• Issue 2,2006 Table of Contents
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    • >特约稿件
    • Evaluation of Agronomic Traits of 358 Wheat Varieties Introduced from Europe

      2006(2):129-135.

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      Abstract:The characteristics of 358 varieties released in last century at 18 European countries were studied systematically. Variations of plant height, kernel number per ear and 1000-kernel weight were very rich. Indeed, plant height has been decreased significantly since the beginning of last century, and kernel number per spike has been increased. No association was detected between released time and 1000-kernel weight. The influence of plant height and heading date on both kernel number/spike and 1000-kernel weight was also analyzed. Importantly, some accessions with breeding potential traits were recommended to breeders. Pedigrees of several varieties were also presented in this paper.

    • >研究报告
    • Reproductive Characteristics of Oryza rufipogon Griff. in Gaozhou,Guangdong ProvinceⅡ.Embryo Sac Fertility, Embryo Sac Development, Embryogenesis and Endosperm Development

      2006(2):136-143.

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      Abstract:The mature embryo sac fertility, formation and development of embryo sac of 141 accessions of O. rufipogon Griff. collected from the six sampling sites in Gaozhou, Guangdong Province were studied by using the technology of whole-mount stain-clearing confocal laser scanning microscopy (WCLSM). The results showed that some abnormal phenomena to different extent, such as abnormal embryo sac with non-female germ unit, abnormal embryo sac with polar nuclei in position, abnormal embryo sac with polar nuclei in number and embryo sac abortion, etc., were found in mature embryo sac. Those abnormal embryo sacs having abnormal fertility dued to no normal eggs, which caused seed setting rate to drop. The mean percentage of abnormal embryo sac of all the 141 accessions was 11.11% and the highest one was 67.86%. Development of wide rice in Gaozhou was similar to that of O. sativa L., which belongs to the Polygonum type. Abnormal phenomena in different periods of embryo sac development, including degeneration of megaspore, embryo sac abnormality during the periods of two to eight nucleate etc., were found in the plants with low seed setting rate. Few pollens were found on the stigma of 69 accessions observed after pollination, which would cause low percentage of fertilization. It was considered that a few of pollen grains on the stigma was one of the main reasons making seed setting rate decrease. The comprehensive factors resulting in the low seed setting rate of wide rice in Gaozhou were discussed in this paper.

    • The Evaluating Criteria of Some Fruit Phenology Character of Peach(Prunus Persica) Genetic Resources

      2006(2):144-147.

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      Abstract:The beginning of blooming, the period of fruit ripening, beginning of leaf falling, ending of leaf falling, fruit development period, nutrition growth period of 301 to 480 peach cultivars were investigated at National Peach Genetic Collection in Zhengzhou. A kind of new descriptors and reference cultivars were given for peach by statistical data. These descriptors were recorded on 1 to 5 Grade. In generally, two reference cultivars were given, one USA cultivar, another cultivar which is planted widely in China.

    • Evaluation and Utilization of the Gerplasm Resources from International Network for Genetic Evaluation of Rice in Guangdong Province of China

      2006(2):148-152.

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      Abstract:6 nurseries of INGER (International network for genetic evaluation of rice) including IRBPHN, IRGMN, IRBN, IRBBN, IIRON and IRFAON were carried out in Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences of South China from 2001-2005. 1778 rice germplasm resources of INGER were tested. Numbers of germplasm with good agronomic characters were evaluated and selected for rice breeding. Nine new varieties used 4 gerplasm resources of INGER with good commercial qualities, high yields and resistance were passed the evaluation and made registration in Guangdong province and their plant area was up to 250000ha. These varieties made a great economic contribution and ecological effective in rice yield and management of brown plant hopper, rice blast and rice bacterial in the province. About 200 resistant gerplasm of rice were restored in the Plant Protection Research Institute and about 5000 gerplasm of rice were stored in the rice gerplasm store of the Rice Research Institute, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences. The gerplasm of rice from INGER in Guangdong take an important contribution in raising the level of studies on resistance to insect pest and disease, rice breeding and gerplasm utilization.

    • Genetic Variation of Transgenic Insect-resistant Cottons Using SSR and AFLP Markers

      2006(2):153-158.

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      Abstract:In the paper, genetic variation of 52 transgenic insect-resistant cottons was analyzed using SSR and AFLP molecular markers. The results showed among 61 SSR primers 4 could produce polymorphic markers. A total of 102 DNA fragments was scored, among which 25(24.51%) bands were polymorphic. The number of DNA bands per primer ranged from 17 to 30. Nine AFLP primer combinations were selected to perform AFLP fingerprinting from 100. The total bands and polymorphic bands were 618 and 33(accounted for 5.34%), respectively. The number of DNA bands per primer combination ranged from 47 to 81. Mean pairwise genetic distance of 52 varieties (lines) was 4.21, with the range of 2.00 to 5.57. Mean genetic distance for each variety ranged from 3.73 to 4.75. The limited genetic variation was revealed by these results in the population. Based on dendrogram of SSRs and AFLPs, 52 varieties (lines) were divided into three SSR/AFLP-based groups (SAGs). However, SAGs was not accordance with geographic origins of tested varieties (lines).

    • Genetic Diversity in Tartary Buckwheat Based on ISSR Markers

      2006(2):159-164.

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      Abstract:采用ISSR分子标记对来自9省的66份苦荞种质的遗传多样性进行分析,结果表明,18条ISSR引物共扩增出531条带,平均29.5个;其中多态性带514个,平均28.5个,多态率高迭96.8%。Nei's遗传相似系数在0.39~0.93之间。UPG-MA聚类分析显示,贵州地方品种、湖北地方品种和云南地方品种之间有明显的遗传差异。来自不同省的改良品种在遗传上有较高的相似性,并发现了4个独特的基因型,即来自云南的昆明灰苦荞、贵州的六养2号、湖北的神农架苦荞和湖南的凤凰苦荞,这几份材料在遗传上与其他材料具有很大的差别。云南地方品种闯的遗传差异较大,其次是贵州地方品种,湖北地方品种间遗传差异相对较小。ISSR分析结果显示,苦荞遗传多样性丰富,表明可以用ISSR对苦荞进行分子水平的鉴定和遗传多样性分析。

    • Identification of the Genes with Resistance to Leaf Mold and Tomato Mosaic Virus by PCR Reaction in Tomato

      2006(2):165-169.

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      Abstract:Single PCR reaction with two pairs of PCR primers designed on the markers respectively tightly linked with Cf-9 and Tm-1 genes in tomato, which be resistant to leaf mold and tomato mosaic virus. For the genes the PCR products were almost completely correspond to the amplified bands produced by single PCR primer. Among them, 560bp fragment linked with Cf-9 gene was amplified in both resistant and susceptible tomato lines. The amplified bands from susceptible and resistant lines were distinguishable after cleavage with the restriction enzyme TaqI. Genotype with Cf-9 gene could produce respectively 450bp, 330bp and 290bp bands. Susceptible genotypes could produce respectively 450bp and 290bp fragments. 750bp fragment linked with Tm-1 gene was amplified in resistant tomato line. The amplified bands could not be cleavaged with the restriction enzyme TaqI. The replicated stable results proved that two resistant genes could be identified simultaneously by using corresponding PCR primer under adaptable condition. This system compared with single primer PCR would be time saving, less labor and low cost. It could bevery useful for marker-assisted selection during early stage in tomato and efficiently speed up breeding procedure.

    • QTL Location of High Protein Gene in Rice Grain

      2006(2):170-174.

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      Abstract:利用由糙米蛋白含量高达14.55%的广东省农家品种三春种配制的BC1群体进行糙米高蛋白基因的QTL定位,定位到了6个糙米蛋白基因的QTLs,其中有3个新的QTLs。有1个增效基因qCP1-2为主效基因,解释的表型变异高达44.2%,有可能是与谷蛋白基因Glu-1紧密连锁的新调控序列。本研究表明,所利用的BC1群体的糙米蛋白可能主要是由1个主效QTL所控制。

    • Studies on Cytogenetics between Autotetraploid Sorghum and Johnsongrass

      2006(2):175-178.

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      Abstract:对约翰逊草、人工诱变四倍体高粱品系四沈甜及二者杂交种中期Ⅰ染色体构型、后期Ⅰ染色体行为进行了观察,并对花粉育性与结实率关系进行了研究。结果表明:约翰逊草、四沈甜及杂交种的染色体构型分别是:0.49Ⅰ+15.83Ⅱ+0.15Ⅲ+1.60Ⅳ、0.72Ⅰ+15.23Ⅱ+0.075Ⅲ十2.15Ⅳ、0.68Ⅰ+17.00Ⅱ+0.18Ⅲ+0.95Ⅳ。双亲及杂交种都是不规则的四倍体遗传群体。约翰逊草与同源四倍体高粱的染色体组间存在一定程度的同源性,杂交容易成功。

    • Validity of Appreciation of New Winter Wheat Germplasm Yield with the Rank Analysis Method by Variety Regional Trials

      2006(2):179-182.

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      Abstract:用秩次分析法,对6个年度参加河北省冬麦区中北部区域试验中的冬小麦新品系产量性状的稳定性进行评价。通过对各品种表现秩次值H2、环境区分指数YM、秩次均方值S^2等统计数的计算,进行品种间产量的高低度稳定性比较。对22个可评价参试品种给予客观公正的评价,因此证明秩次分析法对作物新种质品比试验中产量性能的评价是一种实用、可行的数据处理方法。

    • Study on Quality Properties in Vegetable Soybeans of Various Sources

      2006(2):183-187.

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      Abstract:对43个菜用大豆品种的外观品质、营养品质、食用品质进行测定,以发掘品质优良的菜用大豆资源,筛选出适合河北省种植的优良菜用大豆品种。研究表明,在外观品质中所有品种的荚长、荚宽、荚厚都能达到规定标准,其外观品质的主要限制因素是百粒鲜重、百荚鲜重和二粒荚百分比;营养品质中仅有蛋白质和脂肪含量能达到标准,维生素C、氨基酸、钙的含量在各品种间差别较大;在食用品质中只有少数品种的淀粉与可溶性糖的含量达到了要求。综合评价筛选出绿75、矮脚白毛、天禾早生65、札幌绿4个适于河北省种植的品质优良的菜用大豆品种。

    • Genetic Diversity Analysis and Evaluate of Liriodendron

      2006(2):188-191,196.

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      Abstract:Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to estimate genetic diversity of Liriodendron. Fourteen primers generated 235 bands from 131 samples. It was indicated that Liriodendron has high genetic diversity. (1)The polymorphic bands percentage of L.chinense (Hemsl.)Sarg., L.tulipifera L. and hybrid clones ware 88.98%,91.06% and 89.98% ,respectively. (2)The genetic variation was observed within populations. (3)Clustering data indicated that the hybrid clones is close to L. tulipifera L. in heredity. Basic data were provided for further studies on the genetic variation, selection and evaluation of Liriodendron.

    • Tolerance of NaCl Stress on Different Pumpkin Seedlings

      2006(2):192-196.

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      Abstract:Effect of 300mmol/L NaCl stress on salt injury index, electrolytic leakage, proline content and soluble sugar content in pumpkin seedlings of 19 varieties was investigated. The results showed that salt injury index, electrolytic leakage, proline content and soluble sugar content increased with prolonging time of NaCl stress. It was suggested that salt injury index and electrolytic leakage could be suitable for selecting salt tolerance of different pumpkins. In this research, it was also found that Q1(Cucurbita moschata Duch. Qingli) was the most salt-tolerant of salt stress, H2(Cucurbita maxima Duch. Heimi) and H3(Cucurbita ficifolia Bouche.) were sensitive to salt stress, and others were in middle.

    • Drought Tolerance and Enzyme Activity in the Drooping Leaf Rice Mutant and Its Crossing Progenies

      2006(2):197-203.

      Abstract (2223) HTML (0) PDF 0.00 Byte (498) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:在水分胁迫条件下时两个粳型水稻披垂叶突变体品系及其与常规籼、粳品种的杂交后代(F1、F2)进行苗期耐旱性鉴定,并测定了旱种条件下突变体及其杂交后代不同生育期过氧化物酶(POD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性的变化以及相关农艺性状的特征。结果表明:两个水稻披垂叶突变体MR304和MR312的苗期耐旱性均为中抗;MR312与7个品种的11个杂交后代(F1)中,仅有文稻2号/MR312组合的苗期耐旱性为高抗,MR312/滇香籼1号为中抗;在昆明旱种条件下,突变体及其杂交后代POD和CAT的活性分别在孕穗期和抽穗期最高,其中4个组合(银光/MR312、农安稻/MR312、文稻2号/MR312和MR312/滇香籼1号)F1孕穗期POD或抽穗期CAT的活性最强,株高、分蘖、穗长趋于正常。该研究揭示了利用水稻披垂叶突变体产生的F1杂种优势可增强杂交稻大田期的耐旱性;孕穗期的POD活性和抽穗期的CAT活性是鉴定杂交后代F1和F1植株大田期耐旱性的重要指标。

    • Nitrogen Use Efficiency and Yield Traits in Different Wheat Varieties

      2006(2):204-208.

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      Abstract:The grain yields and nitrogen use efficiencies of 29 varieties were studied. The results indicated that there were huge differences on grain yields among the tested varieties. Based on the Cluster analysis of the grain yields from deficient-N condition, the tested varieties were classified into three categories, including high-N efficiency group, mid-N efficiency group and low-N efficiency group. The high-N efficiency group contained few tested varieties. Under deficient-N condition, there were little differences on total nitrogen content of plant at maturity stage among the tested wheat varieties. The nitrogen concentration of plant, biomass, nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), nitrogen uptake efficiency (UPE) and nitrogen utilization efficiency (UTE) were all the highest in varieties with high-N efficiency, then next in varieties with middle-N efficiency, and the lowest in varieties with low-N efficiency. The high efficiency of nitrogen in wheat under nitrogen stress condition comes from the higher acquisition capacity, assimilation and metabolic capacity.

    • Analysis on Correlation between Genetic Distance of Rice Parents and Heterosis with SSR Molecular Marker

      2006(2):209-214.

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      Abstract:利用5个光温敏核不育系与40个恢复系(品种)配制了200个组合,应用SSR标记估算了这5个不育系与40个恢复系之间的遗传距离,分析了遗传距离与杂种优势的关系。结果表明:(1)不同材料、不同遗传距离范围之间,遗传距离与单株产量以及有效穗数、穗长、每穗粒敷、着粒密度、结实率、千粒重、单株产量7个性状超亲优势的相关性有很大差别,表现出很复杂的关系。(2)田丰S与父本遗传距离在0.6286~2.5257之间时,F1单株产量及其超亲优势与遗传距离极显著相关;培矮64S与父本遗传距离在0.8247~1.5315之间时,F1单株产量与遗传距离显著相关。(3)所有两系组合亲本间遗传距离在0.5333~1.5之间时,F1单株产量超亲优势与遗传距离显著相关;遗传距离在0.5333~1.0之间时,F1单株产量与遗传距离显著相关,遗传距离分别在1.0~1.5、0.5333~1.5和0.5333~2.5257之间时极显著相关。(4)另外,F1单株产量与遗传距离的相关程度普遍高于其超亲优势与遗传距离的相关程度。

    • SSR and STS Polymorphisms in Seed Testing for Peanut Cultivars

      2006(2):215-219.

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      Abstract:采用10份花生品种材料,对通过数据库查询设计合成的SSR引物和其他作者发表的SSR引物及STS引物进行了评估,并基于品种间简单匹配系数做了聚类分析。获得62个能产生多态性片段的SSR和STS引物对,总共获得427条带,其中291条(68.1%)为多态性带。平均每对引物产生6.88条带,4.69条为多态性带;多态性条带比率为16.7%~100%,PIC值为0.254~0.952,平均为0.760。9对SSR/STS引物,即Lec-1、Ah4-26、Ah4-4、SsS14、SHPAL-1、PG71、PG43、PM36、PG22,对所采用的10份花生品种区分率达到10096。说明SSR和STS标记应用于花生品种鉴定有效。

    • Effect of NaCl Stress on Germination of Different Watermelon Varieties

      2006(2):220-225.

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      Abstract:In order to screen watermelon varieties in salt tolerance, germination experiments of 23 genotype watermelon varieties were done in 7 NaCl concentration . The results showed germination rate decreased with the NaCl concentration increasing and in mostly varieties were equal or increased comparing with those treated in 40-80mmol/L. Under 80-160mmol/L NaCl stress, the significant correlation was existed between 1000-grain weight and germination rate, among which the largest correlation coefficient was 0.606. Effects of the same NaCl concentration on the lateral root numbers, root length, root fresh weight, hypocotyls length and salinity injure index among different watermelon varieties were different ,and the results indicated that the tetraploid watermelon possessed higher salt tolerance than diploid. By the dendrogram of cluster analysis according to 5 principal components (germination rate, lateral root,et al), 23 varieties were affiliated with 4 clusters and the second cluster were identified to be best and salt tolerance of 6 varieties were better.

    • Selective Indexes of Drought-resistance for Hybrid Descendents of Jinhan125 × Xiye501

      2006(2):226-230.

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      Abstract:Four lines including Jinhan125,Xiye501 and their cross offspring were selected as test materials. Physiological and ecological indexes relevant to drought-tolerance in seedling and flower-podding stage were determined by laboratory testing and field observation. In the condition of normal water supply and drought stress,the flower-podding stage was the most sensitive stage to water content in whole stages. We determined relative water content,ability of water holding,proline content,activity of POD,SOD,EST and analyzed their bands. The result indicated that the order of drought-tolerance was as follows: Jinhan125,73-1,73-2,Xie501,73-3,73-4.

    • >研究报告
    • Identification of Indical-japonical Character and Analysis on the Yield Combination Ability for the New Germplasm Yihui1577

      2006(2):231-233,251.

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      Abstract:This paper made an identification about six agronomic trait of Yihui 1577 including lemma hair, phenor reaction, the first and second internode's length, the hull color while heading, leaf hair and grain shape with the morphological index method founded by Prof. Chen Kansheng. This study has proved Yihui 1577 belonging to japonicalinous restorer line. Yield combination analysis of Yihui 1577 was made by partial complete double cross design with 4 CMS lines and 6 restore lines. The result showed that the general combination ability effect value of Yihui 1577 and Minghui 63 was 0.226 and -0.113, indicating Yihui 1577's general combination ability was prior to Minghui 63's.

    • Combining Ability and Heterosis Analysis for Rice Quality Traits in Some Elite Parents

      2006(2):234-238.

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      Abstract:Thirty hybrids and their 13 parents (3 male sterile lines and 10 restorer lines) were studied on the combining ability and heterosis for rice quality. The results showed that:(i) Most quality traits of rice hybrids had the measurements between their parents and no significant heterosis except the grain weight showed the over-high-parent heterosis, grain chalkiness had positive average heterosis. (ii) Male sterile lines and restorer lines had a great effect on the hybrid rice quality. Grain length, grain width and amylose content heavily depended on the male sterile lines, but head rice rate, grain weight, chalky grain rate, grain chalkiness and alkali spreading value greatly depended on the restorer lines than the male sterile lines. (iii) Parents Guangzhan 63-4S, Yangdao 6, R527 and Zhenhui 084 had good GCA and SCA,and can be widely used for new quality hybrids breeding. Teqing and Yanghui 559 had the low GCA and SCA and less significance for rice quality breeding.

    • >专题论述
    • Advances in Genetic Research of Grain Anthocyanins Content in Rice

      2006(2):239-245.

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      Abstract:Rice anthocyanin is an important bioactive compound that has been the highlight of functional rice research and development. Current researches on biosynthesis and component of rice anthocyanin, especially on the influence elements, genetics research and molecular mechanism of rice anthocyanin content, and the identification, screening and innovation of rice germplasm with high anthocyanin content were reviewed. The strategy of corresponding researches on functional rice for high anthocyanin content was discussed furthermore.

    • >研究简报
    • A Rapid Isolation Method of Wheat DNA Suitable for PCR Analysis

      2006(2):246-248.

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      Abstract:A lot studies in wheat molecular biology need to do PCR testing to many accessions of wheat samples. Thus it is very necessary to establish a rapid DNA isolation in wheat. A rapid DNA isolation method built in rice and maize was tried in wheat after performing some modifications. The modified DNA extraction method needs even less time. With the DNA isolated with this method, 1.5kb fragment could be amplified stably. Besides the DNA quantity extracted with this method was quite considerable, one sample could meet 50-100 PCR reactions. So the DNA samples from this rapid isolation method can also be used to do primer selection, gene mapping or other PCR assays.

    • Creation and Utilization of the New Soybean Germplasm Longpin 03-311 with High Protein Content and Diseases Resistance

      2006(2):249-251.

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      Abstract:According to the principle that geographical and genetical distant materials have high heterosis because of genes complement, we crossed high yield and good agronomic characters line origining from Japanese soybean blood as female parent and a promising line having high protein content and derived from wild soybean as male parent. The soybean frogeye leaf spot was inoculated in early generations, and in advanced generations the quality had been analyzed and the soybean phytothora rot was inoculated. By directed selective breeding the new elite soybean germplasm that have multiple high protein, diseases resistance and high yield genes was derived, it had abundant genetic basis, its protein content was above 45 %, and it was resistant to frogeye leaf spot and phytothora rot.

    • Selection and Evaluation of Sweetpotato Germplasm with Resistance to Bacterial Wilt

      2006(2):252-255.

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      Abstract:通过常规杂交和杂种后代的抗瘟鉴定,创新和筛选出多份抗薯瘟材料。同时,对46份抗薯瘟病Ⅱ型菌系种质的主要性状进行鉴定和评价,表明泉薯148和American No.7二个抗瘟品种(系)兼具高产、高干(粉)和食用品质优等性状。

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