Chongqing Science and Technology Commission Project (cstc2019jcyj-msxmX0125, cstc2018jxjl80008, cstc2019jscx-msxmX0384); The National R&D Infrastructure and Facility Development Program of China (Chongqing Low Solar Radiation and High Temperature with Summer Drought Districts Grain and Oil Crops of National Observation and Research Station)
In order to provide reference for germplasm enhancement and variety improvement, the phenotypic diversity of 434 sorghum germplasms with different origins were analyzed. The results showed that sorghum germplasms used in this study presented abundant phenotypic variations at multiple traits. The diversity indices (H') of panicle type, panicle shape and leaf disease were 1.0454, 0.9244 and 1.1718, respectively. The moderate H' at plant height, main panicle length, 1000-grain weight, ear stem length and kernel weight per panicle was found with 2.0463, 2.0259, 2.0093, 1.9807 and 1.9210, respectively. The positive correlation between plant height with main panicle length and growth period was observed, while a negative correlation was detected between plant height and kernel weight per panicle. Cluster analysis suggested three sub-groups from 434 sorghum germplasm accessions, including: Cluster I, which contain elite lines suitable for forage or energy; Cluster II, in which germplasm materials are considerably used for cultivating processing sorghum; Cluster III, in which valuable source for grain sorghum germplasm enhancement and cross breeding are present.