1.National Agricultural Technical Extension and Service Center;2.Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences;3.Shanxi Province Seed Industry Development Center,Taiyuan;4.Hebei Seed Station;5.Tianjin Agricultural Development Service Center
National Scientific and Technological Innovation Major Projects (2022ZD04019)
北部冬麦区是我国重要的小麦主产区之一，对该麦区历年国审小麦品种进行回溯分析有助于小麦品种资源的合理利用。本研究基于产量与早熟性、穗数、穗粒数、千粒重、容重、品质指数、抗病指数和抗寒指数等性状的组合，采用品种-产量×性状组合(genotype by yield×trait, GYT)双标图方法对2003－2023年期间北部冬麦区47个国审小麦品种进行了综合分析和分类评价。结果表明，北部冬麦区历年国审小麦品种可划分为4个特征显著的品种类型。其中，Ⅰ型品种综合表现优秀，在产量与早熟性、抗病性、抗寒性、千粒重和容重等性状组合上表现突出，在产量与穗数、穗粒数和品质指数组合上表现优良，在生产上推广应用价值最高，主要包括京麦179、京农16、津麦3118、京麦189、京花12号、农大3486、航麦2566和中麦93等8个品种。Ⅱ型品种综合表现优良，在产量与品质指数、穗数组合上表现突出，在产量与抗病指数、抗寒指数组合上表现稍差，在生产上推广应用价值较高，但应注意生产安全，主要包括京麦202、京农19、轮选158、中麦623、京麦183、京农72、中麦Z21、长6794、京麦186、中麦5051、京农14-62、轮选149和中麦121等13个品种。Ⅲ型品种的产量与抗病和抗寒指数组合最好，但在其余性状组合上表现差，综合生产应用价值有限，可作为抗性亲本。Ⅳ型品种综合表现较差，可选择单性状表现优良的品种作为育种亲本应用。根据各品种在GYT双标图ATA轴上的投影位置，筛选出综合表现优良的京麦179、京农16、津麦3118、京麦189、京麦202、京花12号、京农19、轮选158和中麦623等品种，以及表现综合表现较差的北农9549、津农4号、京冬12、晋农207、中麦415、石优20号、邯4564、长4738、轮选518和津农7号等品种。本研究采用GYT双标图分析方法基于“产量-性状”组合水平对北部冬麦区小麦品种进行综合评价和分类研究，为其他作物和地区的类似研究提供了范例。
The northern winter wheat region (NWWR) is one of the main wheat producing areas in China. A retrospective analysis of the nationally approved wheat varieties will facilitate rational utilization of wheat variety resources in wheat production in the region. Genotype by yield-trait (GYT) biplot analysis was used to cluster and comprehensively evaluate 47 wheat varieties nationally approved for NWWR during 2003-2023 based on the combinations of grain yield with other target traits including earliness, spike number per hectare, grain number per spike, 1000-grain weight, test weight, quality index, disease resistance index, and cold resistance index. The results showed that these wheat varieties could be classified into four distinct variety types. Type Ⅰ includes 8 varieties, i.e. Jingmai 179, Jingnong 16, Jinmai 3118, Jingmai 189, Jinghua 12, Nongda 3486, Hangmai 2566 and Zhongmai 93, characterized by outstanding combination of yield with earliness, disease resistance, cold resistance, 1000-grain weight and test weight, and excellent performance in the combination of yield and spike number, grain number per spike and a quality index, and therefore has the highest value in wheat production. Type Ⅱ varieties constituted of 13 varieties, including Jingmai 202, Jingnong 19, Lunxuan 158, Zhongmai 623, Jingmai 183, Jingnong 72, Zhongmai Z21, Chang 6794, Jingmai 186, Zhongmai 5051, Jingnong 14-62, Lunxuan 149 and Zhongmai 121, characterized by superior combination of yield with a quality index and spike number, but slightly poor combinaiton between yield and disease resistance and cold tolernace. These varieties are valuable in wheat production in the region as soon as diseases and winterkill are under control. Type Ⅲ varieties had the best combination of yield with disease resistance and cold resistance index, but were poor in combination between yield and other traits. Therefore, their value in production is limited, but could be used as disease-resistant parents in wheat breeding. Type Ⅳ varieties were poor in overall yield-trait combination; but some may be outstanding in a single and can be used as breeding parents. Based on the projection position of each variety on the average yield-trait axis (ATA) of the GYT biplot, Jingmai 179, Jingnong 16, Jinmai 3118, Jingmai 189, Jingmai 202, Jinghua 12, Jingnong 19, Lunxuan 158 and Zhongmai 623 were identified to have superior overall yield-trait combination. While the varieties Beinong 9549, Jinnong 4, Jingdong 12, Jinnong 207, Zhongmai 415, Shiyou 20, Han 4564, Chang 4738, Lunxuan 518 and Jinnong 7 had poor overall yield-trait combination. This study provided an example for the use of GYT biplot for comprehensive wheat cultivar evaluation and classification based on yield-trait combinations for the NWWR region, which can be applied to other crops and regions.