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  • 范昱,丁梦琦,张凯旋,等.荞麦种质资源概况[J].植物遗传资源学报,2019,20(4):813-828.    [点击复制]
  • Fan Yu,Ding Meng-qi,Zhang Kai-kuan,et al.Germplasm resource of the genus Fagopyrum Mill .[J].植物遗传资源学报,2019,20(4):813-828.   [点击复制]
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荞麦种质资源概况
0
(1.成都大学,农业部杂粮加工重点实验室;2.中国农业科学院作物科学研究所;3.四川旅游学院食品学院)
摘要:
荞麦是一种重要的药食饲多用的作物,中国是全球最大的苦荞生产国和世界荞麦多样性中心,而我国西南地区是国际公认的荞麦起源地。种质资源是农作物生产利用、品种创新和生物技术研究的物质基础,具有十分重要的价值和意义。自20世纪80年代以来,我国学者收集了约有3000余份栽培荞麦种质资源,其中2200余份保存于我国长期库中这些栽培荞麦经过自然演变、人工培育和传播后,已在全世界范围广泛分布,兼具代表性和多样性。本文综述了我国甜荞和苦荞的产区分布现状、资源收集和保存概况,以及近40年来对我国荞麦资源的农艺性状和营养品质的鉴定评价情况;并简要介绍了世界上其他国家和组织对于荞麦种质资源的的收集和评价现状,以期为荞麦种质资源保护和合理利用提供参考。同时,本文对已报道的荞麦属野生种(含变种、亚种)及分布现状进行了归纳,对其主要性状的特征和变异情况进行了总结,并归纳了了国内外对于野生荞麦资源的开发利用方面的研究进展,结果表明,我国西南地区野生荞麦资源尤为丰富,除个别种如金荞以外,均主要集中于滇黔川边界地区。最后,本文对我国荞麦种质资源利用的不足和展望进行了讨论,提出仍需推进以下工作:(1)全面、系统、量化地建立荞麦的种质资源农艺性状、营养组分、加工品质、食味品质等性状的评价体系,继续完善我国荞麦种质资源评价和品质鉴定工作;(2)大力挖掘荞麦在作物布局和特色经济作物价值潜力,加快推进我国荞麦优质种质的选育和合法引进,推进荞麦产业健康有序快速发展;(3)关注野生荞麦生存环境恶化的问题。特别如岩野野荞、抽葶野荞、皱叶野荞、海螺沟野荞等的生存环境急剧恶劣,其分布区域更加狭隘,急需加大对珍惜野生资源进行抢救性的考察、收集和保护工作;(4)从分子水平进一步解析荞麦黄酮类化合物特别是芦丁的生物合成途径关键基因和调控基因的功能,以及分子调控网络的机理。
关键词:  荞麦  种质资源  分布  性状评价  品质鉴定
DOI:
投稿时间:2019-04-28修订日期:2019-05-28
基金项目:国家重点研发计划中欧政府间合作项目(2017YFE0117600); 国家自然科学基金面上项目(31871536); 中国科协中国作物学会青年托举计划项目(2017QNRC182)
Germplasm resource of the genus Fagopyrum Mill .
Fan Yu1,2, Ding Meng-qi3, Zhang Kai-kuan3, Yang Ke-li3, Tang Yu4, Fang Wei3, Yan Jun1, Zhou Mei-liang3
(1.Key Laboratory of Coarse Cereal Processing,Ministry of Agriculture;2.Institute of Crop Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences;3.Institute of Crop Sciences,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences;4.College of Food Science and Technology,Sichuan Tourism University,Chengdu)
Abstract:
The genus Fagopyrum Mill. is an important crop which can be used as food, forage and medicine. China is the largest producer of tartary buckwheat and the world’s diversity center of buckwheat., while the southwest China is internationally recognized as the original-land of buckwheat. The crop germplasm are fundamental materials for production, cultivar development and biotechnology research, which is of great importance and potential values. Since the 1980s, Chinese researchers has collected more than 3000 cultivated germplasm resources, of which more than 2200 are preserved in the long-term bank. The extremely abundant and rich diversified germplasm resources have spread all around the world after the natural evolution, artificial cultivation and introduction. This review summarized the common buckwheat and tartary buckwheat distribution,,collection and preservation, as well as the identification and evaluation of agronomic characters and nutritional quality of germplasm resource in recent 40 years. Meanwhile, this paper introduced the progress of collection and evaluation of buckwheat germplasm resources in other countries and organizations, which may provide the reference for the protection and rational utilization of these precious germplasm resources. What’s more,, we summarized the wild buckwheat species (including varietas and subspecies) and their distribution status, including their main characteristics and variation, and summed up the research about development and utilization of different species. Except for a few species, such as F. cymosum, most of wild buckwheat resources were widely distributed in the southwest of China, and mainly inhabited in the Yunnan-Guizhou-Sichuan border area. Finally, the study discussed the insufficiency and expectation in exploitation of buckwheat germplasm resources, and put following suggestions for the future researches:(1)Continuously improve the evaluation and quality identification of the buckwheat germplasm resources, and establish a comprehensive, systematic and quantitative evaluation system for the agronomic traits, nutrient components, processing quality, taste quality. (2)To promote buckwheat industry development healthily, orderly and quickly, developing the potential crop distribution and economic value of buckwheat and accelerating the breeding based on original and introduced germplasms . (3) More attention should be paid to the problems in the deterioration of living environment of wild buckwheat. Especially the living environment of some wild species(F. statice, F. gilesii, F. crispatofolium and F. hailuogouense) get worse, and the area scatters narrower. It is urgent to intensify the rescue investigation, collection and protection of wild resources.(4) Making further analysis on the functions of key genes and regulatory genes in the biosynthesis pathway of buckwheat flavonoids, especially rutin, and the mechanism of molecular regulatory network at the molecular level.
Key words:  Fagopyrum Mill.  germplasm resources  distribution  traits evaluation  quality identification

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