Abstract:Biological resources is a core component of the Earth's biological diversity, and it is strategic resources of human existence and development. The rational utilization and protection of increasingly endangered biological resources are urgent in the world. The concept, importance and basic features of biological resources were outlined, and the number of species, management, utilization and endangered status of the world's biological resources were introduced in this paper. It had a certain reference value to protect the biological resources in China.
Abstract:There are rich in wild germplasm resources of edible mushrooms and cultivable 93 species arise in China, which belong to 33 genera. Among them, 70 species were domesticated successfully and 50 species were cultivated in various scale; 33 species were produced commercially, which belong to 5 orders, 12 families, 18 genera. Biosynthesis of edible mushrooms is different from autotrophic green plants which synthesize organic compounds by photosynthesis. And they are heterotrophic organisms which break down the photosynthate of plants and construct themselves by bodies absorption of nourishment penetration. This biosynthesis property results in difference of evaluation methods from green plants for wild edible mushroom germplasm. Compared with green plants, diversities of their fruiting bodies are simple in morphology and they are prone to be changed with influenced of environment conditions. It often results in confusion for the taxonomy identification based on morphology. On the other hand, Taxonomy to species is more difficult based on morphology in cultivable mushrooms which have multiple relative species in the same genus, for example, Pleurotus, Auricularia and Armillaria. Therefore, ITS sequencing generally was used to identify biological species for the sample and isolates in the wide germplasm evaluation of cultivable mushrooms. RAPD(Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA), ISSR(Inter-Simple Sequence Repeats) and ITS（Internal Transcribed Spacers）sequencing were used as routine tools to identify isolates genuineness because the isolates are usually contaminated by other fungi similar in colony character. The spores spreading with air flow makes mushrooms to distribute in widely geographical region, and it further generates differences among the individuals or population in one species. The difference of available cultivation characters is formed in the long-term evolution with various climate and ecological conditions. Cultivation characters are evaluated in the fruiting test, which are related in growth and temperature reaction for mycelia, fruiting character, yield, resistance, commodity shape and endurance for transportation. In order to take the distant advantages, the genetic distance will be analyzed for the germplasm materials compared with cultivated strains based on the test of biochemical or molecular biology.
Abstract:Broomcorn millet is the oldest crop, whose origin is from China, its Chinese name is called “shu ji”. The glutinous one is called “shu”; another one is called “ji”, which is not glutinous. The Chinese name of Broomcorn millet is not unified for a long time. Special for the name of “ji”, there is much debate in agriculture history circles; it is difficult to be a last word. The article introduces the process of origin and evolvement of Broomcorn millet, the modern cytology and genetics study of Broomcorn millet, and as the oldest domesticated crop, the relative recordation about the Broomcorn millet in Chinese ancient inscriptions on bones or tortoise shells and ancient agriculture books. All of above demonstrate that the origin of Broomcorn millet is earlier than Millet (Chinese name “su”), but the “ji” is different from the “su”, and Broomcorn millet is called “ruan mi” , “ying mi”, “mi shu” , “mi zi”, “shu zi” and other different names that is unadvisable .The “shu ji” shall be the standard name of Broomcorn millet.
Abstract:Sixty-six sesame germplasm were treated by waterlogging at the full flowering stage, and the results were showed that there were obvious difference in yield characteristics of monaxial and ramification sesame germplasm. The waterlogging index of seed weight per plant (69.18％) >capsules per plant (67.48％) > capsule nodes per plant (49.10％) >length of capsule axis (45.69％) > height per plant (16.40％) in monaxial germplasm and that of branch capsule nodes per plant (65.96％) > branch capsules per plant (64.73％) > total of capsules (52.01％) > seed weight per plant (49.92％) > main axis capsules per plant (41.66％)> length of main axis capsule axis per plant (37.57％) > branches per plant (34.21％) > main axis capsule nodes per plant (20.12％) > height per plant (15.43％) in ramification germplasm. Monaxial tricapsular germplasm treated by waterlogging showed waterlogging index of numbers of side capsule (92.25％) > numbers of middle capsule (50.25％), and ramification tricapsular germplasm with waterlogging showed waterlogging index of numbers of branch side capsule per plant (92.86％) > numbers of main axis side capsule per plant (69.14％) > numbers of branch middle capsule per plant (44.17％) > numbers of main axis middle capsule per plant (32.97％). According to clustering analysis on relative yield after waterlogging, these germplasm could be classified into waterlogging tolerance and non waterlogging tolerance type, 61 germplasm belonged to non waterlogging tolerance type, accounting for 92.42％, the other 5 germplasm with waterlogging tolerance were worth to be utilized, which were Zhushan Baizhima, Xiping Erlanghua, Funan Zhima, Jiaxing Jinkouhei and Macheng Heizhima, respectively, with the ratio of 7.58％.
Abstract:In order to explore the utility value of the much grains per spike of the wheat-Agropyron cristatum derivatives 3228 in wheat breeding, 3228 and its hybrids F1 derived from the crossing between 3228 and one of the five main cultivars from Huanghuai winter wheat area were planted in Beijing, Shanxi,and Sichuan, respectively. The main yield traits of the parents and their F1 were analyzed for their dominant and additive effects by MINQUE(1) approaches and AD models. The results indicated that the main yield traits had high siginificance in the additive variance ratio, and ordinary broad sense heritability accounted for the large proportion of the yield traits inheritance. Meanwhile, the additive effects of all the yield traits were interacted by environment. On the emphasis, Grains per spike of wheat-Agropyron cristatum derivatives 3228 has high siginificance in additive and dominant effects , the same as spike length and spikelets number in additive effect, which suggested 3228 would play an important role in increasing grains number per spike in the wheat yield traits improvement.
Abstract:In order to further understand the genetic mechanism on the resistance to turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) in elite radish germplasm, the inheritance was analyzed by applying the joint segregation analysis of a mixed genetic model of major gene plus polygene in six generations (P1, P2, F1, B1, B2 and F2) from the cross between highly resistant inbred line ‘Q07-12’ (P1) and highly susceptible line ‘KB07-10’(P2). The inheritance of resistance to TuMV was fitted by the two major genes plus polygenes mixed model (E model). In B1, B2 and F2 populations , the estimated heritability of major genes were 89 %,55 % and 95 %, respectively. The heritability of polygenes were 0, 40.9 % and 0 respectively . The environmental factors had small effect on the resistance to TuMV in radish. These results indicate that the elite resistant radish germplasm is of value in radish genetic improvement, and provide the genetic basis for improving the efficiency of breeding for TuMV-resistance.
Abstract:The plant species, their geographic distribution and nodulation of leguminous green manure plant in Yunnan tapped rubber plantation were investigated and evaluated in this paper. There are 22 genera and 42 species leguminous plants growing under rubber tree canopy in Yunnan Province. These plants are widely distributed with low plant population. Herbage, vine and bush are main growth types. There are a few species in each genera. The exploitment of these resources is limited. The nodulation rate of these plants is 88.2%. The large, round or oval shape, and pink or red color of root nodules were observed and recorded.
Abstract:In order to understand sugar metabolism in stalk of the sweet sorghum, content of glucose, fructose and sucrose and the activities of neutral invertase (NI), soluble acid invertase (SAI), sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) and sucrose synthase (SS) from six internodes of Cowley, Ramada and MN-2747 sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.)Moench) cultivars were assayed. The results shown that content of fructose, glucose and sucrose were different significantly within three cultivars, were 2.32~4.34mg/g, 2.30~4.14mg/g and 35.92~95.92mg/g respectively. Content of fructose and glucose showed a "U" type trend and content of sucrose had no significant changes, only a slight increase, with the internodes number (1~11). Enzyme activities of NI, SAI, SPS and SS in mature stem are generally low, and showed a decreasing trend with the internodes number (1~11). It was negatively correlated between sucrose content and SAI activity (R=-0.71), and no relationship with NI, SPS and SS activity in individual internodes. SAI is a key enzyme controlling sugar metabolism in the sweet sorghum stalk.
Abstract:Oats germplasm were the important basis of oat breeding. The research of oats genetic diversity not only contributed to the collection, management and utilization of germplasm, but also benefit to the conducting of the research of core collection. Genetic diversity of 74 accessions of hulled and naked oat,which were from different sources，were planted in Hohhot in Inner Mongolia Science and Technology Park, and analyzed by cluster analysis and principal component analysis for the purpose of investigating Genetic Diversity of Agronomic Characters. The result showed that the genetic diversity index of all traits were relatively large, grain weight per plant had the highest genetic diversity index, followed by TGW and panicle length .The variation coefficient of the tillering number per plant was the maximal，while grain weight per plant and the main spike grain weight was the next. The minimum genetic diversity index was presented by plant height. According to genetic difference of each characteristic among varieties, the 74 Germplasm Resources could be classified into 5 categories by cluster analysis, 36 accessions of hulled oat were be classified into 2 categories. and 26 accessions of naked oat were classified into 2 categories．7 accessions of hulled oat and 5 naked oat were classified into 1 category．The first group can be used as parents of high-yield breeding objectives,the third group can be used as parents of grain shape breeding objectives,the fourth and fifth can be used as parents of plant height and spikelet breeding objectives. The principal component analysis on quantitative characters showed that the accumulative contribution rate of the first four principal components accounted for 86.27% of the total variation accounted, the first principal component mainly reflected the yield ,while the second principal component reflected the grain shape.The third and fifth principal component reflected tiller number and plant height, respectively.
Abstract:A study on functional compositions of rice, which including 111 improved varieties of Yunnan province and 77 Yuanyang local varieties. Using Cheng's index to distinguish indica-japonica rice, spectrophotometry determination content of functional compositions (including resistant starch of polished rice; g-aminobutyric acid and flavones of unpolished rice), at last using SPSS software analysis the data．The main results are as follows:（1）All samples' content of RS is Indica＞Indica-like＞Japonica-like＞Japonica，but content of GABA is opposite，the relationship between Flavones and Indica-Japonica type is inconspicuous；（2）Content of RS and Flavones is colored＞colorless，but content of GABA is colorless＞colored． In a word，as to the functional content，colored＞colorless、Indica＞Japonica、unpolished＞polished、local＞improved．The colored、Indica、unpolished、improved type is best．It recovers the relationship between Indica-Japonica type、colored-colorless、local or improved、polished or unpolished ice and functional compositions．
Abstract:The cellulose synthase genes were searched and analyzed by using the Cellulose_synt domain sequences identified from the CesA genes in plants as queries in NCBI and other genome databases. Phylogenetic trees of cellulose synthase gene from 171 sequences of CesA in 10 species including eudicot and monocot published on the GenBank were generated by MEGA4.0. The results showed that these cluster in groups wherein orthologs were often more similar than paralogs, indicating that different subclasses evolved prior to the divergence of the monocot and eudicot lineages. These CesA genes in eudicot and monocot were originated from seven genes. Based on the information of biosynthesis of primary or secondary wall by CesA gene regulation in model plant, the function of some unknown genes could be speculated from the trees.
Abstract:CIPK (CBL-interacting protein kinase) interacts with calcium sensor CBL (calcineurin B-like protein). It was proved to play important roles in responding to stresses and regulating certain developmental processes in plants. Here, a recombinant plasmid was constructed for prokaryotic expression analysis for ZmCIPK31 obtained in this study. The results showed that the predicted target protein could be induced in the recombinant plasmid transformed E. coli BL21 strain cells. Protein solublility analysis proved the target protein was soluble. Thus, the purified soluble target protein was obtained by being loaded onto an amylose resin column, which can be used for further protein kinase assay. Meanwhile, a 2189 bp DNA fragment, upstream of the putative translation initiation site (ATG) of the gene, was obtained as ZmCIPK31 promoter region. A promoter motif search of this region showed that there were not only TATA-box and CAAT-box, but also motifs related to light, stress, development, auxin and others. Under polyethylene glycol (PEG) stress, the expression of ZmCIPK31 was induced. Moreover, the expression pattern of ZmCIPK31 in shoots was different from that in roots.
Abstract:In this study soybean cultivar Zhong Huang 18 was used as materials, and the genetic integrity of population with different germination percentage and their descendant population was investigated by 60 core SSR primers. The result showed that there was no significant difference in the allelic frequencies and the effective number of alleles of the aged population and their descendant population compared with the control population. It indicated that the allelic frequencies of the aged population and their descendant population changed slightly. There was no significant difference in the number of alleles, the index of genetic diversity, Shannon’s information index and the number of rare alleles between the control population with the germination percentage of 98% and its first and second descendant population, and the value of genetic identity was relatively high. The number of alleles, the index of genetic diversity, Shannon’s information index and the number of rare alleles of the aged population (G0-3 and G0-4) with the germination percentage below 85% and their first and second descendant population were significantly reduced compared with the control, and the value of genetic identity was relatively high.Therefore, seed aging maybe had a greater impact on the genetic composition of the soybean population than regeneration times.
Abstract:A total of 253 major wheat cultivars grown in Huanghuai wheat production area at different periods were screened for the starch synthesis genes by molecular markers. The results indicated that 8 of these cultivars were the null Wx-B1 type, and they were used to identify the amylose content. The results showed that significant variation was observed. The range of amylose content was 19.9%-33.3%，only Yumai47,83S502 and Zhongyu 5 with null Wx-B1 was below 27%.The 253 wheat cultivars were also screened for the SSⅡ gene mutations with three STS specific markers published in previous researches．The results indicated that 253 wheat cultivars were all wild type.
Abstract:Genetic diversity among 91 rice cultivars, which include 56 cultivars from three provinces of Northeastern China (Liaoning, Jilin, and Heilongjiang) and 35 cultivars from Beijing, Yunnan, Taiwan, Korea, Japan, and USA, were analyzed using 68 SSR markers. A total of 293 alleles were produced, and the average number of alleles per marker locus was 4.3. The PIC value per locus varied widely from 0.022 to 0.825 with an average value of 0.313. RM333 and RM206 have the most alleles(14 and 10)and showed highest PIC(0.825 and 0.805).The unrooted neighbor-joining tree analysis and comparison of diversity parameters among provinces of Northeastern China and other groups revealed that rice cultivars from three Northeastern provinces had narrow genetic diversity. Cultivars from Heilongjiang and Jilin , Heilongjiang and Japan, Jilin and Japan have very near genetic distance, which were 0.083,0.084 and 0.090 . Liaoning cultivars have some different genetic foundation from Heilongjiang and Jilin. Cluster analysis showed that the 9 regional groups could be clustered into five groups. The first group included Heilongjiang, Jilin, Japan and Korea ,the second group included Beijing and Liaoning ,and Taiwan, Yunnan, U.S.A each comprised the 3rd , the 4th and the 5th groups. These results collectively demonstrate that more diverse genetic resources from far geography position should be incorporated into rice cultivars in three provinces of Northeastern China in order to avoid the potential genetic vulnerability.
Abstract:Soybean cv. Zaoshu18 has been identified as an effective source resistant to Phytophthora root rot of soybean. The objectives of this study were to identify and map the Phytophthora resistance gene in Zaoshu18 in order to facilitate its utilization and marker-assisted breeding. Zaoshu18 was crossed with susceptible cultivar Williams to develop mapping populations. Genetic analysis of F2 and F2:3 progenies indicated that resistance to Phytophthora sojae in Zaoshu18 was controlled by a dominant single gene. The resistance gene was temporarily designated as RpsZS18. Based on linkage analysis of SSR markers, RpsZS18 was located on soybean molecular linkage group (MLG) D1b between SSR markers Sat_069 and Sat_183 with genetic distances 10.0 cM and 8.3 cM, respectively. This is the first locus for Phytophthora resistance that has been identified on MLG D1b.
Abstract:Genetic diversity of 30 japonica rice varieties, which were bred by Jiangsu Province or introduced from Japan, was analyzed by 64 SSR primers covered on 12 rice chromosomes. The results indicated that a total of 50 SSR primers performed polymorphism and 140 alleles loci were detected. The average number of alleles per SSR locus was 2.8 with a range from 2 to 5. The effective alleles were 94.336 with average 1.887. The value of allelic polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.064 to 0.752, on an average of 0.410 per SSR marker. The genetic similarity of paired varieties ranged from 0.386~0.956 with average 0.719, and the genetic similarity of 81.4％ tested materials ranged from 0.600 to 0.800．The results of UPGMA indicated that the 30 rice varieties could be clustered into three groups．Based on the pedigree analysis, it was concluded that the rice varieties in Jiangsu Province had closer genetic relationship with each other and the genetic diversity was not enough at present. It is necessary to explore the genetic resources and enlarge the genetic background in order to increase the yield in current rice breeding.
Abstract:Phenotypic diversity of 482 landraces and improved cultivars in foxtail millet mainly originating from Henan, Hebei, and Shandong provinces, China was investigated based on a field evaluation of 11 morphological and agronomic traits. Compared to the landrace cultivars, the improved cultivars had smaller diversity index and narrower frequency distribution of different types in the traits investigated. The mean plant height of the improved cultivars was significantly lower than the landraces. The improved cultivars had greater spike weight, grain weight per spike, and percentage of grain weight per spike in comparison with the landraces. The broad genetic diversity of the landraces is a valuable genetic resource for developing foxtail millet cultivars.
Abstract:In order to investigate and clarify the developmental mechanisms and the high survival rate of Dioscorea zingiberensis PLB (Protocorm-like body) transplant, morphological and anatomical characterizations of PLB and adventitious buds in vitro were studied using paraffin section techniques. Results showed that the PLB bud primordia and scale leaves were able to regenerate from the elliptical compact embryogenic cell masses, subsequently to form the PTM (primary thicking meristem) and procambium with the occurrence of the PLB morphogenesis. The high survival rate of PLB plantlets is largely due to the fact that the root primordium was inner-genetic and connected with the buds through the vascular system in PLB. Results also revealed that the adventitious buds could be stemmed from the meristematic cell masses derived from embryogenic cells on the surface of callus, while the adventitious roots regenerated from the surface of callus formed at the lowest stem, resulting in the low survival rate of plantlets cultured in vitro.
Abstract:Wheat substitution lines between Chinese Spring and Synthetic 6x under the treatments of phosphorus deficiency stress and phosphorus normal (control) were studied to locate the gene controlling yield traits. Several yield components such as grain weight per spike, 1000-grain weight and kernel number per spike were measured. The results showed that the genes promoting grain weight per spike might be located on 6A, 7A , 1B, 2B, 3B, 4B , 5B, 6B, and 7D chromosome of Synthetic 6x, and that the genes promoting 1000-grain weight might be located on 2A, 5a, 6 a, 3B, 5B, 6B, 7B, 5D and 7D chromosome, and that the genes promoting relative kernel number per spike might be located on 6A, 7A, 1B, 3B, 2D and 7D chromosome under the low-phosphorus stress. It is concluded that chromosome 3B and 7D of Synthetic 6x probably carry related genes tolerating low phosphorus stress.
Abstract:One hundred and eighty six soybean germplasms were screened for resistance to adult-plant and seed coat mottling by the inoculation of strain SMV1, and the coincident rate between adult-plant resistance, seed coat mottling resistance to SMV and linkage SSR markers were evaluated. The results showed that among these 186 germplasms, 38 were resistant to both adult-plant and seed coat mottling; 149 were only resistant to adult-plant; 45 were only resistant to seed coat mottling; And 26 were both susceptible to adult-plant and seed coat mottling. 6 SSR markers, Sat_229, Sat_317, Satt335, Satt160, Satt516 and Sat_309, related to SMV adult-plant resistance, were used to identify the 186 soybean germplasms. The coincident rates between the SSR alleles and the resistant presence were 68.9％, 74.3%, 71.1%, 69.8%, 77.4% and 68.2%， respectively; 8 SSR markers, Sat_297, Sat_229, Sat_317, Satt335, Sct_188, Satt160, Satt516 and Sat_133, related to SMV seed coat mottling resistance, were used to identify the 186 soybean germplasms, the coincident rates of Sat_317 alleles with the resistant presence were 79.1％, and that of Sat_229, Satt335, Satt516 and Sat_133 were all over 70％. These markers related to SMV1 resistance were available for the marker assisted selection for SMV resistance breeding.
Abstract:To develop an efficient and high resolution 2-DE procedure for wheat root proteome analysis, the method of wheat root protein extraction and sample preparation for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis （2-DE） were optimized by using the roots of wheat cultivars Jing-411 and Chinese Spring at two leaves stage. Separation results of wheat root protein by using the optimized method showed that better resolution of the electrophoresis patterns could be achieved. In particular, the protein samples extracted from Trizol reagent appeared to be better for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis separation, which could be used as an important tool for the studies on the wheat root proteome.