treatments with EMS on seeds of two generations could be used in constructing mutant library of Chinese cabbage. Within the obtained mutant population, there was wide variation in phenotypic traits of M2 individuals at heading stage, harvest stage and reproductive growth stage, with mutation frequencies of 21.65%, 22.40% and 25.65%, respectively.
Abstract:Calcium is a critical messenger in abiotic stress responses signal transduction pathways in plants. Calcineurin B-like proteins (CBLs) represent a family of plant calcium sensor protein that function in calcium signaling by interacting with their interacting protein to transduce signal, making plant response to abiotic stress. Our laboratory has identifies a putative soybean CBL gene that functions in abiotic stress tolerance tolerance in the transgenic Arabidopsis plants. In order to further explore the GmCBL1-mediated stress resistance mechanism, the mixture of bait vectors pGBKT7-GmCBL1 were constructed, pGADT7 and soybean cDNA library was introduced into yeast competent cells AH109 to screen the interaction proteins from soybean cDNA library by yeast-two hybrid system. A total of 106 candidate positive clones were sequenced, analyzed through BLAST. According to their possible physiological function , those candidate proteins were classified into one of four categories: energy metabolism proteins, modified protein, defense protein, calcium signaling transduction proteins. Function prediction of the candidate proteins suggested that GmCBL1 was possibly involved in several stress signal transduction pathways.This work provides a basis for a defined further functional dissection of soybean CBL mediated signaling system.
Abstract:In order to study restoring gene, F2 population was builded by male sterile line 1193A with Sinapis arvensis L cytoplasm as female parent and restorer line 1193R2 as male parent. Using SSR marker and bulked segregant analysis (BSA) , polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were performed to identify genetic linkage markers for 1193A CMS restorer gene and to map the markers. 1521 SSR markers were analyzed and the result showed 36 markers were polymorphic between parents and gene bulks. F2 population detection indicated 8 markers linked to the restore gene, two of which located on both sides of the restore gene and closely linked to the restore gene with a genetic distance of 3.9 cM for CB10316 and 5.7 cM for BnGMS171, respectively, which could be used as candidate markers for marker-assisted breeding of restorer line.
Abstract:As the research related to male sterility genes TA1 and TA2 expression characteristics on anther developmental stages of wheat thermo-sensitive male sterile line BNS and YS,to validate the relationship between these two sterility genes and fertility transformation of wheat thermo-sensitive male sterile line, mRNA expression level of TA1 and TA2 were examined by means of fluorescence Real-time quantitative PCR(qRT-PCR) taking the anthers of sterile line BNS and 732A as materials at four key developmental stages(tetrad phase,uninucleated period, binucleated period and trinucleate period).The results showed that:(1)The relative expression of TA1 increased from tetrad phase to binucleated period and decreased in trinucleate period of pollen abortion of sterile line BNS and 732A;(2)The relative expression of TA2 decreased from tetrad phase to binucleated period and increased in trinucleate period of pollen abortion of sterile line BNS,and the relative expression of TA2 increased from tetrad phase to binucleated period and decreased in trinucleate period of pollen abortion of sterile line YS;(3)The relative expression of TA1 and TA2 were extreme value in binucleated period of pollen abortion of sterile line BNS and YS,then the key stage of pollen abortion might be \"binucleated period\"for sterile line BNS and YS;(4)During a pollen development process of sterile lines BNS and 732,the variation range in relative expression of TA1 was higher than TA2. Then the influence degree of TA1 for pollen abortion sterile lines BNS and 732 might be better than TA2;(5)Gene TA1 and TA2 showed opposite effects on pollen abortion station of sterile line BNS,and were non-allelic genes in BNS genome. In pollen abortion station of sterile line 732A,the situation of them was just synergistic.
Abstract:During last decades, the wheat sharp eyespot disease has occurred in many winter production regions. To mine the accessions with good resistance to sharp eyespot, 102 synthetic hexaploid wheat lines from CIMMYT were evaluated for resistance to sharp eyespot in field and greenhouse at Jiangsu Province and Beijing from 2007 to 2010. The results showed that these synthetic wheat lines displayed different degree of the resistance, suggesting that the selection of sharp eyespot resistance source among these lines was effective. Compared with the common wheat cultivars Yangmai 158 and Yangmai 12, most of 102 synthetic wheat showed better resistance with lower disease index. Seven synthetic wheat lines consistently displayed better resistance to sharp eyespot at the four tested sites from 2007 to 2010. These 7 resistant synthetic wheat lines included ZC93、ZC111、ZC112、ZC123、ZC172、ZC206 and ZC221. Thus, these 7 synthetic wheat lines could be used as novel resistance sources in wheat breeding with resistance to sharp eyespot disease.
Abstract:Abstract: Oat is an important crop for food and feed in China. The construction of oat mutant library will be important for the study of functional genomics and genetic improvement of oat. In this study, seeds of oat Huazao 2 was treated by chemical mutagen Ethyl methane sulfonate(EMS). A total of 4083 individual plants were obtained in M1. Biological characters and agronomic traits were investigated and phenotypic mutants were identified in M2 , which selected 2000 individuals among 4083.Two etiolated seedling mutants identified from M2 were validated through M3. The results showed that great phenotypic variation appeared after EMS treatment. A total of 196 mutant plants were screened out in M2 with 9.8% of mutation rate of phenotypes including seedling habits, leaf appearance, plant height, spike and maturity. It was proved that the etiolated seedling mutation was steadily inherited in M3. This study has established the EMS mutagenesis system and identified various mutant types, which will provide a basic material for the study of functional genomics and genetic improvement of oat.
Abstract:A comprehensive population was built by 15 cotton hybrids from Yangtze Rive basin through mixed polen pollination. 29 elite lines were derived by conventional selection in breeding nursery. The percentage of seed-cotton yield before frost showed the greatest variation among 12 investigated traits in field experiment, and then the seed-cotton yield and yield components, but there was little variation in fiber quality traits. The first 5 principal components were fiber quality, seed-cotton yield and and its components, maturity, lint percentage, and plant height with the contribution rate of 24.31%、19.67%、13.29%、10.81%、9.09% respectively by principal component analysis. Majority elite lines were clustered in the same group based on SSR molecular markers, which was distinguished from the varieties from Yellow River basin, showing narrow genetic background.
Abstract:Determining objective, reasonable heat tolerance evaluation indexes, and evaluating heat tolerance of different cultivars vegetables, which are of great significance to the research on heat tolerance mechanism and the breeding of heat tolerance. Different heat tolerance eggplant cultivars were used to determine physiological and biochemical indexes in seeding stage. The heat tolerance of eggplant seeding was comprehensively evaluated by using fuzzy mathematics theory. Using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to determine the weights of heat tolerance indexes. The results showed that heat injury index, recovery index, MDA content, SOD activity and POD activity had the greatest effect on heat tolerance. The weights were 0.2500, 0.2500, 0.1092, 0.1092 and 0.1092. According to the result of comprehensive evaluation, the heat tolerance of YouYiYiHao was the strongest, followed by F-762, and GuTianZiChangQie was the weakest. The results were consistent with those assessed in open field of natural high temperature. It showed that this method had a better applicability of comprehensive evaluation on eggplant seeding heat tolerance, which can be used for identification of heat tolerance in mass cultivars.
Abstract:In this study, genetic diversity of 78 traditional mungbean varieties of North china were analyzed by 39 SSR molecular markers, total 104 allelic variations were detected with an average of 2.74. The polymorphic information content (PIC) of ed materials detected by different primers varied from 0.03 to 0.58 with an average of 0.26. The analysis of mungbean resources from 4 geographic origin indicated that Inner Mongolia was the most diversity region of traditional mungbean resources ,with the highest allelic variation and PIC value, and the second was Zhangjiakou of Hebei province. Cluster analysis showed that germplasm from Zhangjiakou of Hebei province and Datong of Shanxi province were the first group, and those from Inner Mongolia and Baicheng of Jilin province were the second group.
Abstract:Analysis of combining ability plays an important role in assessing the breeding potential of parents and cultivation of hybrids. Five females and four males were used as parents to mate hybrids to analyze the combining ability effect, and the AMMI (additive main effects and multiplicative interaction) model was adopted to depose the interaction effect (same as the SCA, i.e. special combining ability) of parents. The results showed that the IPCA (interaction principal component axis) scores from AMMI model can well present the parents’ potential on the aspect of SCA, and the interaction effect of female and male parents also can be assessed by the inner product of their parents’ IPCA vectors. According to the length and direction of IPCA vectors, these parents may be classed into four groups: (1) the vector length of at least one parent of hybrid approximates the coordinate origin, implying that the heterosis of hybrid mainly depends on the GCA of parents; (2) the direction of two vectors of hybrid is in the vertical position, meaning that the interaction effect of hybrid approximates zero and performance of hybrid also greatly depends on the GCA of parents; (3) the direction of two vectors with the distant length is in the almost opposite position, implying that two parents have an enormous negative interaction effect; (4) the direction of two vectors with the distant length is in almost same position, implying that two parents have an enormous positive interaction effect. Above all, it is very necessary for developing hybrids with strong heterosis to select appropriate parents having distant length and similar direction of vectors representing the SCA score.
Abstract:To clarify the drought resistance and salt tolerance of Medicago varia and M. ruthenica at seed germination period, the effect of seed germination and seedling growth of the seed of M. ruthenica (collected from Jingtai) and M. varia (Algonquin) were studied by using different concentration of polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000) and NaCl solution to simulating drought and salt stress. The results showed that the both stress of NaCl and PEG decreased the germination percentage, germination index, vigor index of M. ruthenica and M. varia and inhibited the growth of plumule and radical. The differences of relative germination percentage between M. varia and M. ruthenica seeds were not significant under the PEG stress from -0.3 to -0.9 MPa and -1.5 MPa (P>0.05), but the relative germination percentage of M. varia was significantly higher than that of M. ruthenica under -1.2 MPa (P<0.05). The relative germination index of M. varia was significantly higher than that of M. ruthenica under PEG stress from -0.3 to -1.2 MPa, while the relative radical length were not significantly. The relative germination percentage of M. varia were significantly higher than that of M. ruthenica under the NaCl stress from -0.9 to -1.5 MPa, the relative germination index and relative vigor index of M. varia were significantly higher than that of M. ruthenica under the NaCl stress from -0.3 to -1.2 MPa. The comprehensive evaluation of the relative germination percentage, relative germination index, relative vigor index, relative plumule length and relative radical length of M. ruthenica (Jingtai) and M. varia (Algonquin)was done by membership function method which indicated that the drought tolerance and salt tolerance of M. varia seed were stronger than that of M. ruthenica . This result is not consistent with past understanding of \"drought resistance and salt resistance of M. ruthenica were stronger than that of M. sativa and M. varia.
Abstract:25% of artificial sea water was applied to stress total of 25 asparagus varieties at the germination and seedling stage. The salt tolerance of asparagus varieties was evaluated comprehensively by means of multiple statistics analysis based on the salt resistant index of 10 agronomic characters including trend of germination, germination index, vigor index, radicle length, plant height, stem number, stem diameter, fresh mass of root, dry mass of root and root volume. The result showed that 10 agronomic characters differentiated greatly in different varieties, and they could be characterized into three main factors by factor analysis，namely seed vigor factor, root factor and growth factor with the accumulative contribution rate of 82.2%．Cluster analysis based on the score vectors of the factors showed that the 25 varieties could be classified into four categories, including 6 of the best salt tolerant varieties, 4 of the stronger salt tolerant varieties, 7 of the moderately salt sensitive varieties and 8 of the salt sensitive varieties. Consequently, a comprehensive evaluation method of salt stress on asparagus varieties with artificial sea water was established in this study, which could offer theory references for salt tolerance identification and breeding on asparagus．
Abstract:Using the soil inoculation technique, 150 sorghum germplasm resources (Including male–sterile, maintainer and restorer lines) which used widely in sorghum breeding at present in China, were evaluated for resistance to sorghum head smut. Under two year identification, among 150 sorghum germplasm resources, there were 47 accessions of immune resources accounted for 31.3% of the total; the highly resistant and moderately resistant of resources were each for 6 accessions with the tested germplasm resources proportion of 4% respectively; The resistance resources were 4 accessions accounted for 2.7 % of the total; the 13 accessions with susceptible and 74 accessions with highly susceptible resources were identified and it accounted for 8.7% and 49.3% of the total respectively. Based on the above data, there were relatively abundant resources with resistances to sorghum head smut in sorghum breeding.
Abstract:Abstract: The project Collection, Conservation, Enhancement, Share and Utilization of Proso Millet Germplasm Resources in China has launched for 12 years, which collected and conserved lots of endangered proso millet germplasm resources; proso millet germplasm resources stored in national long-term gene bank were reproduced and identified; standards and regulations on reproduction and identification technologies of proso millet were set. New proso germplasm resources and related data were provided for National Gene Bank; The establishment of national proso millet germplasm save the library in the medium term;evaluation and creation were done for a number of proso millet germplasm resources and these resources were provided for production, breeding and processing, which have gained social and economic benefits.