Genetic diversity among 91 rice cultivars, which include 56 cultivars from three provinces of Northeastern China (Liaoning, Jilin, and Heilongjiang) and 35 cultivars from Beijing, Yunnan, Taiwan, Korea, Japan, and USA, were analyzed using 68 SSR markers. A total of 293 alleles were produced, and the average number of alleles per marker locus was 4.3. The PIC value per locus varied widely from 0.022 to 0.825 with an average value of 0.313. RM333 and RM206 have the most alleles(14 and 10)and showed highest PIC(0.825 and 0.805).The unrooted neighbor-joining tree analysis and comparison of diversity parameters among provinces of Northeastern China and other groups revealed that rice cultivars from three Northeastern provinces had narrow genetic diversity. Cultivars from Heilongjiang and Jilin , Heilongjiang and Japan, Jilin and Japan have very near genetic distance, which were 0.083,0.084 and 0.090 . Liaoning cultivars have some different genetic foundation from Heilongjiang and Jilin. Cluster analysis showed that the 9 regional groups could be clustered into five groups. The first group included Heilongjiang, Jilin, Japan and Korea ,the second group included Beijing and Liaoning ,and Taiwan, Yunnan, U.S.A each comprised the 3rd , the 4th and the 5th groups. These results collectively demonstrate that more diverse genetic resources from far geography position should be incorporated into rice cultivars in three provinces of Northeastern China in order to avoid the potential genetic vulnerability.