2017, 18(6):1001-1005. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.06.001
Abstract:The paper synthesized the progress in introduction and utilization of oat germplasm resources from foreign countries. Through a long period of efforts, China had introduced 2099 accessions of oat germplasm resources from 28 countries, covering 29 species of Avena genus. It has greatly increased the number of oat accessions and enriched the species and genetic diversity of oat conserved in China. Meanwhile, the introduced oat germplasm resources were used to develop a number of new varieties and enhanced the productivity of oat in China. The considerable progress has been made in utilization of the introduced wild species of oat for germplasm enhancement, studies on origin and evolution, and genetics of oat. It was suggested that the oat germplasm introduction from abroad should be strengthened. Priorities should be given to evaluate and utilize the wild oat germplasm resources. At the same time, the international collaboration on oat germplasm resources should be strengthened.
2017, 18(6):1006-1012. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.06.002
Abstract:Phaseolin is an important and informative biochemical marker for studying the genetic diversity in common bean. In this study, SDS-PAEG gel electrophoresis was used to detect the variation of phaseolin in Chinese common bean germplasms, and the genetic diversity and composition feature of these germplasm were analyzed. Twelve phaseolin patterns(S,Sb,Sd,B,C,CA,PA,T, To,H,H1,CH) were identified among 445 accessions that collected from 13 provinces in China.The result indicated that phaseolin variation of Chinese common bean germplasm resources was rich and the genetic diversity level was higher. Among these patterns,the most frequent pattern was Sb (29.0%), followed by T(28.1%).According to the specificity of phaseolin types in different gene pools,the study materials were clearly divided into Mesoamerican or Andean gene pool. The study also found that phaseolin variation of the landraces in these germplasm resources was abundant, and the diversity was significantly higher than the modern breed varieties or lines.The phaseolin types was significantly positive correlation with 100-seed weight while there was no significant correlation between the phaseolin types and seed color or seed shape when the correlation analysis conducted between phaseolin types and three seed traits. The results of this study will provide a theoretical basis for the protection of common bean germplasm resources and the effective excavation of high quality germplasm resources.
2017, 18(6):1013-1022. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.06.003
Abstract:The research of special and functional rices has been paid more and more attention by the society, with the development of social economy and the improvement of people's living standard, the breeding of germpalsms with higher contents of nutritional and functional component are one of the important goals in current rice breeding. The evaluation of nutritional and functional component contents was conducted using created one white and 39 special rices with single or more than two special properties of fragrance, colored seed coat, giant embryo, sweet and waxy. There are no significant difference in most of the amino acid content and mineral element content between special rices and white rice, while there are significant difference in few amino acids and mineral elements between special rices and white rice. The lysine content of seven types of special rices for black brown rice, red rice, black giant embryo glutinous rice, red giant embryo glutinous rice, giant embryo glutinous rice, red sweet rice, white sweet rice were significantly or extremly significantly higher than whit rice for 2.91-24.68%; the iron content of six types of special rices for black rice, black brown rice, red rice, fragrant glutinous rice, black giant embryo glutinous rice, red sweet rice were significantly or extremly significantly higher than whit rice for 17.62-68.09%; the calcium contents of seven types of special rices for black brown rice, red rice, black sweet rice, red sweet rice, white sweet rice were significantly or extremly significantly higher than white rice for 23.56-49.46%; the zinc content of five types of special rices for black rice, black brown rice, black sweet rice, red sweet rice, white sweet rice were significantly or extremly significantly higher than white rice for 12.21-60.39%. This indicates there has a certain increasing effect for the content of lysine, iron, alcium and zinc when with the single special trait or to aggregating more than two special traits such as colored seed coat, giant embryo, sweetness, fragrance and waxy. Furthermore, several special rices with higer funcitional component content were selceted from created germplasms. The selected white sweet rice 1553 and red giant embryo glutinous rice 1476 has 10.22 mg/g and 9.75 mg/g of lysine contents respectively, which were hihger than white rice for 29.4% and 23.4% respectively; the iron content of red rice 1439 and 1440 were 20.9 ug/g and 18.9 ug/g respectively, which were higher than white rice for 99.1% and 80.0% respectively; the selenium content of black sweet rice 1511 and 1515 were 90.3 ng/g and 72.6 ng/g respectively, which were higher than white rice for 205.1% and 145.3%, respectively; the aminobutyric acid content of white sweet rice 1551 and fragrant glutinous rice 1446 were 226.6 ug/g and 221.2 ug/g respectively, which were higher than white rice for 15.7% and 12.9%, respectively; the anthocyanin content of black giant embryo glutinous rice 1464 and black rice 1432 were 53.02 ug/g and 52.36 ug/g respectively, which were higher than mean value of 18 accessions colored rices tested in this study for 253.23% and 248.83% respectively. These new created different types of germplasms with higher functional componens will be further utilized as parents in rice breeding, the identification of ecological suitability and industrialization exploitation.
2017, 18(6):1023-1031. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.06.004
Abstract:Crop landraces are an important component of crop genetic resources, which is of great significance to food security and people’s livelihood, thus becoming the main target of germplasm resource conservation and rural development. The Kam aromatic glutinous rice is one of the most important crops in Dong ethnic areas of China. It has become an important component of Dong ethnic traditional staple food crop for hundreds of years. At present, there are abundant germplasm resources of Kam aromatic glutinous rice in Qiandongnan Miao and Dong Autonomous Prefecture, Guizhou Province, China. Aimed at providing data for the conservation and utilization of Kam aromatic glutinous rice germplasm resources, the genetic diversity and similarity of Kam aromatic glutinous rice were explored at the molecular level in the area. In the study, an approach combining ethnobotany investigation and molecular biological experiment was used to evaluate the genetic diversity of the Kam aromatic glutinous rice landraces in Dong ethnic area of Qiandongnan Prefecture. The genomic DNA was extracted from young leaves of 95 Kam aromatic glutinous rice landraces collected from Dong villages following the CTAB method, and then AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) molecular markers was adopted for enzyme digestion analysis, co??????nnection and pre-amplification and selective amplification, and 3730 XL sequencing facility was used for capillary electrophoresis. The polymorphic loci, percentage of polymorphic loci, genetic distance and genetic similarity were analyzed through PopGene1.32 and NTSYS pc-V. 2.1 software. The Kam aromatic glutinous rice landraces were clustered with UPGMA (unweighted pair group method analysis) method. A total of 707 clear bands were obtained, 619 of them were polymorphic bands and the percentage of polymorphic was 87.55%. Shannon’s information index was 0.3738. The genetic similarity coefficient of 8 populations of Kam aromatic glutinous rice is 0.9484-0.9860. The genetic distance was 0.0141-0.0529. The genetic similarity coefficient of Zhanli and Huanggang was the highest, while the genetic distance of Kengdong and Huanggang was the forest. There was no correlation between genetic distance and geographic distance. The genetic similarity coefficient of the 95 accessions was 0.7121-9958. It could be clustered into 2 big clusters (A and B) when the genetic similarity coefficient was 0.7546, with the addition of a special group of landraces. Branch A included a group of 88 landraces, and Branch B had a total of 6 landraces. The varieties were collected from the same and adjacent villages or the varieties with similar morphological traits that were not clustered completely together, there was no correlation between the genetic distance and the geographical location. The results show that there was higher genetic diversity in the landraces of Qiandongnan Prefecture, especially in the Dong villages where the genetic differentiation was high, and the genetic background was very complex in the Kam aromatic glutinous rice landraces. In addition, ethnic traditional classification has important reference value for understanding the diversity of rice landrace varieties. The formation of diversity was related to complex environment, ethnic traditional farming system and culture in the prefecture. The AFLP molecular system establishment and the reveals of diversity background of Kam aromatic glutinous rice provided a basis for the follow-up correlative study of the germplasm resources, which is conducive to further excavate and utilize the especial germplasm resources and provides an important basis for formulating relevant protection strategies.
2017, 18(6):1032-1038. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.06.005
Abstract:Roegneria kamoji Ohwi exited widely in China, Japan and Korea. Genetic variations and variations within species of R. kamoji were reported in previous studies. In this study, we using artificial hybridization, morphology comparison, thremmatology and genome analysis studies for exploring the differentiation of seven populations of R. kamoji from Sichuan, Qinghai, Xinjiang, Zhejiang and Shandong. The results showed that: 1) the heights, length of spike, length of lemma were different for these populations. The phenotypic traits of F1 hybrid were better than their parents, while the floret number and width of glume were inferior to their parents. 2) Meiotic pairing in hybrids averaged 19.77 to 20.91 bivalents per cell, 0.18 to 2.46 univalents per cell, and a low frequency of trivalents and tetravalents. 3) The fertility and natural seed set of the F1 hybrids ranged from 78.9% to 89.67%, 43.05% to 77.98%, respectively. The lowest seed set (43.05%) was found in hybrid between Zhejiang and Yibin. The above results suggested that differentiations were existed in seven populations of R. kamoji, and it positively correlated with the geographical distribution of the populations. The natural seed set of hybrid between Zhejiang and Yibin was only 43.05%, which is lower than 50%, certifying that reproductive isolation existed between these two populations of R. kamoji.
2017, 18(6):1039-1045. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.06.006
Abstract:In order to understand the evolution of quality character and relationship of rice from Liaoning province, we performed quality character analysis on 257 rice varieties approved by Liaoning Province variety examine and approve committee from1991to 2015, and investigated relationship and application of backbone parent by means of coefficient of parentage and pedigree analysis. The results showed the grain became long and broadened, chalkiness degree decreased, transparence, amylase content and gel consistence reduced of rice varieties from Liaoning province years from 1991 to 2015 with time marching. The similarity and high quality rate of variety quality character improved. Comprehensive performance difference was larger because of the different variation degree in different years. The coefficient of parentage decreased and then increased. The numbers of variety directly bred form each parent presented a kind of increased situation. The 22 backbone parental formed on 257 rice varieties. Utilization of backbone parental had been increasingly concentrated. Toyonihiki, Liaojing5, Liaojing326, Liaojing454, Liaojing294, Liaoxing1 were important quality backbone parental for rice breeding in Liaoning. So we should widen genetic basis in the quality rice breeding process on basis of utilization of backbone parental, optimized the appearance quality, processing quality and others by way of main road for quality selection.
2017, 18(6):1046-1054. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.06.007
Abstract:Verticillium wilt seriously influences the yields and qualities of eggplant. Studies found that extensive collection, identification and screening of the resistant materials especially from the wild resources, was the preferred option to solve the harms of Verticillium wilt. In Yunnan province, it is rich in wild eggplant resources, but these resources haven’t been utilized effectively. In this study, 3 purified isolates from infected plants were collected from the main production area of Yunnan Province, and they were determined as Verticillium dahliae Kleb. based on morphological and molecular identifications. Afterwards, one of the strains (QZ-S) was selected by resistance evaluation and to be used in the following inoculation experiment. The results found that, among 45 Yunnan wild eggplant resources that were inoculated with strain QZ-S, 2 materials ( Solanum sisymbrifolium and S. aculeatissimum ) showed high disease resistance, 2 materials ( S. torvum and S. chrysotrichum ) showed disease resistance and 6 materials ( including 1 S. violaceum material and 5 S. integrifolium materials) showed moderate resistance, and a high susceptibility material (239-3-2) was selected for its high disease percentage and disease index. All of the materials that were selected in this study could be appropriately utilized as disease resistance breeding resources. Besides, this study could broaden the germplasm resource of eggplant, lay the foundation for shortening the breeding period and providing the resistent resources for eggplant and the other crops.
2017, 18(6):1055-1066. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.06.008
Abstract:The objectives of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the salt tolerance of 50 jute germplasm resources from different countries, providing a theoretical basis for evaluation on salt tolerance of amounts of jute germplasm resources, and to dig the extreme materials on salt tolerance, providing basic materials for salt-tolerance gene discovery and the study of molecular mechanism. In this study,50 jute materials were cultured with hydroponics supplemented with NaCl at different concentrations of 0, 250mmol.L-1, repectively. Then the salt injury index after treatment and death rate on the eighth day (DR) of 50 materials were investigated. The regression equation models reflecting the correlation between stressed duration and salt injury index of jute materials were established, in order to get the time when the symptom of salt damage appeared(SA) and salt injury index up to 50%(SX). And 50 jute germplasm resources were evaluated for salt tolerance and classified by principle components analysis, subordination function method and hierarchical cluster analysis. The result showed that 250mmol.L-1NaCl was demonstrated a suitable concentration for screening salt tolerant materials in this experiment. 50 regression equations established demonstrated fitted well. Based on the comprehensive ability of salt tolerance of materials and cluster analysis, 50 jute germplasm resources could be classified into 4 grades. 3 materials were highly salt tolerant, 6 materials were salt tolerant, 31 materials were middle tolerant, and 10 materials were salt sensitive. And the best salt-tolerant material was TC008-41, and the weakest one in salt resistence was NY/252C.
2017, 18(6):1067-1078. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.06.009
Abstract:To solve the problem of shortage of potato germplasm resources in Gansu Province, we comprehensive evaluation of introduced 97 potatoes germplasms resources based on the analytical hierarchy process and GGE-biplot, including the main agronomic traits, adaptability, stability and mean of strains, and constructing a comprehensive evaluation system of potato germplasm resources. The result showed that agronomic traits, yield traits and quality traits weights were 0.0753, 0.658 and 0.2289, respectively, while in the agronomic traits plant height and stem weight had a greater weight, yield weight was 0.7309 in yield traits and dry matter and vitamin C weight value were high in quality traits. C77(CIP 397014.2) and C51(CIP 392781.1) were suitable for planting and popularizing in Jingtai area of Baiyin City, Gansu Province, C116(CIP 302499.30), C89（CIP 397079.26）, C27（CIP398208.33）, C66（CIP395193.6）and C98（CIP388611.22）had a strong adaptability in Dingxi City, Gansu Province, C36 (CIP300056.33) had a strongest adaptability in Gansu Province. The stability of potato germplasm resources were C49(CIP391207.2)＞C46(CIP388676.1)＞C116(CIP302499.30)＞C112(CIP 397030.31)＞C93(CIP 397100.9); the mean were C89(CIP397079.26)＞C116(CIP302499.30)＞C93(CIP 397100.9)＞C97(CIP398014.2)＞C112(CIP397030.31)＞C49(CIP391207.2)＞C46(CIP388676.1)＞C67(CIP395195.7). Analytical hierarchy process and GGE-biplot analysis showed that C46(CIP388676.1), C49(CIP391207.2), C112(CIP397030.31) and C116(CIP302499.30) comprehensive performance were better, these strains were regard as good strains to participate in the validation of regional trials and could be used as parental material for the preparation of hybrid combinations.
2017, 18(6):1079-1087. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.06.010
Abstract:In order to know the peanut germplasm resources in Jiangsu and explore salt tolerant resource. In this experiment, 47 peanut germplasm materials were treated with salt stress with 5 g/L NaCl, and the principal component analysis, membership function and cluster analysis were used based on the relative value of germination rate, germination energy, germination index, vigor index, fresh weight , relative water content , dry weight . The results showed that salt tolerance evaluation of peanut lines was affected with multiple indexes, relative water content and fresh weight could be used as the evaluation indexes of salt tolerance in peanut germplasm, and 5 g/L NaCl solution could be used as the suitable concentration of salt tolerance in peanut germination. 47 peanut materials were divided into 5 levels of salt tolerance, and JP42, JP29, JP23, JP43, JP35, JP4, and so on were screened out for the 6 salt tolerant germplasm. JP27 and JP98 are highly sensitive materials, and the method of membership function combined with salt tolerance can be used as a simple and rapid method for the identification of salt tolerance at germination stage.
2017, 18(6):1088-1104. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.06.011
Abstract:Based on the third national census of crop germplasm resources and collecting action, 246 sweet potato germplasm resources were collected from 14 regions in Hunan Province, and a set of rapid and effective nested PCR detection method for sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV) was established to investigate the situation of infection and distribution of SPLCV in Hunan province through the rate of virus infection. The results showed that the infection rate of SPLCV was 8.1% in Hunan, and there are fourteen sweet potato resources contained sweet potato leaf curl virus in the four regions of Shaoyang, Changsha, Yongzhou and Zhuzhou, and the infection rate of SPLCV was17.6%, 14.5%, 7.1% and 6.7% respectively, which had great regional differences. This study was the first time to detect and investigate SPLCV in Hunan province, which provided data reference for the situation of infection and distribution of SPLCV in Hunan province. It also provided important technical support for the preservation, reproduction and subsequent development and utilization of sweet potato resources.
2017, 18(6):1105-1115. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.06.012
Abstract:In order to broaden the gene bank and to screen germplasm resources for cross breeding, 134 foreign cotton germplasms were used as experimental materials. The study involved the variation of the main fibre quality and agronomic traits, the genetic diversity index and the correlation of main quality traits. Taking the main agronomic and fiber quality charactersas the index, the clustering and principal components analysis were used for these samples.The results showed that, as far as fiber quality was concerned, genetic diversity index of fiber regularity degree（5.16）was highest,variation coefficient of mcronaire value（11.96%）was highest; In terms of agronomic traits, genetic diversity index of lint percentage before the frost（5.42）was highest, variation coefficient of sterile seed ratio(49.18%)was highest, and these cotton germplasms were abundant in genetic diversity; The regularity degree was significantly positive correlated with the average length of upper half and breaking tenacity, breaking tenacity was significantly positive correlated with average length of upper half; The principal components analysis of 10 agronomic and 5 quality traits showed that the accumulation indices of top 6 principal components was up to 75.277%; Cluster analysis showed that 134 cotton germplasms were classified into 5 groups when the main quality traits are taken as the index, the groupⅡ had the best fiber quality; According to main agronomic characters, these germplasms were classified into 3 groups, the groupⅠhad maximum yield;14 germplasms such as Mei1870、Mei1884 and FM1830 etc , in which both the quality and yield traits are excellent for cross breeding have been screened by means of comprehensive analysis about 35 germplasms of quality traitsⅡgroup and 58 germplasms of agronomic traitsⅠgroup.
2017, 18(6):1115-1124. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.06.013
Abstract:Germplasm resources are important part of agricultural biology; China is one of the biggest origins and evolution center of Malus genus, it will enrich the diversity of Malus germplasm resources in China, if it strengthens the investigation and collection of Malus germplasm resources. To find out the distribution of Malus germplasm resource, expand number and types of Malus germplasm resources, and provide basic reference for the protection and scientific research, National Apple Germplasm Repository investigated the Malus germplasm resources in Northwest China, North China, Southwest China, Northeast China and East China during 2005-2016. The results showed that there were various types of Malus germplasm resources in China, which are distributed widely, 621 Malus germplasm resources were collected, the wild species were abundant in Northwest China, Southwest China and Northeast China, where has less apple landraces. The Malus germplasm resources in North China were dominated by apple landrace and the wild species were less. The current problem of wild species is the distribution area decreased year by year, from the previous large-scale scattered distribution gradually transformed concentrated distribution in small areas; apple landraces are facing the problem of frequent cutting, serious loss. The problems of protection and utilization were initially proposed based on the survey of Malus germplasm resources for consecutive 11 years.
2017, 18(6):1125-1136. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.06.014
Abstract:IIn order to understand the state including categories of species, natural distribution, eating areas and cooking methods, of flower vegetable-edible plants, local markets and the restaurants, and some local cosumers were surveyed in 102 counties and cities from 16 prefectures, Yunnan Province. At the same time, the botanical identification of the vegetable-edible flower plants was carried out. A total of 140 species of vegetable-edible flower plants, belonging to 56 families and 106 genera, including 82 species of woody plants and 58 herbaceous plants, 76 species cultivated, 14 domesticated, 50 wild resources, were found in this investigation. There were 9 kinds of plants which were first reported as vegetable-edible flower plants in this article, such as Dregea sinensis Hemsl.、 Crataegus scabrifolia (Franch.) Rehd.、 Primula pseudodenticulata Pax、 Abelmoschus crinitus Wall.、 Rhododendron caloplytum var. openshawianum (Rehd. et Wils.) Chamb.、 Vallaris indecora (Baill.) Tsiang et P. T. Li、 Cajanus grandiflorus (Benth. ex Baker) Vaniot der Maesen、 Pueraria wallichii Cand.、 Clerodendrum fortunatum Linn. For the vegetable-edible flower plants, the natural distribution was not completely along with the edible area. Usually the plants were distributed in the edible area, but vegetable-edible flower plants were not necessarily edible in this area even though they were distributed here. The types of vegetable-edible flower plants decreased from south to north, which showed a certain relationship with the richness of the plants and the minorities in the areas. The types of vegetable-edible flower plants and the taste of its cooking were different while edible parts and cooking methods were also different, which reveal the anthophagy custom nationality. This paper put forward some suggestions on the development and utilization of wild vegetable-edible flower plants by analyzing the disappearing of traditional anthophagy culture.
2017, 18(6):1137-1144. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.06.015
Abstract:Guizhou province is an important distribution area of wild allium, especially in Hezhang county. In order to understand and study the distribution, the wild Chinese chive in Hezhang county was investigated, and the main nutritional components were analyzed. The results indicated that there are mainly 3 kinds of wild Chinese chive distributed in Hezhang county, Allium wallichii Kunth., Allium ovalifolium Hand.-Mzt.(tentatively named) and Allium hookeri Thwaites (tentatively named). . The geographical distribution, habitat and climate of the wild chives were investigated. Among 17 kinds of amino acids, except for proline, the contents of other amino acids in wild chives were higher than that of the cultivated chive. The sugar contents of wild chives were significantly lower than the cultivated chive. Among 9 trace elements, zinc and iron contents of Allium ovalifolium Hand.-Mzt.were significantly higher than that of cultivated chives and other wild chives. Among 4 kinds of heavy metal, cadmium content in 3 kinds of wild chives exceed the limitation of national standard, especially the cadmium content in Allium ovalifolium Hand.-Mzt. was significantly higher than the others. Content of arsenic, mercury and lead in Allium ovalifolium Hand.-Mzt. also exceed the limitation of national standard; Vc content in leaves and stalk of Allium wallichii Kunth. in original habit was higher than that of cultivated chives. The biological characteristics and nutrition components of wild chives from Hezhang county were significantly different from that of cultivated chives, which will be important genetic resources for utilization and quality development of chives.
2017, 18(6):1145-1150. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.06.016
Abstract:Yunnan is the concentrative areas inhabited by minority nationality people.yunnan Yunnan province is in the Yunnan - Guizhou plateau where the landform is complexity and the climate is diversity, Just just because of these, the diversity of vegetable is quite abundance in Yunnan province. however However , the greater vicissitude is happening that which minority nationality cultures ，life style and customs , and relevant vegetable resources germplasm are disappearing gradually along with economic development and infiltration of external cultures in recent years. life Life style and customs, and relevant vegetable resources are disappearing gradually along with economic development and infiltration of external cultures.In order to protect conserve and develop traditional culture of ethnic minorities and vegetable resources in the minority area , Forties thirty-one counties and ten minority nationalities were systematically investigated by .The authors only introduced conservation and utiliza?tion on vegetable resources germplasm of minority nationality in Yunnan province, in which the aim was focused on providing basic information and scientific evidences for conservation and development of traditional culture of mi?nority, and constituting the conservation policy of biological resources and scientific researches.
2017, 18(6):1151-1158. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.06.017
Abstract:CCT family gene widely participates in the regulating process of flowering of plants. The research on CCT gene of Ae. tauschii may provide a reference for exploring the wheat's evolution, domestication and also help to understand the ecological adaptability of Ae. tauschii. The AetCCT were divided into ten subgroups based on phylogenetic analysis. Results of phylogenetic analysis show that 13 AetCCT members of Group A, C, H and G achieved rapid evolution. After normal selection effect of some branches, rapid evolution improves the adaptability of Ae. tauschii. The conserved motifs analysis suggest that AetCCT genes in the same Group may have similar function, the specific motif of different members among families and within family is likely to be the important reason for the different functional differences among different subfamily genes. The expression of AetCCT4, 7, 8, 11, 12, 16, 17, 19 and 21 has obvious biological clock effect, with the 24h rhythm expression, so it is speculated that these members are involved in regulating the growth and development such as flowering.
2017, 18(6):1159-1167. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.06.018
Abstract:Basic helix-loop-helix protein (bHLH) is an important transcription factor in eukaryotes, and it is mainly composed of basic amino acid region and helix-loop-helix region. In this study, a total of 122 mung bean bHLH transcription factors were identified by bioinformatical methods, and their physicochemical properties, conserved domain, gene structure, chromosome distribution, family evolution and expression differences of some typical bHLH genes were analyzed. The results show their physicochemical properties were different. The bHLH contained two conserved domains, which were located in the alkaline amino acid region of N and the helical ring and spiral region of C, respectively. There were five conserved motifs, and the basic amino acid region contained the conserved sequence: His5-Glu9-Arg13, and they were related to the binding with the target gene, while HLH region contained two conserved residues, Arg23 and Arg55, which were related to the formation of dimer. The bHLH genes were uneven distribution on the 11 chromosomes in mung bean. The number of genes on chromosome 5, 7 and 8 were larger, and the number of genes on chromosome 1, 4 and 10 were smaller. The number of introns ranging from 1 to 9, and the genes were clustered on some chromosomes. The phylogenetic analysis showed that 122 bHLH transcription factors were divided into 11 subgroups. Our results showed that the expression of bHLH is diverse and exhibit distinct patterns in different tissues of mung bean. This study lays a foundation for further study on the complex biological functions of bHLH transcription factor family in mung bean.
2017, 18(6):1168-1178. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.06.019
Abstract:Calcineurin B-like-interacting protein kinase (CIPKs) was one kind of serine/threonine kinases, playing crucial roles in abiotic stresses and hormones signal transduction pathways. Based on soybean genome database, a total of 52 CIPK genes were identified from soybean. Multiple alignments showed that all soybean CIPK proteins had the conserved regions which were composed of an N-terminal kinase domain, a junction region and a C-terminal regulatory domain. Phylogenetic analysis of CIPKs form soybean, Arabidopsis and rice revealed that all CIPKs were classified into four subfamilies and each subfamily was composed of homologous CIPKs from these three species. The classification of CIPKs from soybean was consistent with Arabidopsis and rice, which implied that the differentiation of CIPK genes occurred before the evolution of plant species. Promoter sequences analysis suggested that most GmCIPKs had stress and hormone related cis-acting elements in their promoter regions. Tissues expression analysis revealed that each GmCIPK had different expression pattern in different tissues. Furthermore, 14 GmCIPKs with relatively higher transcript level in different tissues were selected to investigate their transcriptional response to various stimuli by real-time PCR. The results showed the comprehensive responses of the tested GmCIPKs to heat, drought, salt stressors and ABA, ACC, SA, MeJA signaling. By BLASTP analysis, 17 orthologous GmCIPKs involved in CIPK interaction networks were identified between Arabidopsis and soybean. The findings of this study will provide a foundation for the functional characterization of the GmCIPK genes in vegetable soybean.
2017, 18(6):1179-1192. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.06.020
Abstract:Abstract：In this study, 72 XTH genes encoded xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase were identified in the Gossypium hirsutum genome and named GhXTH1-72. Their physicochemical properties, subcellular location, gene structure, gene evolutionary and conservative motif of the amino acid sequences were analyzed, and expression patterns in different fiber development stages were explored. The results showed that the predicted XTH genes of cotton were distributed across 24 chromosomes except for At 07 and Dt 07. XTHs were classified into three subgroups according to the phylogenic relationship and gene structure. XTHs had three highly conserved motifs and most of XTHs exsited in extracellular. Moreover, the expressions of all the cotton XTH genes were analyzed in different fiber developmental stages. According to the change of the XTHs expression in different stages of fiber development, it is divided into four profiles. GhXTH15, GhXTH28, GhXTH36, GhXTH49, GhXTH59, GhXTH62, GhXTH63 etc play important roles in the fiber development by constructing the phylogenetic tree of the amino acid sequences of the Arabidopsis thaliana and the upland cotton. The dominant expression genes including GhXTH03, GhXTH12, GhXTH17, GhXTH22, GhXTH23, GhXTH28, GhXTH33, GhXTH44, GhXTH46, GhXTH59 might play an important role in fiber elongation stage by comparing gene expression of XTH gene family in upland cottons with different fiber qualities. The above analysis provides a useful reference for the further validation of the XTH gene family in the development of fiber in Gossypium hirsutum.
2017, 18(6):1193-1203. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.06.021
Abstract:As a kind of medicinal and food crop, mungbean is not only an essential food resources, but also plays an important role in improving the environments of soils and increasing the income of farmers. However, the basic research and genomics study of mungbean is far behind the other major crops. In recent years, molecular marker technology has developed rapidly and been widely used in mungbean genome research. By using molecular markers, more than twenty?sets of mung bean genetic linkage map?have been constructed. Some excellent genes especially genes related to resistance were identified or fine mapped, this laid the foundation for marker-assisted selection and promoted the development of breeding for resistant cultivars. This article reviewed the application of molecular markers in study on genetic linkage map construction and gene mapping of mungbean. The main aim is to supply useful information for the genetic breeding research and functional genomics analysis.
2017, 18(6):1204-1209. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.06.022
Abstract:Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of protein content and oil content in Soybean is providing the theoretical basis for quality breeding of higher content of the protein and oil. There were 100 BC2 lines of backcross introgression lines from Zhonghuang 13 and Zhonghuang 20. SSR marker polymorphism of the population of BC2F5 was analysed. The protein content and oil content were measured by near infrared spectroscopy. A linkage map including 20 linkage groups with a total length of 948.01 cM and an average genetic distance of 8.78 cM with a total of 108 SSR markers was constructed. 5 QTLs related to protein content and 9 QTLs related to oil content were detected, including Satt445-Sat_303 for oil content detected in two years and Satt445-Sat_303 and Satt543-Satt574 for protein content and oil content detected in the same year, Sat_389-Satt590, Satt238-Satt388 and Satt685-Sat_381 for oil content.
2017, 18(6):1210-1215. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.06.023
Abstract:Abstract: Through the Shen zhou No. 8 spacecraft carrying a good quality rice varieties of Guangdong Province Yue nong si miao, we obtained a stable spike-type mutant cl, named Yue Hua Zhan 1 Hao, which was applied for new plant species rights of the Ministry of Agriculture in 2015( Application number: 20151728.8; Bulletin number: CNA014491E). The mutant had similar agronomic characters with wild type, but abnormal inflorescence structure, with increased primary branches number, seriously shortened secondary branches and spikelets, clustered 3 spikelets on the branch top.Futher cytological observations suggested that the differences were mainly from the third stage to the fourth stage development of young spike differentiation. Genetic analysis showed that the trait was controlled by a pair of semi-dominant gene, and the gene was initially located on chromosome 6, named CL-6(clustered spikelets). The results of this study were lay the foundation for further fine positioning and cloning CL-6 gene, and reveal the functional gene or regulatory factor of rice spikelet elongation and shorten , at the same time offering excellent germplasm to cultivate the ideal panicle rice and ornamental agriculture.
2017, 18(6):1216-1220. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.06.024
Abstract:Male sterility played important roles in carrot breeding. In this study, a wild petaloid male-sterile carrot (named: ‘Wuye-BY’) was obtained from the wild carrot in Hongshan district of Wuhan city, China. The wild petaloid male-sterile carrot was not obvious fleshy taproots. Its tender stems, leaf blades and petioles were dark green without pubescence, petal and anther. The number of calyxes is 8-10 and the number of filaments is 0-2. The chromosome number of the male sterility is 2n=18. The top of mericarps and filaments contained a large amount of nectars. The male sterility can freely receive the pollen of cultivated carrots. The hybrid F1 had obvious advantages in root size, root weight, carotene, total sugar and vitamin C content.