2020, 21(1):1-19. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20200109005
Abstract:Oilseed rape is the largest source of vegetable oil produced in China. Oilseed rape germplasm has played a key role in promoting the rapid development of rape breeding and industry. By continuous collecting and utilizing elite germplasm, and consequently breeding of high-yielding high-quality high-resistance new varieties, the rapeseed yield level increased from 487.5 kg/ha in 1949 to 1,995.2 kg/ha in 2017. The seed quality was improved from conventional "high erucic acid and high glucosinolates" to "low erucic acid and low glucosinolates", the oil quality is as good as olive oil, which has greatly improved edible vegetable oil supply and nutrition in China. This paper reviewed the background and research progress of collection, reproduction, conservation, evaluation and identification, gene discovery, enhancement and utilization of germplasm, summarized the strategies and breakthroughs of oilseed rape germplasm research in recent two decades in China, and proposed future developmental directions and priorities in the field.
2020, 21(1):20-25. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20191024002
Abstract:By successive backcrossing and subsequent selection of the synthetic interspecific hybrids and allopolyploids with the cultivated species, the introgression of targeted chromosomal segments from the relatives becomes feasible. In this review, the intertribal hybridizations between the cultivated Brassica species and several distant relatives, cytogenetic behaviors and generation of new germplasm resource in our group are summarized. Due to the partial elimination of the chromosomes from pollen parents, the hybrids are able to maintain the whole or majority of the chromosomes from the female brassicas with the addition of few alien ones, and could produce the introgression lines with some male-derived characters, exhibiting the genetic and epigenetic alterations but with the same chromosome number as the female. The perspectives for crosses with distant relatives aiming at the new germplasm innovation are discussed.
2020, 21(1):26-32. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20191028004
Abstract:Soybean（Glycine max（Linn.）Merr）serves as an important economical crop in world and also China，and provides abundant protein and oil in human and animal diets. However，China is ranging first worldwide on import of soybean products，and domestic soybean production only occupies<30% on industry demand. Furthermore，the yield and quality of imported soybeans is much better than these of national products. Soybean is a native crop species of China with over 5000 years of planting history. Although there are abundant soybean germplasm resources in China，how to efficiently use them for high-yield and high-quality breeding remained to be concerned for soybean geneticists and breeders. Compared with traditional technology，gene editing technology is an easy-to-hand，fast and efficient transgenic approach. In this paper，we summarized recent progresses on studies of soybean germplasm resources and the application of gene editing technology，and we expect to provide insights for efficient utilization of soybean germplasm resources in the future.
2020, 21(1):33-39. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20191028002
Abstract:Germplasm resources are the important basis of peanut biology research and breeding improvement. This paper reviews the research progress of peanut germplasm resources：（1）the research on the origin and classification of peanut at home and abroad；（2）the overview of peanut conservation in China and several other major countries；（3）a series of progress in the identification and evaluation of excellent peanut germplasm；（4）introducing the previous updates of peanut varieties in China and predicting the future development trend；（5）summarizing the main methods and achievements of peanut germplasm innovation in China；（6）introducing the important results of peanut genome research at home and abroad and prospecting their application；（7）the status quo of excellent gene mining in peanut. This paper points out that there are still some disputes about the origin of cultivated peanut，some problems exsit in peanut resource conservation，evaluation； germplasm innovation；gene exploration and some suggestions for solving these problems in the future are proposed. This paper is expected to provide useful information for the utilization of peanut germplasm resources and breeding improvement in the future.
2020, 21(1):40-48. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20191207001
Abstract:Sesame is a traditional preponderant oil-bearing crop. China is one of the world’s main producers of sesame，and also the world’s first consumer and importer. Breeding for stable and high-yield varieties will benefit for the development of sesame industry. The sesame yield is contributed by three main components including the number of capsules，the number of seeds per capsule and the weight of seeds. The capsule characters thus become important for the yield production，and unlocking the genetic mechanism will provide a theoretical foundation in the genetic improvement of sesame varieties with high yield and being suitable for mechanized. In this paper，the research progress on the characters of sesame capsule is reviewed. Morphological characters of capsule are reviewed as quantity and quality characters，studies of capsule growth and development are reviewed from capsule size and material accumulation. In addition，research on the ripening and dehiscence，tissue structure，identification of capsule dehiscence resistance and the breeding of varieties with capsule dehiscence resistance，and the capsule characters genetics，related molecular markers and genes are also discussed.Furthermore，the key tasks and future research focuses on sesame capsule characters have been prospected. We suggest to constantly support the studies of sesame capsule related characters，especially for capsule size， number of capsules per plant，number of seeds per capsule，and capsule dehiscence resistance. Improvement of the single plant yield of sesame might become a potential in breeding of new varieties with high yield. It is also suggested to focus on precise identification，exploration and innovative utilization of sesame gene resources with high resistance to capsule dehiscence，to focus on breeding new varieties with capsule dehiscence resistance，and then cracking the scientific problem of sesame genetic improvement of capsule dehiscence resistance，finally， the mechanization process of sesame production will be promoted. Simultaneously，we will deepen researches on discovery and application of functional markers and genes，and analyzing the molecular mechanism of capsule dehiscence resistance，furthermore apply to sesame molecular breeding.
2020, 21(1):49-62. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20191024001
Abstract:A-linolenic acid is an omega-3 series polyunsaturated fatty acid that is essential for the human body but cannot be synthesized by itself. It is mainly derived from vegetable oils and fats. Due to the generally low ALA content in the oils and fats of bulk oil crops, exploring new germplasm resources and understanding the formation and regulation mechanism of a-linolenic acid are of great significance for the nutrition and diet of oils and the improvement of plant oils. The a-linolenic acid has been detected with abundance in seeds of land plants such as Perilla frutescens, Linum usitatissimum, Eucommia ulmoides, Paeonia suffruticosa, Salvia Hispanica, Agastache rugosa, Elsholtzia ciliate, Actinidia chinensis, Plukenetia volubilis. Fatty acid desaturase such as Δ9FAD, Δ6FAD, Δ12FAD, Δ15FAD is able to regulate the desaturation of the polyunsaturated fatty fatty acid carbon chain. In plants, omega-3FAD is a key enzyme complex that catalyzes the conversion of LA to ALA. The omega-3FAD consists of FAD3 in the plastid and FAD7 and FAD8 in the endoplasmic reticulum. To date, the identification of the omega-3FAD gene family have been greatly accelerated taking advantage of genome and transcriptome studies. Among them, the FAD3 gene is a key gene involved in seed ALA synthesis, whose expression is regulated by multiple transcription factors. For instances, transcription factors such as bZIP, WRI1, LEC, ABI3, FUS3, ASIL1 and PKL are able to regulate the FAD3 gene expression through interaction, and therefore result in the oil content of crop seeds. This paper reviewed the distribution of high-content a-linolenic acid oil plant resources, as well as the fat and fat composition and ALA content of the main oil plant seeds, the basic pathways and key genes of seed ALA biosynthesis, and the types and functions of plant omega-3 fatty acid desaturase, as well as the key regulators of omega-3FAD, in order to provide a theoretical basis for the use of high ALA plant resources and oil plant fatty acid composition improvement.
2020, 21(1):63-73. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20191126004
Abstract:Distant hybridization is recognized as an effective strategy enriching the genetic abundance of the cultivated species. Taking use of the intergeneric hybrids of Brasssica napus（cultivar Yangyou 6，referred Y6） and Sinapis alba L. with somatic cell fusion as well as continuous backcrossing with Y6 and self-crossing， a series of genetically-stable introgression lines were obtained. In this study，fourteen agronomic traits of 62 introgression lines were investigated. The correlation analysis，principal component analysis，regression analysis， and cluster analysis were used to explore the relationship between agronomic traits and the main factors affecting the yield per plant. The results revealed significant differences in agronomic traits among the introgression lines.The yield per plant was positively correlated with the silique number per plant，the number of effective branches， and seeds per silique，but negatively correlated with the height of the primary branch. Principal component analysis showed that，four principal components could reflect large proportion of the genetic variations that observed in 14 agronomic traits，which are mainly related to traits such as silique number，plant height，silique length，and 1000-grain weight. Regression analysis showed that 1000-grain weight，seeds per silique，secondary effective branch number，plant height，and silique number per plant had pivotal effects on yield per plant. Some introgression lines with excellent traits were characterized based on the agronomic characteristics. The silique number of L8 significantly increased. The branch number of L3 and L7 significantly increased. The 1000-grain weight of L42 and L49 significantly increased obviously. The yield per plant of L3 and L8 significantly increased. Near infrared spectroscopy was used to analyze the seed quality characters of the introgression lines，and the results revealed that glucosinolates，erucic acid，and linolenic acid showed great variation，which could be used to select the materials with advantageous quality characters. Taken together，this study provided a successful example of distant hybridization which served as an effective approach for the innovation of the B. napus germplasm resources and the improvement of B.napus yield. The results of this study laid a theoretical basis for B.napus breeding with these germplasm resources.
2020, 21(1):74-82. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20190820001
Abstract:Distant hybridization is an important approach in crop genetic breeding and germplasm creation. In this study，the F1 hybrids were produced by interspecific hybridization between B. napus（2n=38，AACC）and B. carinata（2n=34，BBCC），and they showed determinate inflorescence characteristic from B. carinata and the intermediate morphology of both parents. F1 hybrids showed the expected chromosomal composition（2n=36， ABCC）and eight B.carinata（referred B）chromosomes from by GISH analysis. Their pollen mother cell（PMCs） showed multiple chromosome pairing configuration at diakinesis of meiosis，with main segregation rate of 17： 19 at anaphase Ⅰ（AⅠ）. A number of lagging chromosomes and chromosomal bridges appeared during AⅠ and A Ⅱ，which caused pollen abortion. By continuous backcross using its parental line Zhongshuang 11（B.napus）， the BC5F1 lines with determinate inflorescence were obtained and they had similar morphology with Zhongshuang 11. Their somatic chromosomes（2n=38）showed normal programmed meiosis，and only minor B chromosome signals but whole chromosomes were detected by GISH analysis. By marker assisted detection using 46 pairs of B genome specific SSR primers，B genome specific bands are detectable in F1 hybrid and a few of BC5F1. This result indicated that the chromosomal segments of B.carinata were successfully introduced into B.napus L.Thus， a number lines with new determinate inflorescence will become useful in rapeseed breeding for new varieties suitable for mechanized operation.
2020, 21(1):83-93. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20190514001
Abstract:Genetic identification of the functional genes causing the erect dwarf-type are of great significance in academic study and rapeseed breeding. We previously identified a naturally-occurred dwarf mutant (named DW871) from a single F1 plant by crosses of sterile line 5824 × recovery line 5771R. By making crosses between the homozygous mutant with a homozygous wild-type line, 47 dwarf rods (DR), 47 high rods (HR) and 10 homozygous dwarf rod lines (HDR) were identified for a genetic mapping study. Three bulks were subjected for simplified genome sequencing technology (BSA-seq), in order to achieve the preliminary mapping of the underlying functional genes. A total of 121998 SNPs were detected between 47 dwarves and 47 high-stem mixed gene pools. 1582 SNPs resulting in non-synonymous mutations were located on ChrA10 chromosome, Interval length is 6.39 MB, including 1405 candidate genes . Out of 1752011 SNPs that were obtained between HR and HDR pools 27723 SNPs led to the non-synonymous mutations. A total of 19 candidate loci were mapped on ChrA03, ChrA04, ChrA06, ChrA07, ChrA10 and ChrC03, Interval length is 5.35 Mb ,including 1143 candidate genes. However, these locus showed un-significant associations and need to be further verified. Interestingly, the association region on the ChrA10 chromosome was revealed by cases and a coincidence interval of 1.83 Mb was suggested. As a summary, the qualitative locus controlling the plant height in DW871 was mapped on ChrA10 chromosome, and this result laid a good foundation for the future fine mapping of the functional gene in Brassica napus L.
2020, 21(1):94-104. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20191024003
Abstract:Glucosinolates (GSL) are important secondary metabolites in Brassicaceae, with favorable biological functions such as resistance to plant diseases and insect pests. In this paper, we investigated and compared the content of 11 major GSL among three major organs (roots, leaves and seeds) of 67 cultivars using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). These cultivars were from four Brassica oilseed species (B. napus L., B. carinata L., B. juncea L. and B. rapa L.) and cultivated at three environments (Wuhan Hubei, 2014; Wuhan Hubei, 2016; Xiangyang Hubei, 2016). In general, the difference between years resulted in extremely significant variation of GSL content. Cultivars from different species showed significant difference on type of GSL. In comparison to the cultivars from B. napus L. and B. carinata L. that showed extremely significant variation of GSL content, no significant variations were observed in cultivars from B. juncea L.and B. rapa L.. For the same cultivar, the total content of GSL among different organs varied significantly and for the same organ, the content of different GSL varied significantly as well. These results showed that there is abundant variation of GSL content or types among different species, organs, and cultivars as well as environmental factors. There are a few special individual GSL in certain species and organs, and some of them showed beneficial biological functions, which would be transferred and accumulated in B. napus L. via hybridization between species. For instance, sinigrin, which confers resistance to microorganisms, was typically detected in B. carinata L. and B. juncea L., but almost undetectable in normal B. napus L. cultivars which can be divided into low-sulfur, middle-sulfur and high-sulfur types. These compounds were found in the resynthesized lines of B. napus L.with subgenomic introgression from B. carinata L. and B. rapa L.. Out of 183 lines including three generations, 170 showed an elevation in sinigrin content relative to normal cultivars. Taken together, these results would provide new insights for deploying GSL in different oilseeds crops in future breeding for new Brassica crops.
2020, 21(1):105-112. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20191108001
Abstract:In order to enrich the diversity of low and medium cadmium resources in Brassica resources in China， 79 Brassica resources introduced from Japan were treated with high（30 mg/L）and medium（10 mg/L）cadmium stress at seedling stage，so as to carry out the research on cadmium tolerance and accumulation characteristics of Brassica resources. Compared with the traditional method of cultivating soil polluted by cadmium，it has the advantages of time-saving，labor-saving and stability High quality. The results showed that 79 resources had rich variation in cadmium tolerance. Three stable and three cadmium sensitive materials were selected under high（30 mg/L）and medium（10 mg/L）cadmium stress. The analysis of Cd accumulation characteristics showed that the CD content of stable CD tolerant material was significantly lower than that of CD sensitive material，and that of d069 was significantly lower than that of other materials，and the migration coefficient of D125 was relatively low，which had high breeding value. In this study，d069 and D125，two gene pools of cadmium tolerance and low accumulation resources，rich in domestic Brassica resources and low accumulation of cadmium，will greatly promote the breeding process of new varieties of Brassica pollution safety，and effectively promote the safe utilization efficiency of cadmium polluted farmland.
2020, 21(1):113-120. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20191031006
Abstract:Chlorophyll is the most important organism where plant photosynthesis takes place，and plays a curial role in plant growth and crop yield production. Albino plants showed complete loss of chlorophyll. In this study，the genetic，morphological and physiological characteristics of an albino silique mutant in Brassica napus were carried out. No chlorophyll was found on the reproductive tissues such as the buds，flowers，siliques and developing seeds，while vegetative tissues including leaves and stems kept green as wild type plants. This mutant that are heterozygous at albino locus exhibited lower fertility，while the mutant being homozygous were completely sterile. By genetic and phenotypic analysis of reciprocal F1 as well as was observed and F2 segregating population，the silique showing albino phenotype was controlled by one pair of nuclear gene in an incomplete dominant manner. Almost no chlorophyll and carotenoids，but a small amount of tocopherol were detected in homozygous albino mutant，and no intact chloroplast structure was found through Transmission Electron Microscope. The photosynthetic rate was also significantly lower than that of the wild type or close to zero. Gained from the knowledge in previous studies，the preliminary result suggested that the albino phonotype in this mutant was likely resulted from the mutations of the genes involved in the synthesis of carotenoids or the development of chloroplast. Thus，this work laid a foundation for future isolating the albino gene and further revealing the molecular mechanism of chloroplast development and silique photosynthesis.
2020, 21(1):121-129. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20190507002
Abstract:Pubescence is an important morphological trait in soybean, which plays an important role in growth and development, and which is correlated to many agronomic traits such as 100-seed weight, and deserves investigation. In this study, four soybean mutants with developmental defect in pubescence were selected from EMS mutant library: the mutant ddsp1 with short pubescence, the glabrous mutant ddsp2, the mutant ddsp3 with partially shrunken pubescence, and the mutant ddsp4 with fully shrunken pubescence. Scanning electron microscope images showed that the length and morphology of pubescence were significantly altered in these mutants. In addition, the seed size and 100-seed weight were all significantly different from the wild type. Ten soybean orthologous genes, including GL1, GL2, GL3and TCL1 which act on the initiation of pubescence development, RBR1, SIM, KAK and SPY which participate in negative regulation of endoreduplication, and CPR5 and RHL which participate in positive regulation of endoreduplication, were selected for expression analysis in those four mutants and the wild type by qRT-PCR. The results showed that the genes controlling the initiation of pubescence development, except for GL1 and GL2 which significantly down-regulated the expression in mutants ddsp2 and ddsp4, up-regulated the expression or had no significant effect. The gene RBR1 significantly up-regulated the endoreduplication in mutant ddsp1 only, whereas the genes SIM, KAK and SPY significantly down-regulated the endoreduplication in all the four mutants, and both the genes CPR5 and RHL significantly up-regulated the endoreduplication in all the four mutants. Through the expression analysis of pubescence-related genes in soybean, this research has laid a foundation for further searching for the genes controlling the soybean pubescence development and understanding the regulation mechanisms of these genes.
2020, 21(1):130-138. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20190606003
Abstract:The protein content in soybean is genetically controlled by multiple genes. Identification of the quantitative traits (QTL) associating with this trait will benefit for a practice use in soybean breeding. In this study, a backcross population consisting of 384 lines was derived from a cross of elite cultivar Heihe50 as recurrent parent and high protein accession ZhongYin1106 as donor parent. The protein content of parents and the offspring segregants was detected by Near-infrared spectrometer, and genotyping was conducted with SSR molecular markers. A genetic linkage map was constructed by software QTL ICIMapping4.1. Nine QTL associating with protein content were revealed, including seven QTL detecting by interval mapping (IM) and 3 QTLs detecting by inclusive composite interval mapping (ICIM). One QTL qPro-8-1, which was located in a 218.71kb interval of markers SSR_50 and SSR_51, can explain 2.26% and 7.85% phenotype variance using both IM and ICIM mapping methods, respectively. The locus qPro-8-1 is genetically independent of other QTL of protein content. Thus, this work provided elite materials and theoretical foundation in molecular breeding for high-protein soybean varieties.
2020, 21(1):139-145. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20190513001
Abstract:Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) disease is one of the major soybean diseases widely distributed in soybean production areas in China. SMV strain SC13 is among the major strains occurring in northern China. In order to broaden the germplasm of soybean resistant to SMV, the inheritance mode of resistance of wild soybean ZYD03715, a core germplasm material of soybean in China, against SMV strain SC13 was studied. The allelic relationship between the resistant germplasm of cultivated soybean and the resistance loci against the same strain was determined, and the resistance genes were marked and mapped. The results showed that the resistance of the wild soybean ZYD03715 against SMV strain SC13 was controlled by a pair of recessive genes, whereas the resistance of the broad-spectrum resistant germplasm ‘Kefeng 1 Hao’ was controlled by a pair of dominant genes, and the resistance genes carried by the two resistant germplasms were nonallelic. Through the bulked segregant analysis, the resistance loci (rySC13,) of the wild soybean ZYD03715 against SC13 were located on soybean chromosome 14 (B2 linkage group), on the side of two SSR markers Satt 416 and Satt 083, with genetic distances of 4.1 cM and 0.9 cM, respectively. The resistance gene ( RkSC13) carried by ‘Kefeng 1 Hao’ was mapped between Satt 558 and Sat_254 markers on soybean chromosome 2 (D1b linkage group) by using F2 population of ‘Kefeng 1 Hao’ × ‘Nannong 1138-2’, with genetic distances of 3.7 cM and 16.1 cM. In the past, it was found that the SMV-resistance of soybean was controlled by a pair of dominant genes. In this study, recessive resistance genes were identified in wild soybeanand marked and mapped. It will lay a foundation for molecular marker-assisted selection and fine mapping and cloning of resistance genes in soybean breeding for disease-resistance.
2020, 21(1):146-153. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20190606004
Abstract:Soybean is a typical short-day thermophilic crop and the sensitivity to photothermal environments determines the geographic adaptablity of soybean varieties. To further understand the photothermal responses, 282 Chinese accessions in mini core collection (MCC) were planted under both Spring and Summer cropping seasons in Jining, Shandong province of China. Photothermal comprehensive response sensitivity (PCRS) of the MCC was calculated based on the days from emergence to the beginning bloom (R1). The results showed a broad range of variations in PCRS and growth periods among the MCC germplasm. PCRS increased along with the maturity groups of MCC. PCRS values of the major soybean ecotypes was ordered as follows: autumn-sowing soybeans > summer-sowing soybeans > spring-sowing soybeans. Based on the PCRS values, the Chinese soybean MCC accessions were classified into three classes: sensitive, medium and insensitive in photothermal sensitivity. A larger proportion of the spring-sowing and summer-sowing varieties showed medium-sensitive, while 63.6% of the autumn-sowing varieties were found to be photothermal-sensitive. The sensitive germplams belonged mainly to MGIII or above (later), and the medium-sensitive and insensitive germplasms covered all maturity groups (MGs). MG value of a given variety is highly related to its PCRS, indicating that MG is a simple and reliable index to express the comprehensive response of soybeans. The gained results will be helpful to understand the photothermal characteristics of soybean germplasm in China and provide a theoretical basis, in order to explore and utilize the photo-insensitive germplasm in future breeding for widely-adapted soybean varieties.
2020, 21(1):154-163. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20190423002
Abstract:The ubiquitin/26S proteasome pathway plays an important role in response to abiotic stress in plants. E2 (ubiquitin-binding enzyme, UBC), which is an ubiquitin-binding enzyme involved in protein ubiquitination, participates in the protein degradation pathway in a complex with E1 and E3. In this study, we identified 54 soybean UBC genes using hidden Markov model, and the family members were divided into 8 subfamilies (A-K) according to the phylogenetic tree analysis. Protein conserved domain analysis indicated that GmUBC family proteins contain conserved domains 1, 2 and 3, which belong to the conserved domain of ubiquitin-binding enzymes. Tissue expression analysis indicated that the transcripts of GmUBC family genes were detected in soybean roots, stems, leaves, flowers and other tissues. Transcriptome data indicated that a diversifying expressional pattern was observed for 20 GmUBC genes under drought, salt or cold stress treatments. Analysis for cis-elements in the promoter suggests that some of GmUBC genes may be involved in hormonal signaling. Furthermore, qRT-PCR analysis showed that GmUBC46 was inducible under drought, salt and cold stresses. Expressing the GmUBC46 gene in yeast showed a decreased tolerance in responses to drought and salt stress treatments. In summary, this study revealed the basic characteristics of UBC gene family in soybean and the preliminary functional insight of GmUBC46, and gain of datasets might provide considerable basis and reference value for future research.
2020, 21(1):164-173. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20190428001
Abstract:The activity of acid phosphatase in root tips is an important index for screening phosphorus efficiency of soybean varieties. Mining for candidate genes with acid phosphatase activity and exploiting their functional markers will bring great significance for identifying the phosphorus-efficient genes, unlocking the molecular mechanism of phosphorus utilization as well as breeding for new phosphorus-efficient soybean varieties. In this study, two DNA libraries with bulked pools of segregants from a F12 recombination inbred line population were constructed for next generation sequencing. 268 significant SNPs were obtained by SLAF-BSA technique. That included 12 gene-based non-synonymous mutations, seven of which were found between parents and five of which were found between offspring pools. Particularly, two candidate regions were identified, where 79 acid phosphatase-related genes were resided. Four genes are allocated from 20138271 to 20268154 on chromosome 3 and 75 genes are allocated from 1436648 to 15526449 on chromosome 17. Furthermore, a genetic marker GMsnp-B, which targets to the non-synonymous mutation gene Glyma.17G166200.1, was developed and tested using 169 soybean cultivars. The coincidence rate with phenotype activities in root tips was 82.8%.
2020, 21(1):174-191. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20190324001
Abstract:In the present study, 112 bZIP transcription factors were identified from the reference genome of wild diploid peanut, including 55 and 57 family members on AA and BB genome, respectively. All the members were named AradubZIP1-AradubZIP55 and AraipbZIP1-AraipbZIP57. The gene structure, conservative motif, physiochemical properties were predicted through bioinformatics methods. Furthermore, the phylogenetic relationship of bZIP family members was analyzed between peanuts and Arabidopsis, and the subcellular localization was predicted in plant cells. To understand the biological function of these genes under drought stress, the transcriptional profiles of thirty-two members were analyzed by use of the transcriptome sequencing data of peanuts leaves at the late growth stage in a tetraploid peanut L422. The results indicated that the bZIP members in wild diploids were assigned into 10 chromosomes on AA and BB genomes, respectively. Most of them were localized to the nucleus (36 members in AA genome, 39 members in BB genome), and few of them were localized to chloroplasts (14 and 15) and mitochondria (4 and 3). Meanwhile, 25 members with similar gene structure/motif were found on two diploid peanut genome, respectively. The number of exons were variable, for instance that up to 15 exons was found in AraipbZIP5, and one exon was found in 12 bZIP genes. Furthermore, the peanut bZIPs were divided into 14 subgroups (A-M and S). Among these, seven members of tetraploid bZIPs were classified into the I subgroup. Finally, the transcriptional profiles of 32 tetraploid bZIP genes under drought stress treatment were divided into 4 categories, I) the early and late period were higher than the medium period, II) the middle and late period were higher than the early period, III) the early and medium period were higher than the late period, and Ⅳ) the middle period was higher than the early and late period. These results provided a useful reference for understanding the function of bZIP gene family members under the drought stress treatment at the late growth stage in peanut.
2020, 21(1):192-200. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20191031001
Abstract:In order to better evaluate the imbibitional chilling injury resistance of peanut，we analyzed the water-uptake conditions during peanut germination under the normal temperature（25 ℃）and chilling treatment （2 ℃），respectively. The result revealed that the duration time for the imbibitional stage of peanut germination among different peanut genotype was consistent，lasting from 0-12 h after seed soaking. The chilling stress was found to slow down the speed of water-uptake at the early phase of imbibition stage；however，on visible difference on duration time was observed. The imbibitional chilling injury was found to be much more serious than chilling injury occurred at other stages during peanut germination. By further evaluating the effect of temperature and duration of imbibitional chilling injury on the germination rate，the results showed that 2 ℃ /12 h was the most optimal condition to identify the imbibitional chilling injury resistance. By taking use of this method，sixtyfour peanut accessions were evaluated for their imbibitional chilling injury resistance. Seven accessions showed the relative germination rate over 85% under the imbibitional chilling stress，and they were considered as chillingtolerance accessions. Taken together，this study provided useful information for breeding new peanut varieties with chilling-tolerance and also for unlocking the mechanism for chilling response of peanut during imbibition.
2020, 21(1):201-207. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20191029002
Abstract:We previously cloned the full-length coding sequence of the gene AhMYB44，which showed a stress-induced expression from peanut drought transcriptome sequencing datasets. In order to investigate the function of AhMYB44，a yeast two-hybrid system was deployed for identifying its interacting proteins. The results showed that the bait vector pGBKT7-AhMYB44 was not toxic and showed no self-activation activity. Sixteen coding sequences were identified by screening of cDNA libraries which were constructed from a drought and high-salt stress of peanut. We further conducted an in-silico analysis of their homologous proteins，such as plant transcriptional regulation，growth and development，signal transduction，biotic and abiotic stress responses. Out of that，the candidate gene（No.46）was annotated with the abiotic stress，and encoded for a calcium-dependent phospholipid binding protein（ANNEXIN）. Therefore，we speculated that AhMYB44 maybe participate into regulation of peanut stress response process through intracellular calcium signal. This result might provide a reference for further research on the function and mechanism of AhMYB44.
2020, 21(1):208-214. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20191029005
Abstract:To study the genetic difference of the high oleic acid peanut cultivars, twenty-five offspring varieties from five high oleic acid parents were investigated by using gene-based and genetic marker-based diversity analysis approaches. The oleic acid content and O/L of 25 peanut varieties were higher than 75% and 10, respectively. By analyzing the full-length sequence of ahFAD genes of these varieties, a nucleotide substitution of G448A was found in FAD2A, while a nucleotide insertion of A at 442 from the translation starting code in FAD2B was identified. Searching for polymorphism in 25 varieties using 698 SSR markers, 140 SSR markers were found to be polymorphic, which produced a total of 379 alleles. The genetic diversity index value ranged from these 25 varieties were distinguishable by using 17 polymorphic SSR markers. The genetic distance ranged from 0.057 to 0.624 with a mean value of 0.451. Eleven groups were revealed when the genetic similar coefficients of 0.745 which was able to distinguish the parents and the offspring varieties. Taken together, the results may become useful in the pedigree analysis of the high oleic acid peanut varieties and the molecular marker assisted selection in peanut breeding.
2020, 21(1):215-223. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20191029004
Abstract:Peanut is a field crop with high economic benefits. In order to comprehensively utilize the nutritive value of peanut stalk and kernels to improve economic benefits，we carried out a study using 26 peanut varieties. We analyzed crude protein，crude fat，crude fiber，crude ash，calcium，phosphorus，neutral detergent fiber，and acid detergent fiber in the stalk. SPSS software was used to evaluate the nutritional value by principal component analysis. On the other hand，the nutritional indexes of fat，protein，oleic acid and linoleic acid were determined by near infrared analyzer while Topsis method was used to comprehensively analyze and rank the analysis results. The results showed that there were significant differences in the nutrient components of stalk among different peanut varieties. Shanghua 26，Ji 545，Ji 5059，Yuanza 9102 and Yuhua 90 have a higher comprehensive nutritional value. There were no significant differences in protein and fat contents among the most of peanut varieties，while there were significant differences in oleic acid and linoleic acid contents.Yuhua102 has the highest protein content，Ji5059 has the highest fat content，Jinong G99 has the highest oleic acid content and lowest linoleic acid content. If the nutrient content of stalk and kernels are taken into account，the comprehensive value of 10 varieties from the highest to the lowest is as the following order：Jinong G99， Kainong 310，Shanghua 26，Yuhua 93，Yuanza 9102，Ji545，Puhua 56，Puhua 52，Yuhua 89 and Zhengnonghua 19. These peanuts can be used as the first choice for the dual-purpose.
2020, 21(1):224-233. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20191107003
Abstract:In order to utilize the sesame germplasm resources of Hebei Province and enhance the genetic basis of sesame breeding，thirty-one phenotypic traits of 300 accessions，which were preserved and collected in the germplasm bank of Hebei Province，were investigated from 2016 to 2018. The correlation coefficient，cluster analysis and principal component analysis were conducted. The genetic diversity index of 22 quality characters arranged from 1.0986 to 5.6941，implying an abundant genetic diversity of 300 germplasm resources. The yield per plant was found to be positively correlated with the plant height，the number of grains，the number of turns per plant and the 1000-grain weight，while a significant negative correlation with the length of the apex was detected. The coefficient of variation range from 7.36% to 34.71%. The variation coefficient of single plant yield，single plant number and empty tip length were variable，while the variation coefficient of plant height，capsule length and 1000-grain weight was small. Cluster analysis suggested six subgroups in 300 sesame germplasm resources. For instance，the first group had a low initial height，the second group had the highest yield，the third group had the longest length，the fourth group had the highest plant height，the main stem and fruit axis，and the 1000-grain weight. For the highest，the comprehensive traits of group V were poor，and the number of grains per group was the highest. The principal component analysis showed that the cumulative contribution rate of the six principal component factors was 89.285%. Taken together，this study revealed an abundant phenotypic diversity of 300 sesame germplasm resources. The identified elite germplasm resources might become useful in future breeding for modern varieties.
2020, 21(1):234-242. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20191026001
Abstract:The phenotypic diversity analysis of 14 phenotypic traits was conducted in 246 sesame germplasm resources from different sources in China. The highest genetic diversity index（2.06）of plant height and number of capsules per plant were detected，while the coefficient variation of capsule number was ranking first with 60.73% in 14 phenotypic traits. By the principal component analysis of 14 phenotypic traits，the top five principal components（yield factor，capsule factor，plant type factor，hairy factor and nectary factor）contributed to 67.527% of phenotypic variation. Cluster analysis assigned five groups of the sesame germplasm resources when the genetic distance was 8.0. The accessions within group Ⅰ showed potential on yield increase，while the accessions with high-pillar and high-yield of excellent material with good comprehensive traits were resided in group Ⅱ. Group Ⅲ was consisted of the accessions showing high-yield and branched. The accessions showing high-rod and multi-grain were resided in group Ⅳ，while the accessions showing short-rod and short-internode were found in Group V. By taking use of the geographic information，sesame populations of different sources were classified into 4 groups，including Group Ⅰ（Henan，Hubei，and Hebei），group Ⅱ（Shanxi），group Ⅲ（Shaanxi）and group Ⅳ（Chongqing）. The highest values on average of coefficient of variation and the genetic diversity index were found in accessions of group Ⅱ（Shanxi）. Taken together，this study provided a theoretical basis for future utilization of sesame germplasm resources in parental selection and modern variety breeding in China.
2020, 21(1):243-251. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20191107001
Abstract:In order to predict the seed quality of oil flax through seed morphology-related traits，eight seedmorphology characteristics and seven seed-quality traits were detected in 238 oil flax germplasm accessions. The results showed higher variation coefficient on yellowness，seed surface area，1000-seed weight and lignan content，as well as lower variation coefficient on the seed circumference，oil content，palmitic acid and linolenic acid content. The highest average values on traits of seed lightness，linoleic acid and lignan contents were observed in improved cultivars，and the highest average values on traits of seed redness and yellowness，palmitic acid，stearic acid and oleic acid contents were detected in landrace cultivars. The exotic cultivars showed the highest average values on seed length，width，circumference，surface area，1000-seed weight，oil content and linolenic acid content. Regarding to the seeds of accessions with different color，the lightness，yellowness，palmitic acid，stearic acid，linolenic acid，lignan content and oil content of the yellow seeds were higher than those of the brown seeds. The seed length，width，circumference and surface area were positively correlated with and contributed to the thousand-seed weight. The accessions with bigger seeds and lower redness was briefly associated with a higher oil content. The longer，fuller，lighter and yellow seeds showed a higher palmitate content，while the bigger，fuller seeds with non-visible yellowness were associated with the higher oleic acid content. The higher contents of linoleic acid and lignan were observed in short，small and shriveled seeds. The bigger and yellow seeds were found with a higher content of linolenic acid. Therefore，this study revealed the correlation of flax-quality traits with seed morphological characteristics，which can provide theoretical basis in quality breeding of flax via selecting the morphological traits.
2020, 21(1):252-259. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20190521002
Abstract:GRAS transcription factors play important roles in many physiological and biochemical pathways involved in plant growth and development and stress responses. 48 GRAS transcription factors were identified in the genome of Ricinus communis L., and their physical and chemical properties, phylogenetic patterns, gene structure, and conserved motifs were analyzed. The proteins encoded by GRAS genes of castor are all hydrophilic, with acidic proteins accounting for about 94%, isoelectric points between 4.82-10.21, and relative molecular weights between 17305.2-90986.6. The GRAS transcription factors are divided into 11 subfamilies,and members of the same subfamily have similar gene structures and conserved motifs. RT-qPCR was used to detect the expression of five genes in roots, stems and leaves under drought and salt stresses. The results showed that the expression of RcGRASs in different tissues was specific, and drought and salt stresses induced the expression of RcGRAS14、RcGRAS21 and RcGRAS35 but inhibited the expression of RcGRAS1 and RcGRAS10. This study provides a reference for further study of the functionon of GRAS transcription factors in abiotic stresses.
2020, 21(1):260-268. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20190524003
Abstract:Floral development, directly related to the progeny reproduction and species continuation of plants, is an important stage in the lifespan of angiosperms. The MADS-box genes play a key role during the floral development. In this study, a new member of MADS-box family gene HaAGL11 was identified from the sunflower transcriptome datasets. Phylogenetic analysis showed that HaAGL11 gene was closely homologous with the AGL16 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana. Moreover, the expression pattern at different stages of flower development revealed that HaAGL11 gene was highly expressed at the late maturation stage of floret organs, flowering stage, and early embryonic development stage. The expression analysis in floret tissues indicated that HaAGL11 was highly expressing in the ovary of late maturation stage and flowering stage. Thus, this result suggested that HaAGL11 gene might be associated in regulating the development of ovary and fruit in the late stage of flower development and it could lay a foundation for preliminary exploration on the regulatory role of HaAGL11 gene in flower development and fruit formation of sunflower, beneficial for further investigating the molecular regulation mechanism of growth and development of sunflower, and providing some guidance data for the genetics and breeding of sunflower.
2020, 21(1):269-274. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20191105003
Abstract:Volatile oil, as one of the important functional components in Perilla frutescens leaves, plays a significant role in anti-bacteria, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidation. In this study, by taking use of 18 perilla germplasm resources in Guizhou province, we extracted the volatile oil with the steam distillation followed by GC-MS analysis. The significant differences in essential oil content and composition among different P. frutescens materials were observed. For instance, the content of essential oil was ranged from 0.46% and 1.44%. Seven-five chemical constituents were identified in the essential oils, mainly including: perillaketone, piperidone, elemicin, perillaldehyde, myristicin, caryophyllene, perillane, apioland acetophenone . Based on synthesis pathways, the tested Perilla materials can be classified into six chemotypes including F-type, PA-type, PK-type, PL-type, PT-type, PP-type. In addition, we also identified some special substances, such as citral, citronellene, eucalyptus oil essence, orange flower tertiary alcohol, the presence of which may provide a hypothesis on explaining a unique aroma of some Perilla plants in Guizhou. Therefore, this work showed abundant diversity on content and chemotype composition of P. frutescens resources in Guizhou, and also might provide theoretical reference for quality control and clinical application in the future.