2018, 19(1):1-9. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2018.01.001
Abstract:With the completion of genome sequencing on wheat and its related species, the molecular biology techniques are becoming important and widely used in wheat quality related gene. The discovery of new proteins and genes provides more spaces on genetic improvement of wheat quality. Here, we summarized the research progresses on traditional storage proteins, and in particular focused on newly discovered genes. Meanwhile, the problems existing in the studies related to wheat quality and their solutions in long term view were also addressed. We believe that the information discussed in the study will facilitate the wheat quality studies to make further progresses in both theory and practice.
2018, 19(1):10-20. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2018.01.002
Abstract:Grape is one of the most important fruit with thousands of germplasm resources and multiple genetics in the world. In recent years, with the rapid development of grape industry and internet, it was particularly important to establish a grape germplasm database in the internet. In 1984, Geilweilerhof, a grape breeding institute from Germany, was under the support of the International Organization of Vine and Wine (OIV) and Bioversity (formerly known as International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI)), and established the most abundant grape germplasm database——VIVC (Vitis International Variety Catalogue). This paper introduces the main functions and characteristics of the VIVC in order to make the majority of grape breeders and researchers better understand the function of VIVC and a large number of grape germplasm in it, to promote the use of grape germplasm resources and innovation. This paper also reveals information regarding analysis of breeding area, utilization, color of berry skin, sex of flowers, formation of seeds, SSR-maker and other grape germplasm resource.
2018, 19(1):21-28. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2018.01.003
Abstract:Pepper is a high-economic global crop of Solanaceae widely cultivated worldwide. Among the economic traits of pepper, fruit color is one of the most intuitive important traits. Pepper has become a model plant for research on fruit color inheritance because its fruit color rich. The fruit color of pepper was divided into pre-mature fruit color and ripe fruit color. This paper will review the genetic and molecular mechanism of fruit color in these two periods.
2018, 19(1):29-38. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2018.01.004
Abstract:genetic diversity and structure in 316 accessions of rice germplasm from ASEAN was assessed using 72 pairs SSR markers. A total of 387alleles were detected ranging from2 to 12 per locus with the mean of 5.38, and there are 111 rare alleles in frequency <5%, accounting for 28.7%.of all alleles. The Nei’s gene diversity indices(He)ranged from0.055 to 0.855,wieh the average of 0.623. the He of rice germplasms in the Philippines was the highest, the followings were in Vietnam(He=0.515)> in Laos(He=0.467)>in Cambodia(He=0.455).The analysis of molecular variance(AMOVA) indicated that genetic variation came from between different geographical groups, and between different groups with significant difference at 0.001 probability level.Neighbor-joining trees bases on Nei’s 1973 genetic distance showed 316 rice germplasm could be distinguished as indica and japonica, but not be classified better into groups according to geographical regions. The result of population structures analysis indicated that will have a relatively obvious genetic structure when k=2. The secondly is K=5,it showed that Philippines population is divided into 3 small distinct groups which obvious genetic differentiation structure, The present study verified that rice germplasm from ASEAN have rich genetic diversity and structure which is an excellent basis for rice breeding.in selecting parents.
2018, 19(1):39-48. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2018.01.005
Abstract:The objective of this experiment was to study the characteristics of grain dehydrating rate of different heterotic groups and to select the excellent inbred lines with fast grain dehydrating rate, providing the suitable for mechanization of maize hybrids. In this study, 173 maize inbred lines were used as experimental materials. The drying method was used to determine grain dehydration rate, a genome-wide scan was performed on the material by using 210 pairs of SSR markers covering maize genome, and the population structure of these materials was revealed by Structure V2.3.4. The main results were as follows: The clustering analysis showed that these maize inbred lines could be divided into 5 heterotic groups which are PB, LRC, Reid, Lancaster and Tang SPT group, the grain dehydration rate was striking difference in different inbred lines, and it also had significant correlation among husks, cob and grain moisture content; Lancaster has the fastest average dehydration rate (0.92%) 40 days after pollination among them, the others in order was Reid 0.85%, LRC 0.82%, PB 0.76%, TangSPT 0.56%. The grain dehydration rate was striking difference in different inbred lines, and it also had significant correlation among husks, cob and grain moisture content.
2018, 19(1):49-56. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2018.01.006
Abstract:Twelve representative soybean varieties were used for the evaluation of drought resistance under two given treatments (drought stress and normal irrigation) in Dunhuang City (Gansu Province) with an annual rainfull below 40mm in 2014 and 2015. Two evaluation methods, an improved drought index evaluation and a weight subordinate function evaluation (D value) were applied to the evaluation using eight morphological traits (plant height, number of main stem nodes, branch number, pod number per plant, seed number per plant, yield per plant, biomass per plant and 100-seed weight) and plot yield. Three different drought-resistant type soybean varieties were detected for six physiological indexes of SOD (superoxide dismutase), POD (peroxide), CAT (catalase) activities, and MDA (malondialdehyde) content, Pro (proline) content and SS (soluble sugar) content to validate the evaluation methods and the suitability of the physiological indexes as indicators of drought resistance. The results showed that six morphological traits and plot yield except branch number per plant and 100-seed weight in 2014 and all the traits in 2015 reached significant differences in drought stress treatment against the irrigation treatment (CK). The weight subordinate function evaluation highly coincided, with a significant correlation among varieties and plot yield showed an extremely significant correlation with the index values of the two evaluation methods between the two years. Six physiological indexes showed that under two treatments conditions, the three different drought-resistant type varieties had larger differences in these indexes among varieties, and also week drought-resistant WDD00172 and moderate drought-resistant Zhonghuang No. 24 had extremely significant differences between the both treatments of drought stress and normal irrigation in all the physiological indexes, whereas high drought-resistant Jindou No. 21 did not, which appeared to suggest that although the activities or contents of the six physiological indexes were significantly correlated with the weight subordinate function evaluation of week and moderate drought-resistant varieties, they were not correlated with the weight subordinate function evaluation of high drought-resistant varieties. Therefore, the results obtained in this work strongly suggest that the weight subordinate function evaluation can be used as an effective method and plot yield as a reliable index in drought resistance evaluation.
2018, 19(1):57-64. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2018.01.007
Abstract:In order to explore vegetable and ornamental sweetpotato germplasm resources, we identified more than 1000 accessions in Xuzhou national sweetpotato genebank , and selected 96 outstanding germplasm. 30 pairs of SSR primers were used to analyze genetic diversity and population structure, and genetic differences information of these selected materials was clearly got. 12 phenotypic quality traits data from all the accessions were also analyzed with principal components and clustering analysis. Results were as follows：the total number of amplified bands was 275, in which 269 with polymorphism, and polymorphic rate was 97.8%；Nei72 genetic distance was between 0.15 and 0.76 computed by DPS software with average distance 0.66；Population structure was divided into three groups, which was similar to theclustering results by molecular marker, indicating that those accessions had a greater genetic difference；5 items, 80.4% of active ingredients, were obtained from phenotypic quality traits Principal Components Analysis；96 accessions could be clustered into two groups by phenotypic quality traits markers, and the second group can be divided into three subgroups. Molecular and phenotypic quality traits markers analysis results in this article provided a good reference for the parents selection information for new variety development of vegetable and ornamental sweetpotato.
2018, 19(1):65-75. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2018.01.008
Abstract:In every mid-December of 2009 to 2016, the annual growth of diameter circumference of 1740 ramets in 364 samples of Wickham germplasm resources from four countries preserved in 2008 by the Germplasm Repository of Rubber Tree (Hevea Spp.) Jing Hong City, Ministry of Agriculture, was made a tracing observation. Besides, the height under branch, trunk straightness, stem branching, lateral branch wheel, lateral branch thickness, lateral branch angle and lateral branch stretch were also observed by the end of December 2016. The diameter circumference annual growth rule and variation were analyzed based on investigating data from the samples of 364 Wickham germplasm resources, and the genetic diversity of eight indexes was calculated and multi-index comprehensive clustering was analyzed from the prospective of genetypes and countries respectively. The research was to provide a theoretical basis for revealing their genetic diversity and reasonable protection and utilization. According to the diameter circumference, 364 Wickham germplasm resources samples could be divided into 3 groups, they are slow-growing type (diameter circumference<50 cm), middle-growing type (in the range of 50 cm and 60 cm ) and fast-growing type (>60 cm ), respectively, among which the total growth averaged in 52.88 cm at the age of 8 with an amplitude of variation in 41.50 to 64.00 cm. The average total growth in slow-growing type was 47.49 cm and the amplitude of variation was 40.50 to 49.75 cm, it was 54.02 cm at variation amplitude of 50.00 to 59.75 cm for middle-growing type and 61.07 cm at variation amplitude of 60.00 to 64.00 cm for fast-growing type. The difference of average value was 13.58 cm between the fast-growing type and slow-growing type. From the degree of variation, the amplitude of annual variation coefficients were 10.87 %-25.81 %, 10.20%-26.89%, 9.32 %-25.62 % and 8.64 %-20.78 % for total, slow-growing, middle-growing and fast-growing, respectively. With the forest getting old, the annual increment and annual average growth of three groups all showed a trend of increasing first and then decreasing, and both intersected only once at the time of 3a-4a during the eight years, the fast-growing type intersected more lately. Correlation analysis of diameter circumference annual growth showed that there was an extremely significant positive correlation between slow and middle group (excepted the 1a and 8a from middle group). That of fast-growing group also reached an extremely significant positive correlation at the age of 3. Eight indexes of genetic diversity were orderly from large to small: height under branch（1.835）>diameter circumference growth（1.713）> lateral branch wheel（1.222）> lateral branch thickness（1.192）>lateral branch angle（1.079）> trunk straightness（1.032）> stem branching（0.991）> lateral branch stretch（0.579. Most genetic diversity indexes were comparatively smaller. Clustering results showed that germplasm from the same country were mostly gathered in a group or several groups. Indonesia and Malaysia had the closest relations in four countries, the second was Indonesia and China, and Sri Lanka was farther. In conclusion, the variation of eight indexes from Wickham germplasm resources which preserved in China was not significant, and the abundance of genetic diversity was low. In the very early selection, it was recommended that eliminating choice at smaller forest age (such as the age of 2), and fast-growing resource option at larger forest age (such as the age of 4). Seven samples from fast-growing type germplasm resources can be used for cultivating the latex/timber clone or hybridizing as parent materials.
2018, 19(1):76-86. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2018.01.009
Abstract:A total of 247 accessions of sugar beet were collected from 12 countries and 26 traits including 16 descriptive and 10 numerical characteristics were tested. The results indicated that In the descriptive characteristics, 16 descriptive properties had showed the genetic differences and the genetic diversity index ranged from 0.4806to 1.5230 with the average of 0.8608.The smallest and the largest diversity index values were observed in root nude and growth vigor, respectively. The coefficient of variation of 10 numeric characters was between 1.29% and 7.08% with the average of 3.57%, the content of a-N was the smallest and the number of leaves was the largest. The phenotypes of genetic differences were analyzed between different countries.Thecountries. The genetic diversity and CV of phenotypic traits showed a tendency of China>Netherlands>America>Sweden>Japan>Germany>Hungary>Poland>Russia> Denmark>France>Belgium.247 sugar beet varieties were divided into 5 groups by cluster analysis of phenotype traits at 7.5 genetic distances by software SPSS22.0. Every country showed difference in the proportion of all of the five classifications. 15 high-yield resources and 15 high sugar resources were screened out, which could be used as the parent material for improving yield and sugar content in breeding.
2018, 19(1):87-95. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2018.01.010
Abstract:DNA fingerprinting is very important for the breeding of new varieties, germplasm resources conservation and management. However, DNA fingerprinting in kenaf using SSR markers is still very limited. In this study, the DNA fingerprint for 96 kenaf accessions, including the control variety Fuhong 952, were constructed on the basis of 144 pairs of SSR primers. The results showed that 144 pairs of primers amplified 375 bands, with the average of 2.6 bands per primer. When genetic similarity coefficient was 0.614, all the kenaf accessions could be divided into two groups, P1 and P2. The group P1 included 52 accessions while P2 had 44 ones. When genetic similarity coefficient was 0.710, all the kenaf accessions could be divided into five subgroups. On the basis of 144 SSRs,85 accessions has specific DNA fingerprints. Among them, HcEMS238 could differate Fuhong 952 from the others. The fingerprint of the other 11 accesssions failed to be constructed due to the presence of high genetic similarity. These results would be helpful in varieties authenticity identification and analysis of genetic diversity in kenaf.
2018, 19(1):96-102. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2018.01.011
Abstract:The development and utilization of flower and leaf of A. przewalskianum R. from Tibet were introduced , and the aromatic substances and conventional nutritional quality were tested and analyzed. The results show that, (1)The origin of farmers and herdsmen will A. przewalskianum R. harvest in flowering shoots (leaf and flower) smashed after dried processing edible condiment. (2) A. przewalskianum R. has certain ornamental value, the flower in the mirror, flower beds, thematic park, forest as being used, rockery landscape. (1)the difference of the content of aromatic substances in flowers and leaves is very obvious, to 23 kinds of aromatic substances in flower detection, can be divided into 7 categories; 8 kinds of aromatic substances detected in leaf which can be divided into 3 categories. There are 4 kinds of fragrant substances in flowers and leaves are propionaldehyde, ethyl ether, two methyl two sulfide, two propyl two sulfide. The relative content of two methyl sulfide in flowers and leaves are relatively close, but the other 3 huge difference. The content of Vc, total soluble sugar and soluble protein were flowers was higher than that in the leaves, flowers are content in leaves of 1.4,2.4 and 7.4 times, and there was significant difference.
2018, 19(1):103-110. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2018.01.012
Abstract:The objective of this research is to explore the genetic diversity of Alfalfa germplasm resources by Phenotypic traits and Quality Characteristics provide basis for variety improvement and parent choice. 21 indexes of 75 alfalfa sativa accessions from different geographical origins were studied. The Phenotypic traits and Quality Characteristics were analyzed by principal component analysis and cluster analysis. The results showed that there were extensive variations in Phenotypic traits and Quality characteristics in different alfalfa accessions. The most significant variance was agronomic traits, followed by morphological characters and Quality Characteristics;Principal component analysis showed that The additive contributing rate of first eight principal components was 82.77%,four major discriminating characteristics were selected to reflect the comprehensive agronomic characters．Stem dry weight,leaf dry weight,plant fresh weight and plant dry weight were the main factors which produced morphological variation of 75 wild alfalfa accessions. Based on the 21 indexes, cluster analysis showed that all 75 accessions of alfalfa were divided into 5 groups.
2018, 19(1):112-121. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2018.01.013
Abstract:TCP transcription factors (TFs) constitute a family of plant-specific proteins, with conserved motif known as the TCP domain. TCP domain contained 60 amino acids, and formed a bHLH structure involved in DNA-binding and protein-protein interaction. TCP TFs have been found to regulate many aspects of plant development, such as branching, height, leaf and flower growth. However, the study of TCP TFs in response to abiotic stress started relatively late. Accumulating evidence suggested that these proteins also played crucial roles in environmental stress responses, such as those mounted to cold and salt stresses. TCP TFs were involved in brassinolide, jasmonic acid, gibberellin and cytokinin signal transduction pathways. Thus, TCP proteins might be involved in the cross-talking between plant development and stress signal pathway. This paper systematically reviewed the latest advances on the functions and mechanisms of TCP TFs in plant developmental programs, hormonal interactions and environmental stresses, which may shed new lights on the applications of these proteins in modifying plant growth and resistance in desirable ways.
2018, 19(1):122-134. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2018.01.014
Abstract:Auxin response factors (ARFs), which activate or repress the auxin response genes by binding to auxin response elements (AuxREs) on promoters, are essential to auxins signal transduction and act as critical roles in modulating various biological processes. In this study, TaARF genes were comprehensively identified from current wheat genome by using bioinformatics methods and gene structure, chromosome location prediction, conserved domain of proteins, homologous evolution and homologous protein were analyzed. Results showed that 61 TaARF genes were identified, which were located on the chromosomes except chromosome 4A,4B,4D, 5A and 5B. The nomenclature was based on the positions of the wheat chromosomes. TaARF genes have complex structure.The number of exons varies from 1 to 15, Most of TaARF genes contain conserved B3 domain, Auxin_resp domain and Aux/IAA domain. Analysis for homologous evolution showed that the number of paralogs of TaARF genes were more than HvARF genes and BdARF genes. Fourteen TaARF genes which were related to root development were gained by using sequence alignment to the Arabidopsis database. A wheat line JM6 was subjected to drought stress treatment followed qPCR analysis of the 14 genes. Seven genes showed more than 5 times over control in expression level. Compared with its parents, F1 hybrids have a higher expression level. Based on these results, we speculated that TaARF genes played an important role in response to drought stress. They might be involved in the heterosis and the gene expression regulation network of root drought tolerance.
2018, 19(1):135-142. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2018.01.015
Abstract:In the study, one chromosome single segment substitution line, CSSL182 which developed from cultivated rice 9311 as the receptor parent and Oryza rufipogon as the donor parent, was selected for grain shape QTL identification. The CSSL182 has significant shorter grain width and lighter grain weight compared with receptor parent 9311. Using a CSSL182/9311 F2 population, one QTL associated with grain width, which named qGW8, was identified that located between RM447 and RM264 on Chr. 8. Using additional molecular markers, 2000 F2 individuals and F3 recombinant plants were detected and then qGW8 was finally fine mapped to a 10KB region. DNA sequencing found that 3 genes were located in this region. The scanning electron microscopes detection showed that width of CSSL182’s glumes cell was 16.7% narrower than 9311’s, indicated that the alleles from wild rice might controls grain width by affecting glumes cell shape.
2018, 19(1):143-149. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2018.01.016
Abstract:Ammopiptanthus nanus, one of the tertiary relict plants, is a rare evergreen broad-leaved shrub in desert region of mid-Asia. The plant species can grow in environment with extremely high level of drought and freezing stress, and it can be used as a model for stress tolerance research in tress. However, research in A. nanus at molecular level is hindered by the lack of genome information. In the present study, flow cytometry analysis was performed to predict the genome size of A. nanus. Genomic survey sequencing of A. nanus was then conducted, and a total of 65 Gb sequencing reads was obtained. K-mer analysis using these sequencing reads was conducted to predict the genome size, heterozygosity and GC content of A. nanus. The genome size of A. nanus was estimated to be 770-787 Mb. The total reads length of contigs is 0.538 Gb, with a N50 of 684 bp, and after further assembly, the N50 of scaffords is 12.09 Kb with a total reads length of 0.602 Gb. SSR molecular markers were predicted using the assembled genome sequences and 151858 SSR were obtained. Of all SSR categories, the dinucleotide repeat units is largest, with a percentage of 56.39%, and the AT/TA components is the dominant dinucleotide repeat unit. Our study reported on the genomic characteristics of A nanus for the first time, and provided a large number of genomic sequences for further research in A nanus.
2018, 19(1):150-156. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2018.01.017
Abstract:GA signaling transduction pathway or biosynthesis, which is impeded, is an important factor in plant dwarfing. DELLA protein is an important negative regulator in GA signaling transduction pathway. DELLA protein gene, named BsGAI2, was cloned from Buxus sinica var. parvifolia using PCR and RACE techniques. BsGAI2 contains the complete coding region, having 2576bp in full length, contains an opening frame of 1884bp. Real-time quantitative PCR demonstrated that, the amount of BsGAI2 expression was the highest in stem and the lowest in flower from Buxus sinica var. parvifolia. The transgenic tobaccos contains BsGAI2 gene, appearing dwarf, internodes shorter, growing slowly, delay flowering. The transgenic tobaccos were detected by GFP fluorescent methods, whose leaf, stem were founded fluorescent signal, and the stem xylem had bright-enriched signal. These results all indicated that BsGAI2 gene may play an important role in the process of shorting stem internode for Buxus sinica var. parvifolia dwarf. This study analyzed physical & chemical properties and functional identification of BsGAI2 gene encoding protein, which provided the theoretical basis for the further study of BsGAI2 gene and DELLA protein family.
2018, 19(1):157-166. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2018.01.018
Abstract:At present, the available molecular markers of elm have been seriously deficient, which can not meet the needs of molecular marker assisted breeding and evaluation of germplasm resources. In this study, transcriptome data of Ulmus pumila were used as materials to develop and verify EST-SSR markers of elms. The availability of primers were checked in different elm resources. Moreover, the genetic diversity of different elm resources were analysised by using the developed primers. In this study, 8828 perfect SSR and 569 compound SSR locis were detected in 36609384bp sequences of Unigene sequences by using the transcriptome data of Ulmus pumila. The length of perfect SSR sequence were mainly based on short sequence of 10-22bp. The largest proportion of SSR repeat units were A/T(3330，40.18%), followed by AG/CT(1211，14.61%) and AAG/CTT(568，6.85%). In this study, we selected 90 pairs of EST-SSR primers randomly for validation analysis, the effective amplification rate was 51.11% (46 pairs) of which 63.04% primers (29) were high polymorphism primers. The polymorphism information content PIC were ranged in 0.054-0.683, which greatly enriched the resources of the elm SSR primers. This study confirms the availability of SSR primers in different elm resources. Cluster analysis showed that the majority of elm clones were separated from their origin, which proved the validity of the EST-SSR primers that developed in this study from the other side. This study provide the molecular basis for the classification of Ulmaceae plants.
2018, 19(1):167-176. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2018.01.019
Abstract:In this study, a LCYB gene was cloned from Hibiscus esculentus L. by RT-PCR and RACE technique. The full-length cDNA sequence of LCYB was 1797 bp, which contained a 1509 bp open reading frame(ORF)that encoded 503 amino acids,with a predicted molecular weight (mol.wt.) of 56.288 kD and a hypothetical isoelectric point (pI) of 4.577. It shared over88% identity with the homologous proteins from Gossypium raimondii, Corchorus olitoriu. and Theobroma cacao, proving that it was highly conservative. This gene was named HyLCYB and the GeneBank accession was KX257998. Motif Scan analysis showed that HyLCYB protein had a conservative structure domain and binding domain in the position of 88-481 and 88-113 sites,respectively. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that LCYB could be expressed in different tissues of Hibiscus esculentus L., including roots, stems, leaves, flowers and fruits. The expression level of LCYB gene was the highest in mature leaves and 7 days after flowering during the process of Leaf and fruit development respectively. What’s more, an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method for the determination of carotenoid contents was explored. The carotenoids in Hibiscus esculentus L. primarily consisted of lutein and β-carotene, andβ-carotene contents was also the highest in mature leaves and 7 days after flowering during the process of Leaf and fruit development respectively, which probably related to the changes in LCYB genes expression.
2018, 19(1):177-186. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2018.01.020
Abstract:Both Ruoqiang county and Qiemo county in the south margin of the Taklimakan Desert are typical examples of arid and semi-arid ecological region with ecological diversity, drought and little rain, and soil secondary salinization in Xinjiang. To date there have retained lots of traditional farming patterns, and abundant stress resistance crops germplasm resources. The investigation and collection of stress-tolerant crop germplasm resources were carried out in these counties. The 121 samples were collected in the survey which belonged to 11 families, 28 genus and 34 species, and the periodic change of the social development, the agricultural production and the succession of crop varieties was analysed. Furthermore, the collection, conservation and utilization of crop germplasm resources in the arid and semi-arid area of Xinjiang were also discussed in the paper.