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  • 吴端,王力军,杨仕梅,等.植物种子a-亚麻酸形成及调控机理研究进展[J].植物遗传资源学报,2020,21(1):49-62.    [点击复制]
  • WU Duan,WANG Li-jun,YANG Shi-mei,et al.Advances on Formation and Regulation Mechanism of A-linolenic Acid in Seeds[J].植物遗传资源学报,2020,21(1):49-62.   [点击复制]
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植物种子a-亚麻酸形成及调控机理研究进展
吴端1, 王力军2, 杨仕梅1, 沈奇1, 赵德刚1
0
(1.贵州大学生命科学学院/农业生物工程研究院/山地植物资源保护与种质创新教育部重点实验室/山地生态与农业生物工程协同创新中心;2.中国农业科学院油料所芝麻与特色油料研究室)
摘要:
a-亚麻酸是人体必需但不能自身合成的ω-3 系列多不饱和脂肪脂肪酸,主要来源于植物油脂。由于大宗油料作物 种子油脂中 ALA 含量普遍较低,所以探寻新的种质资源,了解 a-亚麻酸形成及调控机理,对于油脂营养膳食健康及植物油脂 改良具有重要意义。种子中富含 a-亚麻酸的陆生植物资源有紫苏、亚麻、杜仲、油用牡丹、奇亚、藿香、香薷、猕猴桃、星 油藤等。在植物中,ω-3FAD 是催化 LA 转化生成 ALA 的关键酶,ω-3FAD 由在质体中 FAD3 及在内质网中的 FAD7 及 FAD8 组成。 目前通过基因组及转录组研究已极大的丰富了ω-3FAD 基因家族的鉴定及研究。其中,FAD3 基因是种子 ALA 合成的关键基因, 其表达受多个转录因子的调控,bZIP、 WRI1、LEC、ABI3、FUS3、ASIL1 和 PKL 等转录因子通过相互作用调控 FAD3 基因表达, 决定油料作物种子中 a-亚麻酸的含量。本文即综述了高含量 a-亚麻酸油料植物资源分布,以及主要油料植物种子中油脂脂肪 组成及 ALA 的含量,种子 ALA 生物合成基本途径及关键基因,植物ω-3 脂肪酸脱饱和酶类型及功能以及ω-3FAD 的关键调控 因子,以期为高 ALA 植物新资源的利用,以及油料植物脂肪酸成分改良等相关研究提供理论依据。
关键词:  a-亚麻酸  脂肪酸合成及组装  ω-3FAD基因  转录因子
DOI:10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20191024001
投稿时间:2019-10-24修订日期:2019-10-25
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(31860391);贵州特色植物种质资源利用与创新人才基地(RCJD2018-14);贵州省科技支撑计划项目(黔科合 NY 字 [2016]3052 号;黔科合支撑[2018]2346 号);黔农科院青年基金[2018]03 号;黔农科院青年基金[2018]24 号);国家油料种质资源平台(NICGR2019014); 特种油料种质资源保护及利用(2019NWB033-4)
Advances on Formation and Regulation Mechanism of A-linolenic Acid in Seeds
WU Duan1, WANG Li-jun2, YANG Shi-mei1, SHEN Qi1, ZHAO De-gang1
(1.Key Laboratory of Plant Resource Conservation and Germplasm Innovation in Mountainous Region (Ministry of Education)/Collaborative Innovation Center for Mountain Ecology & Agro-Bioengineering (CICMEAB)/College of Life Sciences/Institute of Agro-bioengineering, Guizhou University;2.Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences Oil crops research institute sesame and Special oil crops research office ,wuhan)
Abstract:
A-linolenic acid is an omega-3 series polyunsaturated fatty acid that is essential for the human body but cannot be synthesized by itself. It is mainly derived from vegetable oils and fats. Due to the generally low ALA content in the oils and fats of bulk oil crops, exploring new germplasm resources and understanding the formation and regulation mechanism of a-linolenic acid are of great significance for the nutrition and diet of oils and the improvement of plant oils. The a-linolenic acid has been detected with abundance in seeds of land plants such as Perilla frutescens, Linum usitatissimum, Eucommia ulmoides, Paeonia suffruticosa, Salvia Hispanica, Agastache rugosa, Elsholtzia ciliate, Actinidia chinensis, Plukenetia volubilis. Fatty acid desaturase such as Δ9FAD, Δ6FAD, Δ12FAD, Δ15FAD is able to regulate the desaturation of the polyunsaturated fatty fatty acid carbon chain. In plants, omega-3FAD is a key enzyme complex that catalyzes the conversion of LA to ALA. The omega-3FAD consists of FAD3 in the plastid and FAD7 and FAD8 in the endoplasmic reticulum. To date, the identification of the omega-3FAD gene family have been greatly accelerated taking advantage of genome and transcriptome studies. Among them, the FAD3 gene is a key gene involved in seed ALA synthesis, whose expression is regulated by multiple transcription factors. For instances, transcription factors such as bZIP, WRI1, LEC, ABI3, FUS3, ASIL1 and PKL are able to regulate the FAD3 gene expression through interaction, and therefore result in the oil content of crop seeds. This paper reviewed the distribution of high-content a-linolenic acid oil plant resources, as well as the fat and fat composition and ALA content of the main oil plant seeds, the basic pathways and key genes of seed ALA biosynthesis, and the types and functions of plant omega-3 fatty acid desaturase, as well as the key regulators of omega-3FAD, in order to provide a theoretical basis for the use of high ALA plant resources and oil plant fatty acid composition improvement.
Key words:  ALA  fatty acid synthesis and assembly  ω-3FAD gene  transcription factor

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