研究小麦加倍单倍体无性系和品种间杂交后代中高分子量麦谷蛋白亚基（High molecular weight glutenin subunits, HMW-GS）变异，探讨通过花药培养和杂交手段获得HMW新亚基或改良HMW-GS组成的可能性。通过对Alondra、Orofen、新春9号、Verry、百农3217等小麦品种进行花药培养，培育出足够数量的加倍单倍体近等基因系；同时，以新春9号、京771、CB037、中国春、宁春4号、Bobwhite、扬麦12号、京冬8号等高分子量麦谷蛋白亚基组成不同的小麦品种相互间配制正交和反交组合；利用SDS-PAGE对加倍单倍体近等基因系和杂交后代籽粒中的HMG-GS进行电泳分析；对加倍单倍体近等基因系主要农艺性状进行了调查。发现小麦加倍单倍体无性系中HMW-GS发生了频繁变异，Alondra加倍单倍体中变异率最高（61.8%），Verry加倍单倍体次之（16.7%），均出现了原始材料中所不具备的亚基类型；田间调查和考种结果表明，HMW-GS发生变异的典型发现加倍单倍体其主要农艺性状与原始品种基本一致；HMW-GS在部分F1杂种中呈现不完全共显性，有的组合中出现了亚基表达沉默和正、反交亚基表达不一致现象，尤其在宁春4号/CB037、京771/宁春4号2个组合中出现了双亲所不含有的亚基；通过连续自交和对新出现亚基的跟踪选择，已获得了表达新亚基的高代株系。花药培养和杂交能够诱导HMW-GS组成变异，甚至出现新亚基，HMW-GS表达在所有品种间杂交后代中并不一定完全共显性，在一些组合中也存在细胞质效应。研究结果对于改良小麦加工品质，加深了解小麦HMW-GS编码基因的遗传特性结构特性等具有理论意义和实践价值。
High molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) in the doubling haploids from stable cultivars and the crossing hybrids between different varieties of common wheat were analyzed to explore the possibility of improving the subunit compositions by anther culture and commercial crossing. Double haploids from five wheat genotypes of Alondra, Orofen, Xinchun9, Verry, and Bainong3217 were obtained by anther culture, and different hybrids were made each other from different wheat lines with different HMW-GS constitutions such as Xingchun9, Jing771, CB037, CS, Ningchun4, Bobwhite, and yangmai12 by crossing. Then, SDS-PAGE was used to analyze the populations of the doubling haploids and the crossing hybrids for HMW-GS combinations. The results indicated that frequent variation of HMW-GS happened in the doubled haploids with a rate up to 61.8% in the test genotypes, among which Alondra and Bainong3217 gave higher variation frequency than other three varieties, and several subunits might be new ones which are not present in the corresponding wild types, but need to be identified further. Comparing with the donor lines, the typical double haploids varied in HMW-GS were not changed in main agronomic characteristics such as plant height, growth period, and grain weight. In most F1 hybrids, the expression of all HMW-GS appeared to be co-dominant, but the expression of one or two HMW-GSs was did found to be suppressed in a few F1 crosses. Cytoplasm of female parents was found to have some effect on the expression of very few subunits in a few crosses. At the same time, 2-3 possible new subunits that did not exist in the parents were observed in the two crosses, Ningchun4/CB037 and Jing771/Ningchun4. By continuous self-crossing and tracing of the new subunits, stable lines expressing the putative new subunits were obtained from the two crosses mentioned above. Variation of HMW-GSs constitution or new HMW-GS can be induced by anther culture and normal cross. Co-dominant of HMW-GS expression did not definitely exist in all F1 crosses. Cytoplasm did effect the expression of HMW-GS in some cases. The present study is theoretical and practical valuable for the improvement of wheat processing quality and the further understanding of the genetic and structural features of HMW-GSs encoding genes.