• Volume 15,Issue 1,2014 Table of Contents
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    • >GENETIC RESOURCES
    • Genetic Resources of Wild Relatives of Crops in China

      2014, 15(1):1-11.

      Abstract (2346) HTML (0) PDF 1.57 M (3668) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Abstract: China is a mega-diversity country and one of the origin centers of crops in the World. Due to the large land area, big different climates, very complicated landscapes, a lot of soil types and long history of agriculture, China is rich of crops and their wild relatives. This paper introduced the wild relatives of different crops based on the crop classification. The basic information would provide technical support for further research development of the resources and policy making for the government on conservation of wild relatives of crops.

    • Distribution of drought disaster area, acid paddy soil area and evaluation of drought resistance, salt tolerance crop resources in Guangxi coastal area

      2014, 15(1):12-17.

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      Abstract:Abstract: From 2008 to 2011, we has conducted a mass screening of distribution of drought disaster area and acid paddy soil area, and a survey on type and distribution of drought resistance, salt tolerance crop resources of all 8 coastal counties in 3 cities of Beihai, Fangchengguang and Qinzhou in Guangxi province. Rice, sweet potato, cassava and taro resources were collected and evaluated on drought resistance and salt tolerance.. The research has significance to protect and use of resources in Guangxi coastal area.

    • Analysis on HMW-GS Composition and Quality Properties of 67 American Wheat Accessions

      2014, 15(1):18-23.

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      Abstract:In order to explore new wheat germplasm for wheat quality improvement, high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) composition and quality properties were analyzed among 67 American wheat accessions. SDS-PAGE were used to detect HMW-GS compositions and the results showed that there were 20 types of subunits and 25 types of subunit combinations, meaning that Glu-1 locus had a high level of variations. The frequencies of quality subunits such as 1, 2* and 5+10 were 16.4%, 35.8%, 74.6% respectively, higher than any other subunit. The quality score ranged from 5 to 10, with an average of 8.2. Forty one accessions scored above 8(including 8), and even 8 accessions had a score of 10. The quality properties analysis was treated as preliminary analysis, and the results indicated that these materials had lower quality indexes. Base on the results above, these American accessions could be parental materials to improve the HMW-GS compositions of Huang-huai wheat regions of China .

    • Diversity Evaluation of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) clones from China based on morphological characteristics

      2014, 15(1):24-31.

      Abstract (2376) HTML (0) PDF 2.07 M (2250) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:In this study, phenotypic diversity and classification of 212 aceessions of garlic germplasm in China were studied based on morphological traits by methods of clustering, principal component analysis, and correlation analysis. The results showed that the garlic germplasm in China presented a wide diversity from all traits. The five-grade classification method for each quantitative trait was brought forward. The results of clustering and principle component analysis indicated that clustering factors were mainly from qualitative traits. To avoid the overrating effect from qualitative traits, eight important quantitative traits related to bulb yield were evaluated. Principal component analysis showed the cumulative contribution proportion of the first three components was up to 74.83% and three traits (bulb weight, bulb diameter and clove number) were included in the first components which could be the most important traits affecting bulb yield. Correlation analysis suggested that bulb yield was significantly related with seven of eight characteristics except clove back width, and the most highly related with bulb diameter and bulb weight. All accessions of garlic germplasm were divided into 6 groups according to yield and the analysis of principal coordinates. Moreover, three accessions yielded above 15×103 kg ha-1 were selected out.

    • Evaluation for Salt Tolerance of Three Cultivated Species of Rapeseeds at Germination Stage

      2014, 15(1):32-37.

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      Abstract:Evaluation of the salt tolerance on existed rapeseeds germplasms is the primary work for breeding salt-tolerance varieties. 203 accessions of three cultivated species of rapeseeds including B. juncea, B.rapa, B.napus were stressed by three NaCl concentrations (86mmol/L, 170mmol/L and 256mmol/L) and the germination rate (GR) was checked at germination stage. The results showed the GRs of three species were all inhibited but with different degrees under salt stress and B.rapa performed best, which followed by B. napus and B. juncea sequentially. Fourteen lines with good GRs were then stressed by gradient NaCl concentrations and results indicated that the GRs of three species decreased as the Boltzmann curve with the increasing NaCl concentrations, and B.rapa did most slowly all the time. Six physiological characters including germination index, germination rate, germination potential, root length, hypocotyl length, plantlet fresh weight, up-ground fresh weight, total chlorophyll content and electrical conductivity of the fourteen lines under the stress of three NaCl concentrations mentioned above were detected. It approved that the general salt tolerance of B.rapa was better than B. juncea or B.napus. The Principle Component Analysis (PCA) of the trait values under 170mmol/L NaCl stress revealed Br2 of B.rapa and Bn1 and Bn3 of B.napus were the best salt-tolerant germplasms which could be used in the future breeding application.

    • Multivariate Analysis and Evaluation of Agronomic and Quality Traits Based on Principal Components in Wheat

      2014, 15(1):38-47.

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      Abstract:The agronomic traits and quality traits of 96 wheat cultivars were investigated, and further principal component analysis (PCA) of those traits were analyzed. The first four components from the 11 studied agronomic traits and 10 quality traits explained 85.35% and 89.15% of total variation, respectively. Based on the scatter plot of largest four principal (PC) , 27 cultivars are dwarf, relative-large grain and flag leaf which characterizes excellent comprehensive agronomic traits, 32 ones with high iron and zinc content show potentiality for excellent processing quality and rheological property. Cluster analysis classified all tested materials into five groups, most cultivars with excellent agronomic traits were mainly concentrated in group III and group IV, those with high quality traits were in Group I and group II. Notably, Taishan9818, Xinong822, Lunxuan719, Yang-31, Xian837 and Zhongyu9383 show either high agronomic or quality characteristics. In general, Cluster analysis and scatter plot based on PCs analysis together can make good comprehensive evaluation on wheat traits. Moreover, possibly identify wheat varieties with potential good comprehensive characters, which provides good theoretical guidance for the reasonable selection of germplasm resources for further wheat breeding.

    • Genetic and correlative analysis of main agronomic traits related to plants in B. oleracea L. var. capitata

      2014, 15(1):48-55.

      Abstract (1979) HTML (0) PDF 2.57 M (2005) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Two diverse advanced homozygous inbred lines of cabbage, 01-88 and 02-12, with the significant difference on the main agronomic traits related to plants, were used as the parents to develop a Double Haploid (DH) population containing 189 lines, through microspore culture. Using mixed major gene plus polygene inheritance model, the traits of number of outer leaf (Nol), plant breadth (Pb), plant height (Ph), length of outer leaf (Lol), width of outer leaf (Wol) and primary color of outer leaf (Pcl) in B. oleracea were investigated. The results showed that all the 6 main agronomic traits were continuous, single peak and partial distribution. This demonstrated that 6 main agronomic traits related to plants were quantitative. Except Wol and Pcl, the inheritances of other 4 traits were in agreement with two major genes plus polygenes. The heritability of major genes in descending order were following as Ph(59.16%) > Lol(56.56%) > Nol(55.67%) > Pb(19.56%). Due to the high major gene heritability of Ph, Lol, Nol, they were efficiently used for early-generation selection. Nol-Pb, Lol-Wol etc paired traits were significant positive correlation. Nol-Wol wassignificant negative correlation. The results were facilitated to indirectly select in breeding.

    • Main storage conditions factor of predicting longevity of seed in 4 crops

      2014, 15(1):56-66.

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      Abstract:To predict seed longevity and viability of Sorghun vulgare, Agopyrum escutentum, Lactuca sativa, and Amaranthus by survivor proportion and main storage condition factors, seeds of 8 seed lot of Sorghun vulgare and Amaranthus with 3 levels of water content were stored at 20℃, 30℃ and 40℃ for lasting 810 d. Data sets of germination percent and storage period of seed from storage experiments of Sorghun vulgare and Amaranthus seed lot and from literature reported for Fagopyrum escutentum and Lactuca sativa seed lot were used to estimate mean viability period (p50) and standard deviation of seeds death distribution in time (σ) for different seed lot using regression equations of probability and survivor proportion in linearity, and fitting of the equations were also synchronously compared. Moreover, p50 and σ by two equations estimated were used to analyze storage condition factors with stepwise regression method, including storage temperature(t℃)and its quadratic term(t2), water content of seed (m%)and its logarithm(logm), and interaction between storage temperature and water content of seeds (t×m and t×logm), respectively. The results showed that estimated p50 and σ with survivor proportion to estimate was feasible and had more statistical significance than probability estimated. Seed viability was quickly lost and its longevity was decreased by interaction between storage temperature and water content of seed (t×m). The mathematic model Gi/G0=A-P/10K-CWT (t×m) containing the interaction factor and survivor proportion had higher accuracy to predict initial germination percent of Lactuca sativa than the model Vi=Ki- p/10 K-CWT (t×m). Thus, the former and latter models were recommended to predict initial germination rate with longevity and viability of seed known and unknown, respectively.

    • Evaluating on the core collection of sugarcane hybrids based on important agronomic traits and analyzing their genetic relationships

      2014, 15(1):67-73.

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      Abstract:Abstract: Sugarcane hybrids are important parent resources for innovation and genetic breeding of sugarcane. In order to obtain excellent accessions, ROC22 as control variety, the core collection of sugarcane hybrids including 107 accessions were screened by using variance analysis statistic method(LSD and Duncan) based on three important agronomic traits(cane yield per hectare, sucrose in cane and sugar content per hectare). The results showed 36 accessions performed better than control variety in three traits, and cane yield per hectare has bigger influences to sugar content per hectare than sucrose in cane. 20 pairs of SSR primers were selected for investigating the genetic relationships between excellent accessions screened and key parent of sugarcane in china, about 292 markers were obtained, 283 among them belong to polymorphic markers; the value of similarity coefficient among all accessions rang from 0.384 to 0.590, mean value is 0.437, it indicated there are big genetic differences among them. And all accessions can been divided into 5 groups(A-E) by UPGMA analysis, every group was clustered into some accessions performing better in cane yield per hectare and sugar content per hectare, then these clones with high sucrose in cane were mainly placed into B,C,D groups especially C group. Finally, these results will provide important valuable information and direction for innovation and genetic breeding of sugarcane.

    • Genetic Diversity Evaluation of Cassava and Primary Screening of High-yielding Germplasm

      2014, 15(1):74-83.

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      Abstract:In order to research and utilize the breeding materials and introduced germplasm of cassava, we set the cultivars SC8 and SC205 as control, analyzed 16 phenotype traits and evaluate the genetic diversity of 142 breeding materials and 8 Switzerland introduced germplasm, and hoped to find high-yield cassava resources with using principal component analysis. The results showed that the genetic similarity between the germplasm mean coefficient of 0.652, phenotypic traits-based clustering genetic similarity coefficient mean of 0.186. The two clustering results were significant different, but the results showed that all of the materials had abundant gentic differences. The two years study of yield-related traits indicated the significant difference. Meanwhile, showed the environment influenced the results. The principal component analysis of yield-related traits showed that the best comprehensive evaluation of the performance was C322, and G74 was the worst. Meanwhile, there were 47 breeding materials superior to the two controls in comprehensive evaluation. Distantly related and complementary phenotypic differences materials could be selected in the future cross-breeding work and as hybrid parents, to further polymerization good traits and improve adverse traits.

    • Genetic Diversity of HMW—GS in Wheat Abodanza from Qinghai

      2014, 15(1):84-88.

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      Abstract:In order to study the widely adaptation and detect the genetic diversity of Abodanza(Triticum.aestivum L.) in the different ecological area of Qinghai ,subunits composition of high mplecular weight gluten with 15 Abodanza were analyzed by means of SDS- PAGE. The results were described as following: A total of 8 allele combinations were observed in the 15 Abodanza and the predominant type was 1,7+8 and 2+12;there were 11 alleles on Glu-1 locus with the frequencies varied from 6.67% to 100%;The values of D of the Glu-B1 loci were higher and Glu-B1 loci has abundant genetic diversity. The result showed that genetics similarities ranged from 0.35 to 1 with an average of 0.675. All materials were divided into 3 groups and 13 wheat materials Abodanza were clustered into the first group while another two materials were respectively clustered into the second group and the third group .These results indicated that Abodanza materials have abundant genetic diversity.

    • Genetic diversity of Switchgrass(Panicum virgatum L. ) germplasms detected by SCoT Markers

      2014, 15(1):89-95.

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      Abstract:Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L. ) is considered to be one of the ideal bioenergy plants. The genetic variation and relationship of 96 switchgrass germplasms were analyzed by SCoT (start codon targeted polymorphism) molecular markers. 20 SCoT primer pairs were used to amplify SCoT fragments for 96 switchgrass germplasms. The primers generated a total of 445 bands among which 402(90.31%) bands were found to be polymorphic. The value of locus polymorphism information contents (PIC) ranged from 0.166 to 0.410, with a average of 0.332. Marker index is 10.20. The genetic similarity coefficient among the germplasms was ranged from 0.498 to 0.912, and the average content was 0.688, indicating that the genetic variation could be revealed using SCoT markers. 96 switchgrass germplasms were clustered into two groups (Upland and Lowland) by the cluster analysis. The results of POPGENE version 1.32 analysis indicated that the genetic diversity index(H) of 96 was 0.406, and the index of Shannon(I) was 0.271, indicating that there was comparatively great genetic diversity and high genetic variation among the switchgrass germplasms. Analysis of molecular variance(AMOVA 1.55) indicated that contribution(72.85%) of variability came within population level and account for 27.15% of total variability. The results indicated that SCoT markers were feasible and effective to analyze the genetic diversity of switchgrass and the results will facilitate the germplasms of switchgrass exploitation and utilization.

    • Different SSR Detection Techniques and their Application in Genetic Diversity Analysis of Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Cultivars

      2014, 15(1):96-105.

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      Abstract:In the present study we assessed silver-staining method and fluorescent detection assay using 9 SSRs and 85 peanut cultivars. The results showed fluorescent detection assay was more sensitive, accurate, and efficient than silver-staining method. Cluster analysis indicated fluorescent detection assay was able to separate 82 peanut cultivars into 9 clusters, while silver-staining method separated 74 cultivars into 8 clusters. The clusters from fluorescent detection assay were more closely related to the types, origins and pedigrees of the peanut cultivars. Genetic diversity analysis showed the peanut landraces had the highest genetic diversity index, followed by the Valencia type peanut cultivars, suggesting the landraces and Valencia type cultivars harboring a broad genetic variation.

    • Analysis on Internodes length development reversal and genetic model of Cucurbita maxima

      2014, 15(1):106-112.

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      Abstract:Genetic population derived from a line ‘Agol’(dwarf )and ‘Xue1’(vine)was used to analyze the inheritance of internode length in cucurbita maxima. The result showed that dwarf and vine is determined by nuclear genes. Developmental reversal of dominance were found in this study. The genetic model showed that the internode length were controlled by two major gene (genetic model E1) in early development and reversal of dominance stage, and the major gene can explain more than 70% variation. But in the late development stage, it were controlled by a single gene (genetic model D4), which explaining 10% variation. The results also proved that in late development stage environment has significantly effect on internode length development. This study will provide more information for dwarf-type genetic mechanism; also the results will lay a good foundation for cucurbita maxima dwarf-type breeding.

    • Study on the Floral characteristics Characteristics and Sstructure in Two Types of Male Sterile Lines of Bbroccoli(Brassica oleracea var.italica)

      2014, 15(1):113-119. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2014.01.015

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      Abstract:Broccoli is an important cruciferous vegetable, it has a good anti-cancer effect, with the expanding cultivation area of broccoli and the developing of anticancer drug, the demand for broccoli seeds are increasing. Using male sterile line to produce F1 generation seeds is an important way to utilize of heterosis, but the cytoplasmic male sterile lines commonly used in production have the problems of the buds death are heavier in the early, nectar volume is less and seeds production are low. Our group makes excellent broccoli inbred lines as male parent. cabbage dominant genic male sterility material 79-399-3 and cytoplasmic male sterile material OguraCMSR3 629 as the infertility sources, we have obtained multiple dominant genic male sterile lines and cytoplasmic male sterile lines of broccoli through backcrossing method, in order to further effectively use of broccoli male sterile lines and search for better infertility sources, The the differences of the bud death numbers, floral organ structure and number of or frequecing bees visiting flowers among dominant genic male sterile(DGMS)lines,cytoplasmic male sterile(CMS)lines and inbred lines of broccoli 8554, 8590 and 93219 were studied. The results showed that the differences of the bud length, bud diameter, death buds of single branch, corolla diameter, stamen length, anther length, petal length, the times of visiting bees, the number of visiting bees and the time of bees staying on the flower between DGMS and CMS of lines 8554, 8590 and 93219 were significant. On As athe whole, above characteristics in DGMS lines were significantly better than CMS lines.

    • >GENE MINING
    • Status and Prospects in Molecular Breeding of Powdery Mildew Resistance of Cucumber

      2014, 15(1):120-128.

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      Abstract:The research progress on the species and race of pathogenic bacteria, genetic regularity of the resistance, molecular markers and QTL mapping in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) powdery mildew were reviewed. Emphatically compared the inheritance regularity and differences was analysised. The problems existing in the present research were pointed out. At last, the corresponding suggestions and the future prospects were discussed.

    • Review of Mechanism of Rice Flowering in Response to Photoperiod

      2014, 15(1):129-136.

      Abstract (2180) HTML (0) PDF 1.53 M (3232) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Abstract: In order to flowering at the most appropriate time in a year, plants monitor the environment signals and response with an endogenous complex molecular network. Contrary to model long day plant Arabidopsis, model short day plant flowering is delayed under long day condition with a critical day length response. The extensive research of flowering molecular pathway about rice and Arabidopsis revealed that there are several genes are highly conserved between rice and Arabidopsis . Rice also has unique gene which involved in response to photoperiod. Here, we discuss and conclude the recent understanding of flowering time in rice from the perspective which describe as follows: The molecular pathway of rice response to photoperiod; Natural variation of rice flowering time and application of flowering time gene; Circadian related gene in rice; Phenomenon of night break and critical day length response and the relationship between flowering time and yield.

    • Integration and “Overview” analysis of QTLs related to lodging in soybean (Glycine max)

      2014, 15(1):137-143.

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      Abstract:Lodging is one of important factors influencing the yield of soybean, therefore, identification genes/loci related to lodging is of great important for breeding high-yield varieties in soybean. Up to now, lots of QTLs related to lodging have been identified based on the construction of various genetic linkage maps using different segregation population. In this study, Meta-analysis was used to integrate QTLs published in the references based on the physical integration of these QTLs. The results showed that six QTL regions located on three linkage groups (LG C2, F and L) had the most repetitive times in the integration analysis. Overview method was also used to optimize the genetic position of each integrated QTL on different linkage groups. The valid QTL regions were all narrowed down and some of them even narrowed to the 0.2 cM. Finally, an SSR marker Satt277 was selected according to the screening of these valid QTL regions. These results could be used for gene isolation and marker-assisted breeding of lodging resistant varieties in soybean.

    • Expression pattern and protein interaction analysis of a wheat ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme TaE2

      2014, 15(1):144-159.

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      Abstract:The ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, named TaE2, was obtained as the candidate interaction protein of TaMAPK2 by yeast-two-hybrid system. Bioinformatic analysis showed that TaE2 was a member of ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 family. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed that TaE2 was expressed in root, stem, leaves and seeds. TaE2 was up-regulated under drought, high-salt and ABA treatments. The fusion protein GST-TaE2 was expressed in Escherichia.coli and purified by GST-Trap HP. TaE2 gene reported in this study lay a foundation for further studying the function and mechanisms of the ubiquitin proteasome pathway response to stresses.

    • Genome survey in Cinnamomum camphora(L.) Presl

      2014, 15(1):150-153.

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      Abstract:Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Presl is a kind of precious wood species and the main no-timber trees of special local product in our country and possess abundant the secondary metabolism,such as polysaccharides, polyphenols, oleicacid and terpenoid. C. camphora is a metallic element used in many important industries. In this study, the genome size of C. camphora was determined by new-generation sequencing technologies (Illumina HiseqTM 2000). Hybridity percentage, repeats and GC_depth were also estimated by bioinformatics. The main results were showed as following: (1) The average genome size of C. camphora was about 760 Mb; (2) Hybridity percentage of C. camphora was about 0.65%; (3) Whole-genome shotgun sequencing was not used to C. camphora genome sequencing, and the BAC-to-BAC or fosmid could be used to it.

    • Isolation and Expression of MdNCED1 Gene from Apple Rootstock SH40

      2014, 15(1):154-160.

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      Abstract:9-cis-epoxycarotenoid (NCED) gene is a critical gene in the pathway of abscisic acid biosynthesis. In this research, NCED gene in apple, designated as MdNCED1 (GenBank accession number: KC816734), was isolated from the apical tissue of apple rootstock SH40 (M. domestica ?M. Honanensis)by RT-PCR and RACE technology. The full cDNA was 2179bp,containing a complete open reading frame that encodes 606 amino acids. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed that the sequence had 63.7%-93.0% similarity with those of other reported plants. The ORF fragment of the gene was cloned into vector pDEST15,the recombined plasmid was transformed in to E. coli. (DE3). The result of SDS-PAGE demonstrated that the size of expected protein in the prokaryotic expression system. Fluorescent quantitative PCR analysis showed that the trend of expression of SH28, M26, SH40 and the grafted varieties ‘Gala’ were increased and then decreased. And the expression of this gene was positively associated to the dwarfing degree.

    • >GERMPLASM INNOVATION
    • Identification and Analysis of the Dwarf Sphaerococcoid Grain Mutant W98

      2014, 15(1):161-165.

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      Abstract:Wheat grain morphology and plant height are important target traits in wheat breeding history and they are significantly correlation with wheat yield performance. In this study, the wheat dwarf sphaerococcoid grain mutant W98 identified from Yanzhan1 EMS (ethylmethyl sulfide) mutant library was analyzed. The results showed that the plant height of the mutant W98 was 24 cm, whereas the wild type YZ1 was 73 cm. W98 reduced plant height by decreasing the length between internodes, not reducing of the number of nodes. Correlation analysis showed that the two traits – dwarf and sphaerococcoid grain were significantly correlated. Genetic analysis indicated that the sphaerococcoid grain phenotype was controlled by a single incompletely dominant gene by using 1544 F2:3 progenies generated from the cross of the long grain Mexico synthetic hexaploid wheat 10th12 with the mutant W98. Sensitivity test of GA and BR indicated that both of the wild type and the mutant were not sensitive to GA, while the mutant was sensitive to BR and the wild type was not by using the wheat leaf unrolling assay with different BR concentrations.

    • Phenotypic Analysis and Gene Mapping of the Semi-Dwarf High-Tillering Mutant f2-132 in Rice

      2014, 15(1):166-171.

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      Abstract:The high-tillering dwarf mutant f2-132 was obtained from the Japonica rice variety F2-285A radiated by 60Co γ- ray. Genetic analysis indicated that this trait was controlled by one single recessive gene, which was mapped between two InDel markers C4-Z3 and C4-Z4 on the long arm of chromosome 4. The physical distance between the two markers is 46kb, which contains a reported high-tillering dwarf gene D17/HTD1. Sequence analysis of the D17 allele in f2-132 showed that the base T at the 395th position in the coding region was substituted by C, which changed the 132th amino acid from phenylalanine to serine. D17/HTD1encodes the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 7 (CCD7), which is one of the key enzymes in the biosynthesis pathway of a new plant hormone, strigolactones (SLs). After treatment with GR24, a synthetic analogues of SLs, the tillering phenotype was suppressed.

    • Investigation on the Plant Height Constitution and Breeding Potential of a Dwarfing Somatic Variation Line AS34 in Wheat

      2014, 15(1):172-177.

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      Abstract:It is very important to create, characterize, and use wheat dwarfing resources for wheat breeding. Even though many dwarfing materials have been excavated in Triticum genera so far, most of them are less employed valuable in wheat variety improvement. In this study, a dwarfing somatic variation line AS34 developed recently and its F1 and F2 generation plants with Chinese Spring (C.S) were investigated for plant height constitution and several main agronomic traits related to yield potential. Results revealed that the stem of AS34 is consisted of four internodes, which is one less than its wild type of Yumai66. The length of each internode in AS34 was shortening by a similar ration with the plant height to Yumai66, and the first internode was less than the second internode in length of this dwarfing line. The plant height and internode length of the F1 plants were almost the average values of their two parents, containing the same internodes as AS34. Especially, the F1 plants appeared superiority over their two parents in spike length, spikelets per spike and grains per spike. In the F2 generation plants, plant height, spike length, grains per spike, and spikelets per spike varied broadly, and about 70 % of the F2 plants had 60-90 cm in plant height, 6.0-10.0 cm in spike length, 50-79 grains per spike, 20-24 spikelets per spike. Results suggested that the dwarfing trait of AS34 was controlled by multiple genes, and appeared positive genetic effects on the above main agronomic characteristics in the segregated population when crossed with other wheat varieties, in which the ideal plants with moderate plant height, longer spike, and more grains per spike could be selected with more chance, assuming that AS34 would be potentially used in wheat breeding.

    • >研究简报
    • Factor and Cluster Analysis of Yunnan Innovated Germplasm Materials F1 of Spontaneum

      2014, 15(1):178-182.

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      Abstract:Eight characters from 70 innovated germplasm materials blood F1 of Saccharum spontaneum L. were processed by factor and cluster analysis. Results of factor analysis showed that the top three common factors were ratained in 8 common factors and the cumulative contribution rate reached 79.35%.Yield, sucrose content in cane,stalk number,emergence rate and tillering rate owned higher loading values in the first common factor. The stalk diameter and plant height played leading roles in the second common factor,;and only sucrose content in cane played a leading role in the third one. The variance scores of the 70 innovated materials of the top three common factors were used for comprehensive cluster analysis with the longest distance method. At the genetic distance 2.4, the materials could be divided into 10 groups,in which five groups i.e.Ⅰ,Ⅳ,Ⅶ,Ⅷ andⅩ showed the characteristic of high yield, accounting for 38.6% of the total tested materials. The groupsⅠ,Ⅱ,Ⅳ,Ⅴ,Ⅵ,Ⅶ and Ⅸ showed the characteristic of high yield,accounting for 82.8% of the total, especially the groupsⅠ,Ⅳ,Ⅴand Ⅵ,which sucrose content in cane was higher than 12% ,accounting for 52.8% of the total. The groupsⅠ, Ⅳand Ⅶ showed the characteristic of high sugar and high yield, accounting for 30% of the total.The classification results provide a scientific basis for targeted utilization of these innovated germplasm materials to breed the parents with high yield and high sugar characteristics.

    • >GERMPLASM INNOVATION
    • Excellent Pear Germplasm Zaosu and its Utilization

      2014, 15(1):183-186.

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      Abstract:Abstract: ‘Zaosu’ was bred from the hybrid of ‘Pingguoli’ × ‘Shenbuzhi’, by Research Institute of Pomology, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences. It is an early ripening and early bearing germplasm with excellent quality and strong adaptability. ‘Zaosu’ was extensively planted in many areas and has created great economic benefits in production. This review summarizes the production value, breeding value and genetic characteristics of ‘Zaosu’, and the purpose is to provide reference for popularization and application of this germplasm.

    • >研究简报
    • Identification of Agronomic Traits and Evaluation of Resistance to Phytophthora capsici in C. frutescens in China

      2014, 15(1):187-192.

      Abstract (1780) HTML (0) PDF 1.95 M (2723) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:For scientific evaluation of germplasm resource in Capsicum frutescens in China, eight representative accessions were selected to assess the agronomic traits and analyze the resistance to Phytophthora capsici. The result showed: the accessions in C. frutescens in China had strong growth with plant height above 1.0 m, broad leaves, white green flowers and erect and upward fruits. Average fruit weight was 0.51g - 2.04 g and the mean value was 1.26g. The total content of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin was 565.00 mg/kg - 1821.00 mg/kg, the average content was 1328.33 mg/kg, which was 406 times higher than that in C. annuum B9431. The resources in C. frutescens in China showed middle resistance until high resistance to phytophthora capsici, and wild C. frutescens H108 in Hainan province possessed high resistance to the disease. Principal component analysis based on phenotypic data could separate C. frutescens accessions in China from the same species accession in American and C. annuum accession. This study lays a theoretical reference for the discovery and utilization of elite genes in C. frutescens in China.

    • The correlation analysis of selection effect for sp4 and variations for sp2 in space flight on soybean

      2014, 15(1):193-196.

      Abstract (2107) HTML (0) PDF 1.23 M (2670) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Abstract: In order to clear early the agronomic traits selection basis in space flight soybean and improve the early space flight breeding generation selection effect. Analysis of variation rate for SP2 and selection effect for SP4 after space flight for six soybean breed have been done. The result show that the variation rate of higher heritability for the plant pod and seed number of SP2 and choice plant of SP4 were highly significant level. The variation rate of not high heritability for plant height and the number of node and choice plant of SP4 were not significant. The agronomic traits selection of SP2 were effective for the number of plant pod and seed, the first pod hight, the Length of node but for plant height and the number of node.

    • Processing Tomato Germplasm Analyzed by SSR Markers

      2014, 15(1):196-201.

      Abstract (2289) HTML (0) PDF 1.77 M (2999) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) marker was used to analyze genetic diversity of 20 samples of processing tomato for evaluation of genetic relationship. The results show that a total of 43 bands were scored from the 12 primers, which were screened out from 49 primers and demonstrated highly reproducible, clear and polymorphic bands. Among the obtained bands, 37 were polymorphic, accounting for 86% of the total. Analyzed by NTSYS2.2, the genetic similarity coefficient among the accessions ranged from 0.419 to 1.000, which indicated that genetic basis was relatively abundance among the 20 processing tomato resources. A dendrogram was constructed by UPGMA cluster method. The 20 samples of processing tomato were classified into 3 major groups, the materials that have a distant genetic relationship between major groups or sub-major groups, which may be used as elite materials for further genetic improvement in this species.

    • Analysis of the genetic relationship for the main cultivars and varieties of Ping’ou hybrid hazelnut by ISSR Markers

      2014, 15(1):202-206.

      Abstract (2015) HTML (0) PDF 1.66 M (2598) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:The objective of this study is to establish ISSR analysis system for Ping’ou hybrid hazelnut and analyze the genetic relationship for the main cultivars/varieties. 17 main cultivars/varieties, such as ‘Dawei’ and ‘Liaozhen No. 3’, are selected as materials. 7 ISSR primers are selected from 60 primers with high polymorphism, strong signals and clear bands. NTSYS pc 2.11F and Popgene 1.32 software are used to conduct the data analysis and plotting. The results show that: Totally 58 bands are obtained. The average number of bands is 8.3 per primer and the average percentage of polymorphic bands is 84.6%. All the samples are divided into 3 groups when the threshold value is 0.687. The first group, containing 14 cultivars/varieties, can be divided into four sub-groups, the second group contains 1 cultivar and the third group contains 2 varieties. The similarity coefficient of the samples varies from 0.448 to 0.879, with an average is 0.678. The effective number of alleles, Nei's gene diversity and Shannon's information index of the main cultivars/varieties are 1.6751、0.3701 and 0.5308, respectively. Ping’ou hybrid hazelnut is a high polymorphic population and the genetic relationships of the main cultivars are complex. The result of this study can offer reference for the relative researches in Corylus.

    • Genetic Diversity of Growth and Leaf Traits of Catalpa bungei

      2014, 15(1):207-211.

      Abstract (1972) HTML (0) PDF 1.35 M (2549) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Abstract: In order to improve the utilization efficiency of Catalpa bungei genetic resource, fifty three superior clones from gene bank were selected, and more than twelve trait indices were investigated to analyze their genetic diversity. The result showed that there were very significant differences among clones in seedling height and ground diameter, with their genetic variation coefficients were 18.53%and 16.29%, respectively. And genetic diversity indices were 1.84 and 1.79, respectively. Based on the correlative analysis,there were positive correlation among ground diameter, seedling height and leaf length, petiole length, number of leaves, leaf area and dermal pore density, whose genetic variation coefficients were 8.57%, 17.74%, 18.56%, 24.21, 26.91%, respectively. Genetic diversity index were 1.91, 1.87, 1.80, 1.80, 1.94. So they had relatively large variation and were controlled by highly heredity, which had abundant diversity and distributed uniformly.There were big difference among germplasm from different source, among which the growth indexes of germplasm from Henan area were the best. The growth indexes of germplasm from Shandong area were not the best, but its variation coefficients. Fifty three clones were classified four classes by Cluster analysis, in which the ground diameter, height of seedling, number of leaves and dermal pore density of class I were the highest; the performance of class II was the worst. Internode length, leaf length, leaf width, petiole length, leaf area and leaf perimeter of class III were the biggest. Chlorophyll content,specific leaf weight of class IV and class V were the highest, respectively.

    • Research Progress and Suggestion on Germplasms of Ash Gourd and Chieh-qua

      2014, 15(1):212-215.

      Abstract (2227) HTML (0) PDF 1.25 M (2769) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Ash gourd (Benincasa hispida Cogn.) and its variation of chieh-qua (Benincasa hispida Cogn.var. chieh-qua How.), originated in southern areas of China, now widely distributed in the tropical, subtropical and temperate parts of Asia, are traditional important vegetables and medical herbs. At the present time, only 299 accessions of ash gourd and 69 accessions of chieh-qua germplasms are distributed in national germplasm center in China, just several germplasm characteristics were simply and roughly descripted, however, many important germplasm characteristics information is blank and many different versions on genetic diversity of germplasm resources of ash gourd and chieh-qua are existed. Recommendations for future research directions: 1. to collect and rescue the plentiful germplasms scatted in folk and expand the national germplasms center in China. 2. to systematic survey the whole germplasm characteristics. 3. to construct the molecular identity information database of germplasms. 4. to distinguish the synonym and homonym germplasms, and construct the core germplasms.

    • Current situation and prospect of identification and evaluation of quality traits in crop germaplasm resources

      2014, 15(1):216-221.

      Abstract (2185) HTML (0) PDF 1.38 M (3750) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Identification and evaluation of quality traits is an important part of crop germplasm resource research. It is the foundation of crop germplasm resource deep excavation and wide use. This article reviewed the research in identification and evaluation of quality traits for the past few years. The progress in China was summarized: Main nutritional quality traits of 200,000 accessions (about 50% of saved) had been evaluated preliminarily;Contents of identification and evaluation involved widely and results were rich in variety and diversity; The standardization level of the identification and evaluation increased. The international development trend was also introduced. At last, the opinons and suggestions in development of domestic crop germplasm resources quality identification and evaluation were put forward.

    • Evaluation of Agronomic and Quality Characters of Quinoa Cultivated in Zhangjiakou

      2014, 15(1):222-227.

      Abstract (2322) HTML (0) PDF 4.10 M (2689) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:With agronomic and quality characters evaluated, four quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa willd) accessions were cultivated in Zhangjiakou, Hebei Province. Plant height ranged from 119.21 cm to 180.50 cm. Growth duration varied between 103 d and 118 d. The highest yield of the quinoa in Zhangjiakou reached 3637.32 kg hm-2. Contents of protein and oil were 14.79?.72% and 7.57?.17% respectively. Contents of aspartic acid, lysine and arginine were 1.37?.06%, 1.00?.03% and 1.47?.08% correspondingly. Saponin content was 2.12?.50%. These results demonstrate that trial planting of quinoa in Zhangjiakou is successful and could provide practical information for the promotion of quinoa in China.

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