2017, 18(2):171-178. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.02.001
Abstract:Academician Dong Yuchen is one of the founder of crop germplasm resources subject in China. This paper study the individual growth on the perspective of the social background and subject development. This paper conducts study from the aspects of social change and individual choice, subject development and individual contribution, academic feature, scientific spirit and personality charm in order to find the key influencing factors of success for inspiring young scholar.
2017, 18(2):179-185. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.02.002
Abstract:Bioassay is a traditional and classical method for analyzing the herbicides tolerance variation in plants, which has been widely adopted in determining the tolerance of crops, e.g. soybean, barnyard grass, and cotton, to herbicides, such as glyphosate and,chlorimuron-ethyl. However, the dicamba bioassay method and the tolerance variation of dicamba in different soybean cultivars remained uncharacterized. In this study, inhibition rate of hypocotyl elongation was used as the major index to evaluate the phenotypic variance of germinated soybean treated with dicamba. The dicamba bioassay was established by using 300 μg/L dicamba as threshold of screening concentration, and combining with the regression equation analysis and median inhibitory concentration (IC50) analysis.This method was used to identify 35 soybean varieties derived from micro-core germplasm, namely Dahuangdou-1 and Shifangluosidou, showed relatively higher tolerance to dicamba. Our study provided reference and theoretical basis for the cultivation of bicamba-resistant transgenic soybean receptor using transgenic technique and traditional crossing breeding or the selection of recurrent parent, and as well as the quick phenotypic determination of transgenic soybean with resistance to bicamba.
2017, 18(2):186-192. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.02.003
Abstract:With increasing environmental pollution and paying more attention to healthy body, functional foods become more and more popular in the world. As a member of rice family, pigmented rice is rich in trace elements, anthocyanins, alkaloids and other functional ingredients and has become one of the hotspots of functional food research and development. In this study, 214 lines from japonica rice cross combination Longjin 1/Xiangruanmi 1578 were employed, and the variation and correlation among total anthocyanin content, grain color grade and thousand grain weight of brown rice were analyzed. Grain color grade of brown rice ranged from 1 to 9, mean was 4.98 and the coefficient of variation was 57.87%. Total anthocyanin content of brown rice ranged from 0 to 5459.34 mg/kg, mean was 834.47 mg/kg and the coefficient of variation was 191.96%. Thousand grain weight of brown rice ranged from 11.96 to 26.24 g, mean was 17.75 g and the coefficient of variation was 12.89%. The total anthocyanin content, grain color grade and thousand grain weight of brown rice did not follow a normal distribution, but right skewed distribution, and among which total anthocyanin content of brown rice showed the largest skew degree. The kurtosis coefficients of total anthocyanin content and thousand grain weight of brown rice were positive, indicating a sharp peak. However, the kurtosis coefficient of grain color grade of brown rice was negative, indicating a flat peak. The total anthocyanin content of brown rice was extremely significant positive correlated with grain color grade of brown rice, and the correlation coefficient was 0.69. The total anthocyanin content and grain color grade of brown rice were extremely significant negative correlated with thousand grain weight of brown rice, and correlation coefficients were -0.20 and -0.34, respectively. Compared with high parent Longjin 1, the total anthocyanin content of brown rice of 27 lines increased extremely significant, accounting for 12.62% of 214 F5 lines. This study will lay the foundation for germplasm innovation of high anthocyanin rice.
2017, 18(2):193-200. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.02.004
Abstract:In order to explore the genetic diversity, distribution and evolution of wild pear populations in China, Choice Changdao county in Shandong province as the investigation area, for isolated island, The plant resources of genus Pyrus to carry out the field survey and genetic analysis. The results showed that genus Pyrus resources were abundant in Changdao county, Mainly include Pyrus betulaefolia, Pyrus calleryana, Pyrus pyrifolia, etc , Among them, the mutation type is more, and found a specific type; Resources are mainly distributed in the ridge and halfway up the hill, and is relatively concentrated, on a small area could found many kinds of resource type; Genetic analysis showed that resources of genus Pyrus in island was close relationship with adjacent land resources. In addition, the plants of the genus Pyrus by the field investigation confirmed that the birds feeding pear fruit. Presumption based on the above, the birds in the dispersal of genus Pyrus resource may act as a role, in order to further understand the Chinese pear distribution and evolution provides a new research idea.
2017, 18(2):201-209. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.02.005
Abstract:SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers were chosen for analyzing the genetic diversity and genetic structure of wild apricot, cultivation apricot by the capillary electrophoresis with fluorescence detection. The results were obtained as follows: Seventeen point eight two alleles (Na) and 7.44 effective alleles (Ne) per locus were identified using 27 SSR molecular markers; the average Shannon's information index (I), expected heterozygosity (He) and observed heterozygosity (Ho) were 2.23, 0.70 and 0.52, respectively. At the population levels, average number of alleles, effective number of alleles, expected heterozygosity, observed heterozygosity and Shannon's information index were 6.59, 4.15, 0.70, 0.53, and 1.50, respectively, which indicated that a high level of genetic diversity existed in apricot resources in China. The genetic diversity of wild apricot resources were significantly higher than cultivation apricot resources, the highest genetic diversity was Siberian apricot population that had the largest number of private alleles in wild apricot resources, however, the lowest genetic diversity was kernel-using apricot population, which had a few of private alleles in the cultivation apricot resources. The clustering result showed that 159 individuas could be divided into four clusters. Genetic structure analysis showed that 159 individuas divided into five groups, this result was line with the classification of the traditional morphology. At this present study, a high level of genetic diversity and complex population structure existed in apricot resources our country, wild common apricot germplasm and cultivation apricot had a close relatives and a similar genetic structure, it speculated that the wild common apricot was the original species of the cultivation apricot; on the contrary, the kernel-using apricot had a narrow genetic base, and had a low level of genetic diversity. These results also could provide important theoretical basis for the new variety breeding and sustainable utilization of apricot resources.
2017, 18(2):210-216. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.02.006
Abstract:Glomerella leaf spot of apple (GLSA) caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides has become a major apple disease in the world. Considering the pathogenicicty differentiation of the pathogen isolated from different origins and ascertaining the apple germplasm resistance to GLSA, will be of great value to resistance breeding of apple, rational distribution of varieties and disease management. The pathogenicity differentiation of seventy-nine strains isolated from the different origins was studied by pathogenicity test in vitro. Significant pathogenicity difference differentination was detected in C. gloeosporioides, and the high virulent strains occupied a higher proportion. In addition, three-hundred and twenty-seven apple germplasms response to GLSA were evaluated by inoculated detached leaves, and one-hundred and sixty-six highly resistant germplasms, six moderately resistant germplasms, twenty-two moderately susceptible germplasms, and one-hundred and thirty-nine highly susceptible germplasms were screened respectively. The results showed that there are abundant resistant germplasms in apple. Based on the classify system of apple, this study indicated that resistant germplasms were distributed in each apple cultivar groups, in particularly Fuji and Jonathan cultivar groups.
2017, 18(2):217-224. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.02.007
Abstract:In order to analyze the genetic basis and indica-japonica differentiation of 35 weedy rice and 36 japonica rice in northeast of China, 88 pairs of molecular markers were used. The results indicated that the 88 selected markers can be applied extensively for the indica-japonica classification of rice, and total of 156 alleles identified by 88 markers with the average Na value was 1.773. Genetic diversity analysis revealed a little higher diversity level of weedy rice to the cultivars in northern China, with the average Na, He, Hsk and PIC value of 1.659, 0.006, 0.076, 0.085 for weedy rice, to 1.557, 0.004, 0.060, 0.067 for the cultivars, respectively. Genetic structure and NJ cluster analysis indicated that both weedy rice and cultivars had indica-japonica differentiation, which implied they had near relationships. Furthermore, the indica genotype frequency (Fi) of weedy rice was 0.050 which is higher than cultivars of 0.043. The trends for the Fi levels of weedy rice and cultivars in northeast of China were: weedy rice from Liaoning province (0.062)＞cultivars from Liaoning province (0.058)＞cultivars from Jilin province (0.048)＞weedy rice from Heilongjiang province (0.041)＞weedy rice from Jilin province (0.024)＞cultivars from Heilongjiang province (0.020).
2017, 18(2):225-232. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.02.008
Abstract:In order to provide molecular foundation for identification of Cucurbita genus germplasm, in present study, the molecular fingerprints of88 accessions of Cucurbita genus includingC. pepo. L, C. moschata. L and C. maxima.L were mapped using SRAP (Sequence Related Amplified Polymorphism) molecular markers technology and DNAman software. The results are as follow: the genome DNA of 88 Cucurbita genus germplasm were amplified by 35 pairs of SRAP primers selected from 200 pairs of primers. 499 bands were got totally, of which 438 were polymorphic bands, and the rate of polymorphic bands reached as high as 87.8%. DNA fingerprints of all these 88 Cucurbita genus germplasm were well constructed according to the amplified bands, and a unique molecular ID card was mapped for each species so that it can be identified successfully. Furthermore, the primer E5EM8, which has the best polymorphism, can distinguish 72 Cucurbita genus accession thoroughly. All the 88 Cucurbita genus germplasm could be identified using 5 pairs of SRAP primers. The results also showed DNA fingerprints of Cucurbita genus germplasm can be constructed successfully by SRAP molecular markers technique. This study has significance on identifying the accessions, constructing molecular database and protecting cultivar patent of Cucurbita genus.
2017, 18(2):233-241. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.02.009
Abstract:Genetic diversity and association analysis of Pueraria lobata resources is very useful to Pueraria lobata molecular breeding and fingerprinting construction. In this study, we carried out the genetic diversity and association analysis of 127 resources by using ten botanical characteristics and ISSR markers. The phenotyping results showed that Pueraria lobata have rich morphological diversity and all the ten botanical characteristics had great variances. 109 polymorphic bands of were amplified by 19 ISSR primers with an average of 5.73 loci per primer, the average value of Nei’s gene diversity is 0.2085, Shannon’s Information index is 0.3378 ,and the most distant GD is 0.46. The 127 resources were divided in two main groups by cluster analysis. PCA and STRUCTURE analysis result corresponding to the analysis by NTSYS, also divided 127 resources into two groups, there are three association signals by GLM association analysis and no association signals by MLM association analysis. The high level of genetic diversity was found in our resources, clustering analysis showed that there was little correlation between ISSR marker and geographical distribution, by comparing GLM and MLM association analysis result there wasn’t found any association signals.
2017, 18(2):242-252. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.02.010
Abstract:The variation and the relationship of Armeniaca sibirica in Inner Mongolia were revealed by phenotyping. Cluster analysis, correlation analysis, principal component analysis were applied to analyze the 37 phenotypic traits of 143 individuals from 14 populations of Armeniaca sibirica. The results showed that there were significantly differences in genetic variation with average variation coefficient of 20.38%. The variation coefficient of single fruit weight was highest(56.69%), while the variation coefficient of fruit shape index was smallest(7.99%). The Shannon-Wiener information index of quantitative traits(2.648) was higher than qualitative traits(0.247), and which showed that there was high phenotypic diversity in Armeniaca sibirica. The degree of variation coefficient was highest for leaf, followed by fruit and nutlet,but lowest for kernel. The degree of the Shannon-Wiener information index was highest for leaf, followed by nutlet and kernel, but lowest for fruit. The tested Armeniaca sibirica individuals could be divided into four groups according to the cluster analysis. The kernels of first group were large and full, thin shell and high kernel rate were appeared in second group, the shells of third group were thick, large fruits and large nutlets as well as large kernels were appeared in the fourth group. Principal component analysis showed that the six principal components added up to 87.21% of the variation, with similarities to results of cluster analysis and correlation analysis. A significant relationship had occurred between phenotypic traits and some economic traits, like nutlet rate and kernel rate. Nine phenotypic traits, including single fruit weight, weight of dry nutlet, weight of dry kernel, nutlet side diameter, shell thickness, kernel horizontal diameter, fruit shape index, nutlet shape index, kernel shape index, were evaluated among the tested genetic resources. Phenotypic variation of Armeniaca sibirica in Inner Mongolia was rich, this will facilitate the studies of the genetic resources and breeding theoretically and practically.
2017, 18(2):253-260. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.02.011
Abstract:Five thousand and one wheat varieties (lines) including four thousand two hundred and ninety-one winter wheat varieties (lines) and seven hundred and ten spring wheat varieties (lines) , which come from thirty-five breeding unite in China, were evaluated their resistance to stripe rust by artificial inoculated mixed tested races/isolates of puccinia striiformis f.sp tritici (Pst) at seedling stage in Lanzhou greenhouse, and tested single/mixed races/isolates of Pst at adult plant stage at Gangu testing station, institute of plant protection, Gansu academy of agricultural sciences (IPP GAAS) during 2003~2013. The results showed that four hundred and seventy-nine, seventy-six, two hundred and ninety-one wheat varieties (lines) were immune (IM), high resistance (HR) and middle resistance (MR) in seedling and adult plant stage to all tested single/mixed races/isolates of Pst, about 9.58%, 1.52% and 5.82%, respectively. Eight hundred and forty, forty-seven, three hundred and eleven wheat varieties (lines) were IM, HR and MR in adult plant stage, about 16.80%, 0.94% and 6.22%. respectively. Nine hundred and sixty-four, one hundred and twenty-four, two hundred and seventy-three wheat varieties (lines) were IM, HR and MR to tested mixed races/isolates of Pst in seedling stage, about19.28%, 2.44% and 5.46%. Nine hundred and fourteen, nine hundred and six, one thousand two hundred and twenty-five winter wheat varieties (lines) were resistance to all tested single/mixed races/isolates of Pst in all-stage, adult plant stage and seedling stage, about 18.28%, 18.12% and 24.50%, respectively. One hundred and thirteen, one hundred and twenty-five, one hundred and fourteen spring wheat varieties (lines) were resistance in all-stage, adult plant stage and seedling stage, about 2.26%, 2.50% and 2.28%, respectively. By natural induced isolates of Pst at Wangchuan farm to evaluated resistance in field during 2004~2013. The results showed that seven hundred and forty five wheat varieties (lines) which from races/isolates pool of Pst at Gangu testing station, IPP GAAS were resistance, about 64.56%. One hundred and five commercial wheat varieties in Gansu province, only thirty wheat varieties including Lantian 19, Tianxuan 44 were resistance in field from 2003 to 2013, about 28.57%. Some wheat lines of Gansu province especially including 00-30-2-1, CP04-20 and 00127-2-3, were immune or high resistance to stripe rust in field than other wheat lines. There were a few wheat germplasms including Guinong 775, Zhong 5, T.Spelta album, Guixie 1 and Guixie 3 were resistant to tested and natural races/isolates of Pst, and mostly importance to the sources including Guinong 21, Guinong 22, 92R, Chuanmai 42 and Moro were susceptible to stripe rust in field since 2011, and lost its value in planting and breeding. The offspring wheat varieties including Longjian 9343, Tianxuan 43, Zhongliang 29, Lantian 17 and Lantian 24, were susceptible slowly to stripe rust in field. Epidemic pressure continues to increase to stripe rust in field in Longnan region, Gansu province and China. Discussed the relationship between tested and natural inoculated isolates of Pst, and importance of using resistant wheat varieties (lines) in Longnan region, Gansu province in this paper.
2017, 18(2):261-274. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.02.012
Abstract:Nowadays, Miscanthus (Miscanthus spp.) is identified as the most promising lignocellulosic energy crop and is being researched and utilized across the world, e.g. in China, American, Japan and European countries. However, due to lack of a description criterion, information exchange and sharing among Miscanthus researcher is restricted on some extent. Under this situation, this paper tried to establish the formulation principles, methods and contents of the description criterion, data standard and data quality control for evaluating Miscanthus germplasm, breeding and registering new miscanthus varities. In the future, this work can guide the collection, conservation, evaluation of the Miscanthus germplasm.
2017, 18(2):275-282. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.02.013
Abstract:Rice is extremely sensitive to high temperature, especially at the flowering stage. Identifying new germplasm and breeding rice varieties with resistance to heat stress are therefore essential. After multi-year evaluations, a heat-resistant rice landrace D43 have been identified in our previous research. In this study, the relationship between heat resistance and flowering opening time (FOT) was analyzed both in the field and in phytotron. The results indicated that high temperature can accelerate flowering opening of different rice varieties; D43 showed early morning flowering (EMF) habit in different conditions, and FOT was mainly concentrated in a period of 8:30～10:00 AM under high temperature. The invariable high temperature resulted in a significant reduction of spikelet sterility during flowering opening. However, the EMF habit was conductive to avoid high temperature. Therefore, the spikelet fertility of D43 was relative high in the field and variable temperature treatment in phytotron. In addition, morphological traits including the anther adhesion rate, the total number and germinated number of pollens on the stigma were significantly correlated with the spikelet fertility, and therefore they can be used to evaluate rice heat resistant at anthesis.
2017, 18(2):283-289. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.02.014
Abstract:Detailed knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of controlling flowering time will facilitate understanding the adaptation mechanism in cultivated rice and enable breeders to design appropriate genotypes for distinct preferences. Previous studies showed that PhyB suppress flowering in long day (LD) conditions, however, how the genetic variation of PhyB is associated with flowering time in different varieties in rice remains unknown. In this study, we sequenced 78 cultivated rice varieties (34 indica varieties and 44 japonica varieties) and 47 wild relatives of rice for PhyB. We obtained the following results: 28 haplotypes were detected among the 125 accessions, and there were two prevalent haplotypes which mainly existed in cultivated rice. The Network indicated that the cultivated rice could be divided into two groups (group A and group B), in which, group A included all indica individuals and 4 japonica individuals, and group B included the rest of japonica individuals. Further geographical analysis showed that group A and group B had distinct geographic distribution pattern, and the flowering time between group A and group B were significantly different. In addition, the genetic diversity result showed that wild rice population harbored higher genetic diversity than did the two cultivated subspecies (indica and japonica). Thus, we inferred that the two prevalent haplotypes existed in two cultivated subspecies are associated with regional adaptability. PhyB had obvious domestication signals in cultivated rice. It evolved specific alleles to adapt the day time suitable for flowering of rice varieties in different regions.
2017, 18(2):290-297. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.02.015
Abstract:Abstract：Brassica napus is an important oil crop. In order to improve fatty acid components in rape seed and enhance its economic value, this study analyzed the synthesis and accumulation mode of fatty acid in seed developmental stages and the expression pattern of BnFAD2, Bn FAD3 and BnFATB genes. Both of results suggest that BnFAD2, BnFAD3 and BnFATB genes play important roles in the synthesis and accumulation of oleic acid in mid-late period of seed development stage (day after pollination of 25) with its efficient expression. Through Napin promoter induction, BnFAD2, BnFAD3 and BnFATB genes were suppressed by RNA interference technology to enhance the oleic acid content. The results show that the BnFAD2, BnFAD3 and BnFATB genes expression was strongly inhibited in transgenic oilseed and the oleic acid content increased from 66.7 % to 82.9 %. At the same time, the expression of related genes upregulate synchronously.
2017, 18(2):298-309. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.02.016
Abstract:Rice bacterial blight (BB) is a worldwide rice disease devastating rice yield seriously. In order to explore new resistance genes against BB, we investigated resistance spectrum of W6023, an introgression line derived from cross between o.rufipogon and cultivated rice. Inoculation assays showed that W6023 was highly resistant to 23 of the 25 Xanthomonas oryzae pv. Oryzae (Xoo) strains tested, and the broad resistance spectrum is different from those conferred by other known BB resistance genes. Subsequently, W6023 and its susceptible recurrent parent IR24 were in?ltrated with the broadly virulent Xoo strain PXO99(P6) and RNA-seq analysis was performed. Totally 105644962 and 91022599 sequences were obtained from W6023 and IR24, respectively. GO annotation and KEGG enrichment analysis revealed differentially expressed genes (DEGs) mainly enriched in biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, plant hormone signal transduction and starch & sucrose metabolism. Among these differentially expressed genes, there were 203 significantly differentially expressed genes, of which 114 genes (56.2%) were up-regulated and 89 (43.8%) down-regulated in W6023, and 35.9% of them were located on chromosome 11. Bioinformatics analysis showed that 16 out of the 203 differentially expressed genes belonged to disease resistance genes such as NBS-LRR or receptor kinases; 14 genes were directly or indirectly associated with metabolism of peroxides in rice, encoding peroxidase, metallothionein, and so on; 6 genes encode resistance-related transcription factors, such as WRKY and NAC; 18 signal transduction-related genes encode calmodulin binding proteins, terpene synthase, glucosyltransferase, and so on. Six up-regulated genes of W6023 and three up-regulated genes of IR24 were randomly selected and analyzed by RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. The results were consistent with the data of transcriptome sequencing, indicating that the transcriptome data obtained in this study were reliable. These above results provide a basis for the further isolation of resistance genes in W6023.
2017, 18(2):310-317. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.02.017
Abstract:The degree of soil salinization in China is becoming more serious in cultivated land, which poses a major threat to China’s food security in future．Identifying novel salt-tolerant genes and understanding their functions in salt stress adaptation will provide us the basis for effective engineering strategies to improve crop stress tolerance. Many studies have shown that late embryogenesis abundant protein (LEA) plays a positive role in the process of plant responses to abiotic stress. In this study, we isolated TaLEA1gene and analyzed its expression pattern, physical and chemical properties of LEA1 protein as well as its function by overexprssing in Arabidopsis. The results showed that TaLEA1 belonged to the third group LEA proteins based on amino acid sequence analysis. LEA1 was stably hydrophilic protein and rich in α-helix and β-turn, which provided structure foundation for its response to stress. TaLEA1 expressions were detected in wheat root, stem, leaf, flower and seed, and that high salt stress can induce TaLEA1 expression. Overexpression of TaLEA1 conferred salt and drought tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana with higher seed germination rate, looger root length and chlorophyll content than the wild-type. The results and achievements in this study will provide the gene associated with salt tolerance with great potential for wheat improvement and the theoretically basis for deciphering the salt tolerance mechanism of the candidate gene.
2017, 18(2):318-324. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.02.018
Abstract:Powdery mildew, caused respectively by Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici ( Bgt), is globally important diseases of wheat．In this study，a new wheat germplasm line CH1302, crossed by common wheat Jintai170 and Wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium partial amphidiploid TAI7047, was characterized by a genetic analysis and chromosomal localization of powdery mildew resistance gene. The result of genetic analysis showed that the adult resistance to Bgt E09 in CH1302 was controlled by a single recessive gene, which was tentatively designated as PmCH1302. ISelect 90K SNP chips was used to analysis the disease resistance and susceptible pools of F2 population Mianyang11 ?CH1302, and found 313 polymorphism locus in wheat chromosome arm 2AL. Using 63 pairs of SSR primers of the SNP polymorphism locus, three codominant SSR markers, Xwmc522、Xgwm356 and Xgwm526, were identified to be linked with PmCH1302 according to bulked segregant analysis, and the genentic distances between the target gene and flanking markers were 12.8 cM, 3.1 cM, 7.8 cM, respectively. Further comparison with PmCH1302 and Pm4, Pm50 located on the 2AL found that PmCH1302 may be a new powdery mildew resistance gene.
2017, 18(2):325-339. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.02.019
Abstract:To understand the distribution of rice blast resistant genes and their contribution to rice blast disease in Liaoning Province, We selected 176 rice varieties, and identified the distribution of rice blast resistance genes Pi21、Pi36、Pi37、Pita、Pid2、Pid3、Pi5 and Pib in these varieties. Meanwhile, the phenotypes of rice blast resistance of these varieties were studied by inoculating. The results showed that 83 varieties were resistant to rice blast disease, among them, the rates of cultivars, weedy rice and landraces were 41.48%、1.14% and 4.54%, respectively. Rice blast resistance genes Pi21、 Pi36 and Pi37 were not detected in all rice germplasm resources, and 49、 47、74、52 and 89 germplasm resources carried Pita、 Pid2、 Pid3、 Pi5 and Pib, respectively. Most of the genes were found in cultivars, but they were rare in landraces and weedy rice. Most of the varieties that have no any rice blast resistant genes and carry single rice blast resistant gene were susceptible to rice blast. Gene pyramiding could improve the resistant to some extent. In this test, about 32 varieties did not carry any rice blast resistance genes that we identified, and only 21.87% of which were resistant to rice blast; about 52 varieties carried single rice blast resistance gene, and only 17.31% of which were resistant to rice blast, too; about 39 varieties carried two rice blast resistance genes, and 69.23% of which showed resistant to this disease. Within them, 14 varieties that carried Pita and Pi5 all showed resistant to rice blast; about 31 varieties carried three rice blast resistance genes, among them, the germplasm resources that were resistant to rice blast accounted for 77.42%, and the resistance of varieties that carried Pita, Pid3 and Pi5 simultaneously are signally good; about 22 varieties carried four rice blast resistance genes, with 72.73% of which were resistant to rice blast; the varieties carried five rice blast resistance genes were not found.
2017, 18(2):340-348. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.02.020
Abstract:Iris halophila Pall and its variety I. halophila var. sogdiana (Bung) Grubov are potential horticultural plants for arid and saline-alkali land because of their drought and salt tolerant characteristics and various flower color. In order to elucidate the mechanism of different pigmentation in these two species, we cloned 3 partial segments of key genes relating to anthocyanin biosynthesis, namely chalcone synthase (CHS), chalcone isomerase (CHI) and flavonoid- 3',5'- hydroxylase like(F3'5'H-like), from perianth of young flowers of these two Iris plants. retro-transcription PCR method were employed in cloning and gene-specific primers were designed based on a transcriptome sequencing. The expression of these 3 genes were characterized by a real-time PCR assay. Sequence analysis showed that these 3 genes are first reported in I. halophila. Among these genes, F3'5'H-like is different from the classical F3'5'H which belong to CYP75A subfamily of cytochrome P450 superfamily, it is a homolog of Vanda coerulea F3'5'H-like gene which belongs to a new subfamily CYP76AB, a novel type of blue flower related genes. Expression analysis indicated that compared with in the yellow flowered I. halophila, CHS and F3'5'H-like are up-regulated in I. halophila var. sogdiana and are responsible for its blue-violet flowers.
2017, 18(2):349-357. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.02.021
Abstract:Kales (Brassica oleracea var. acephala), which are widely cultivated as ornamental plants in wintertime or cold areas, play important roles for urban landscaping. Domestic breeding of ornamental kale starts later, and there was a lack of system researches about genetic backgrounds of germplasm resources. SSR markers were utilized in this research for genotypic and genetic relationship analysis of different ornamental kale types. 46 pairs of polymorphic SSR primers from 99 SSR primers which were uniformly distributed on B. oleracea genome were selected for polymorphism and genotypic analysis of 27 ornamental kales. 210 polymorphic loci were obtained by 46 pairs of SSR primers and the average polymorphism information content (PIC) was 0.58. The genotypic result of 27 ornamental kales was used for further STRUCTRE, UPGMA and heatmap clustering analysis. 27 ornamental kales were classified into three groups: round leaf group, leather leaf group and crinkle leaf group by STRUCTRE, UPGMA and heatmap clustering analysis whose clustering results were consistent. Round leaf and leather leaf group have close genetic relationship, while crinkle leaf group has longer genetic distance with them. And STRUCTURE analysis can also distinct hybrids whose parents belongs to diverse groups. The genotypic results can be well demonstrated by heatmap clustering analysis. These results can lay the foundation for constructing molecular fingerprints of ornamental kale, illuminating genetic background of germplasm resources, developing molecular assistant selection in ornamental kale breeding, and breeding new varieties with independent intellectual property rights.
2017, 18(2):358-366. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.02.022
Abstract:Abiotic stresses, such as drought, high salt, and low temperature, have a strong impact on crop growth and development and yield production. Plants gradually formed special capacity to rapidly perceive and adapt to external stimuli in the long-term evolution process, in which plant protein kinases play very important roles. Protein kinase and protein phosphatase catalyzing phosphorylation and dephosphorylation are ones of the most common and most important ways in signal transduction regulation in plants. And, the main effect of protein kinase is phosphorylating proteins by transferring γ-groups from ATP or GTP to a specific substrate protein, and then phosphorylated proteins play the corresponding physiological function. In recent years, research on mechanism of protein kinases by using biotechnology and genetic engineering resistance of plants via silencing or over-expressing genes has become a hot spot in molecular biology and molecular breeding. This article mainly summarizes the role of plant protein kinases in mediating abiotic stress and hormones, and will provide useful information for further research on plant protein kinase.
2017, 18(2):367-371. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.02.023
Abstract:“Agro-biological Resources Investigation in Guizhou Province” which is one of National Science and Technology Fundamental Projects, has implemented the general investigation in 42 counties and the systematic investigation in 21 counties. The agro-biological resources investigated includes food crops, economic crop, vegetables, fruit trees and medicinal plants. 207 kinds of agro-biological resources planted in Guizhou have been identified and more than 4800 samples have been collected, in which over 3500 samples have never been inventoried and preserved in national genebanks. All these samples present the richness of the species diversity and genetic diversity in this area. It is fully proved that it is highly potential to collect agro-biological resources in ethnic and remote areas in China.
2017, 18(2):372-379. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.02.024
Abstract:In order to fully understand the survival status of O.rufipogon Griff in Guangdong and make basis for the long-term protection of wild rice in our country, field survey on O.rufipogon Griff was carried out during 2005-2015.Investigation identified that there were 117 distribution sites of O. rufipogon currently in 25 counties (city) in Guangdong, of which 102 sites were recorded historically, the other 15 sites were newly discovered. There had been 1083 distribution sites of O. rufipogon in Guangdong by historical data, but until now, at 977 of which wild rice has disappeared completely， the distribution sites has lost 90.55%. The species critically endangered. The investigation indicated that the farmland reclamation, water conservancy construction, aquaculture development, use of herbicides, environmental pollution and the invasion of alien species were the main cause of the disappearance of a large number of wild rice. During the survey 1354 accessions from 118 populations were collected and preserved ex situ at national field genebank for wild rice (Guangzhou, Guangdong), which provide greater material guarantee for the sustainable and safe preservation and utilization of wild rice resources. In addition, the paper proposed suggestions for the long-term protection of O.rufipogon Griff in Guangdong.