2016, 17(4):577-585. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2016.04.001
Abstract:For comprehensive and objective evaluation the adaptability and stability for important agronomic traits of oat germplasm resources, 81 accessions of oat including naked oat and hulled oat were involved in this study, and genetic differences of seven important agronomic traits such as plant height in seven test sites were investigated and analyzed. On the basis of D value, a weighted subordinate function value, series of GGE biplot of genotype × environment were built with GGE biplot V6.3, and the adaptation and stability of 81 tested oat accessions in different test sites were analyzed according to distribution and relationship of oat accessions and test sites on above biplots. Results showed that grain weight of main ear was the trait with the largest variable coefficient among tested accessions of naked oat in all tested sites, and the number of effective tillers was the largest variable trait among tested accessions of hulled oat, and the rest five traits with no difference between naked oat and hulled oat. It was demonstrated that the method of weighted subordinate function in combination with GGE biplot would have good prospect in comprehensive analysis of oat agronomic traits. These accessions including Bayou No.3, 73014-336, Er Youmai, Bauntebue and Bayan No.1 would be cultivated well in the seven test sites at least, in which Bayou No.3 and Bayan No.1 have been selected as main oat variety in regions including Hebei Province. Such accessions as Jin 8609-1, LY03-02, Erqiu Youmai, 64 Yanmai, Pin 16, Banner and LY01-12 may be fit for breeding.
2016, 17(4):586-598. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2016.04.002
Abstract:In order to elaborate the genetic diversity of the major barley varieties planted in China and their resistance origins to spot blotch caused by Cochliobolus sativus, the coefficient of parentage (COP) was utilized to cluster 155 major barley cultivars with their pedigree information, meanwhile 79 varieties of them were inoculated with 2 strains of high virulence at both seedling and adult-plant stages. Based on the results, the 155 major barley varieties were clustered into 6 families, and 14.77 % of them possess genetic relationships with each other. There are 1763 variety combinations found with genetic relationships among the total 11935 ones, and the COP values range from 0.0000 to 0.7500, its average COP value is 0.0132. According to the pedigree analysis, the core parents for those varieties developed by different breeding institutes were identified and their possible primary parents were also deduced. In addition, most of the tested cultivars were susceptible to spot blotch in seedling and adult-plant stages. Among them, several varieties in the series of Kenpimai ones and Mengpimai No.3were identified to be highly resistant to spot blotch, and a few varieties of series of Huadamai and Zhudamai showed moderate seedling or adult-plant resistance. The results of pedigree analysis and resistance characterization of spot blotch revealed that the resistant genes utilized in the barley varieties in China may derive from different genetic backgrounds. The analyses will promote the efficiency of resistant genes selection, minimize barley accessions to be screened and accelerate the progress of exploitation and utilization of new spot blot resistance genes germplasm.
2016, 17(4):599-606. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2016.04.003
Abstract:Diverse genetic variation is of great importance for crop ecological adaption and genetic improvement.In order to know the genetic diversity of early maturity in upland cotton, 186 upland cotton (96 early-maturity and 90 later-maturity upland cotton) were explored using136 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, and a total of 355 distinctive loci were detected with an average of 2.61. A total of 341 distinctive loci were amplified from 134 SSRs with an average of 2.54 per SSR in early-maturity upland cotton and 345 distinctive loci were amplified from 133 SSRs with an average of 2.59 per SSR in later-maturity upland cotton. Mean polymorphism information content (PIC), average effective numbers of alleles (Ne) and average genotype diversity index (H′) were 0.684, 3.994 and 1.361 in early-maturity upland cotton, and 0.668, 3.852 and 1.343 in later-maturity upland cotton, respectively. The similarity coefficients were similar between early-maturity upland cotton and later-maturity upland cotton, ranging from 0.349 to 0.935 in early-maturity upland cotton with an average of 0.635, and ranged from 0.270 to 0.907 in later-maturity upland cotton with an average of 0.666, respectively. These varieties were clustered into two groups using unweighted pair group method analysis (UPGMA). The high genetic similarity coefficients of the early-maturity upland cotton indicated the genetic background of early-maturity upland cotton was narrow in China. These results are useful for assessing cotton pedigrees, improving cotton hybrids, and ultimately allowing for the improved utilization of early-maturity cotton.
2016, 17(4):607-615. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2016.04.004
Abstract:As one of important wild germplasm resource in “Saccharum complex”, Erianthus arundianceus is widely distributed in China, but has being used inefficiently in sugarcane genetic breeding research. In this study, we gathered 147 clones of Erianthus arundianceus from 9 provinces in China and planted in National Nursery of Sugarcane Germplasm Resources as original materials. Firstly, 58 clones were selected based on phenotypic data to construct primary core collection and then 16 clones were selected based on SSR and AFLP molecular markers to construct mini core collection, which occupied 39.46% and 10.88% of original materials respectively. Through comparative analysis of phenotypic and molecular genetic diversity parameter, the core collection of E. arundianceus was proved to be a good representative sample. Finally, we discussed how to build and use focus on core collection of E.arundianceus effectively in sugarcane germplasm resources and genetic breeding research. This paper aims to provide reference for construction and application of core collection from wild populations of “Saccharum complex”, and to promote transformation of future research focus from quantitative conservation to innovative utilization.
2016, 17(4):616-624. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2016.04.005
Abstract:Abstract: SSR markers were used to describe the genetic diversity and population structure of 220 elite genotypes in five populations of Larix principis-rupprechtii Mayr plantation in Beijing. A total of 81 alleles were amplified using 20 SSR markers while 4.05 alleles were detected on average per locus with the range of 2-8. The means of observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.429 and 0.440, respectively. Shannon's information index and Polymorphic information content for these populations were 0.756 and 0.380, respectively. Among the five populations, BHS and YMS populations had the highest level of genetic diversity, while WLS populations had the lowest one. The analysis of molecular variance exhibited that 2.65% of genetic variation was observed among populations, while the remaining 97.35% of genetic variation was within the populations. The coefficient of genetic differentiation was only 0.023, elucidating that the extent of genetic differentiation was quite low. The five populations could be divided into three groups based on the Nei’s genetic distances between populations, group Ⅰincluded SH and WLS, group Ⅱ included SS, and group Ⅲ contained BHS and YMS. The result of population structure analysis based on STRUCTURE software was roughly consistent with cluster analysis. The results of this study will provide the theoretical foundation for the collection, conservation and utilization of excellent germplasm resources and evaluation of genetic diversity in the man-made forest.
2016, 17(4):625-636. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2016.04.006
Abstract:The developing seeds of Tung tree (Vernicia fordii) cultivar ‘Duiniantong’ were used to construct the cDNA library and a total of 3202 original EST sequences were generated. After removing redundant and poor quality sequences, 1047 non-redundant ESTs were detected to contain 212 SSRs by MISA. The dinucleotide and trinucleotide repeats were the most abundant SSRs, accounting for 68.39% and 25.94%, respectively. Furthermore, AG/CT was the most abundant repeat motif (43.87%), followed by AT/TA (19.34%) and AGC/GCT (5.66%). A total of 68 EST-SSR primer pairs corresponding to 68 ESTs were designed, of which 14 were identified as polymorphic SSR markers by PCR and data analyses. Application of the 14 SSRs in genetics anlysis of 169 V. fordii accessions revealed that a total of 41 putative alleles were generated with a mean of 2.93 alleles per locus. The expected heterozygosity (He) and the polymorphism information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.08 to 0.63 and 0.08 to 0.56, with a mean of 0.33 and 0.30, respectively. The 14 EST-SSR markers exhibited a moderate level of polymorphism in V. fordii accessions. The genetic similarity coefficients and the genetic distances varied from 0.9604 to 0.9986 and 0.0022 to 0.0404, respectively, indicating close genetic relationships among V. fordii populations. The genetic similarity-based dendrogram revealed that there was not a significant geographic pattern of genotypes across the collection areas of 169 V. fordii resouces.
2016, 17(4):637-648. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2016.04.007
Abstract:The present research generally surveyed and analyzed crop germplasm resources in drought area including 12 counties in Shanxi Province. The counties are Youyu, Yangqu, Xixian, Linxian, Shilou, Fanshi, Linqiu, Wutai, Hunyuan, Wuxiang, Wuzhai and Xingxian. Through consulting document and field survey, the survey tables for crop germplasm resources in target counties were completed. The variation tendency of the climate and vegetation in 12 counties were analyzed, as well as cultivated area, yield, variety variation of staple crops were described. The existing problems and countermeasures for the protection of crop germplasm resources were suggested. The results will provide the valuable information for the protection, research and utilization of crop germplasm resources in drought area of Shanxi Province.
2016, 17(4):649-654. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2016.04.008
Abstract:Rosa praelucens Byhouwer is a critically risked plant endemic to Shangrila County of Yunnan. It is also a famous alpine flower. The distribution and population status of R. praelucens was comprehensively and systematically investigated. The current natural distribution was then mapped. The age structure, the life table and survival curve based on the height and crown of every plant was analysed. The results were as the follows: 1)Except for the 69 individuals introduced and grown by local nurseries and companies, R. praelucens naturally distributed at a very long and narrow area along the Shuoduogang River around the Xiaozhongdian Town. It had totally 44 natural locations with 623 individuals, 61 of which were juvenile plants. Most of the location had only one or several adult plants and no regeneration occurred. Phenotypic characters such as floral form, petal number and petal color varied much in those sites with more individuals. Most of the individuals concentrated in the age of Ⅱto Ⅴ in both height structure and crown structure, while both the younger and aged individuals were much less, showing that the population was stable in the next period of time, despite it would decrease in the long run. The mortality rate increased with the growth of age. The standard survival proportion was highest at age Ⅱin height structure and age III in crown structure, respectively, then it decreased with the growth of age.
2016, 17(4):655-662. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2016.04.009
Abstract:Abstract: Lolium multiflorum is a wildly cultivated temperate forage grass in the world. In order to screen elite ryegrass germplasm resources, variation coefficient, correlation analysis, principal component analysis and cluster analysis were conducted to analyze the 15 phenotypic traits for 15 intruduced L.multiflorum accessions. The results showed high phenotypic variability among the 15 studied accessions, and significant difference was seen in most of characters except dry matter yield . The variant coefficient varied from 10.28% to 39.15% with an average of 19.49%, in descending order, by spikelets, length of spikelets, plant height, tiller number, 1000-kernel weight, panicle length, length of penultimate leaf, number of florets per spikelet, stem diameter, length of first internode, width of penultimate leaf, width of flag leaf, length of flag leaf, dry matter yield per plant and fresh matter yield per plant. Principal components analysis of 15 traits showed the cumulative proportion of top 5 principal components reached 84.50% with plant height as the first component, leaf traits as the second component, inflorescence characters as the third component, 1000-kernel weight as the fourth component, and forage yield as the fifth component. Cluster analysis based on Euclidean distance showed that the 15 annual ryegrass accessions could be divided into 3 groups, among which there were significant differences for most traits. The second group had the high yield potential in elite germplasm screening.
2016, 17(4):663-670. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2016.04.010
Abstract:The genetic diversity of 21 populations of 3 varieties of KengyiliaYen was investigated by EST-SSR markers. There are 103 polymorphic bands were created by 60 avaliableEST-SSR primers which were selected from 97 primers in those materials. Every primers amplifying 1 to 5 bands ,and every band have an average number of alleles of 1.70. The genetic diversity of Kengyilia thoroldiana was the highest and that Kengyilia hirsute was the second highest. Kengyilia grandiglumis with the lowest PP of 44.66% in genetic diversity. The distance between Kengyilia thoroldiana and Kengyilia grandiglumis of genetic similarity analysis was minimal and the genetic similarity was maximum. The genetic distance of Kengyilia hirsute and Kengyilia grandiglumis and Kengyilia thoroldiana was far. The number 1 population of Kengyilia thoroldiana was far compare with other populations in genetic distance. The number 14 population of Kengyilia hirsute was far compare with other populations in genetic distance. The number 18 population of Kengyilia grandiglumis was far compare with other populations in genetic distance.The 21 populations was classified 3 groups :10 Kengyilia thoroldiana populations,7 Kengyilia hirsute populations and 4 Kengyilia grandiglumis populations by NTSYS 2.10e. Resonable reference can be provided to further research of genetic resource in Triticeae in this research.
2016, 17(4):671-682. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2016.04.011
Abstract:The objective of this study is to understand genetic diversity about flue-cured tobacco, find valuable molecular markers associated with aroma constituents, and excavate excellent alleles and germplasms, which is beneficial for the study of molecular marker assisted breeding of tobacco aroma quality. In this study, 76 kinds of aroma constituents were identified from 60 kinds of flue-cured tobacco germplasms from two areas. Test population were amplificated using 390 pairs of polymorphic primers screened from 1914 SSR markers covering the whole genome. Nei’s genetic distance and neighbour-joining were adoped in cluster analysis. Based on the detection of population structure, we used the mixed linear models to analysis the relations between phenotype and genotype and finded some excellent alleles and germplasms. The 390 pairs of polymorphic primers displayed 928 allelic variation, the average of polymorphism information content (PIC) was 0.332, which ranged from 0.141-0.733, which showed high genetic diversity. The test group was dicided into two subgroups based on Nei’s genetic distance, which reflected the genetic relationship among tobacco cultivars. Genetic structure analysis mainly consist with Nei’s genetic distance analysis. Correlation analysis showed that: at the level of P < 0.05, 41 kinds of aroma constituents were associated with 56 kinds of SSR markers. At the level of P <0.01, there were 5 markers significantly associated with 6 kinds of aroma constituents including oxalic acid, myristate acid, a-terpineol, linalool, 2,4-Heptadienal and gamma-amylbutyrolactone, the percentage of phenotypic variation explained ranged from 12.54%-42.20%. Besides, excellent alleles about fourteen aroma constituents were finded, future study obtained some germplasms with more positive alleles: Jingyehuang, 9201, Danyu 2, Manwuxiang, Jinxing6007, Qinyan 95, et al. These results may provide useful information for molecular marker assisted breeding in tobacco quality breeding and screening of parents.
2016, 17(4):683-689. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2016.04.012
Abstract:Abstract:【Objective】This research aim to enhance the utilization and research of wild apple germplasm resources, and promote the research of the wild apple.【Method】We used 129 single-plant of Xinjiang wild apple resources, collected in recent three years, as material to analyze genetic diversity and correlation of 12 quantitative traits(single fruit weight, fruit diameter, leaf size, etc. ) and 5 qualitative traits(leaf color, leaf opex type, leaf margin, etc.).【Result】The results showed that: qualitative traits such as leaf color, leaf opex, leaf margin, leaf shape and leaf surface had relatively concentrated distribution of frequency; Quantitative traits for example , single fruit weight, fruit diameters, petiole length , leaf blade width, soluble solid, trunk perimeter and tree heights had a large variation range, variable coefficients range from 16% to 51%. Diversity index of each traits were also larger, with mean value of 1.9264, minimum in leaf length (1.7359); maximum in fruit stem( 2.0525).【Conclusion】Xinjiang wild apple resources are abundant in genetic diversity, large diversity index and variation ranges are particularly reflected爄n fruit related characters. These indicate that abundant genetic diversity is an important characteristic of Xinjiang wild apple resources.
2016, 17(4):690-695. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2016.04.013
Abstract:Distinctness, uniformity and stability (DUS) of plant variety is one of prerequisites for granting Plant Breeders’ Rights. DUS test guidelines is the technical basis for DUS testing. In this paper, the process of the development of test guidelines for Job’s tears, including the subject, quantity requirements of propagation materials, selection of characteristics, identification of states of expression, screening of example varieties, assessment criteria of DUS and the design of technical questionnaire were elaborated. The development of DUS test guidelines for Job’s tears will contribute to improve plant variety protection, promote variety innovation and strengthen variety management for Job’s tears.
2016, 17(4):696-700. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2016.04.014
Abstract:Leaf rust causes yield losses in wheat crops worldwide. Wheat line 19HRWSN-76 was resistant to most tested Puccinia triticina races. To identify the resistance gene 19HRWSN-76 was crossed with the leaf rust susceptible wheat line Zhengzhou 5389. A single dominant gene for resistance was identified in segregating F2 population from this cross and tentatively designated LrHR76. The resistance gene initially located on chromosome 3DL based on the SSR marker barc71. The genetic distance between LrHR76 and barc71 is 3.0 cM.
2016, 17(4):701-709. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2016.04.015
Abstract:High molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) are the most important components in the storage protein of wheat grains. Their compositions, expressions and contents determine the dough elasticity and baking quality. This article summarized the progress of cloning, molecular characterization and functional studies of HMW-GS as well as their marker development and application in wheat breeding. Update status of different HMW-GS effects on flour processing quality, genetic transformation of several HMW-GS genes, small-scale mixograph analysis by adding prokaryotic expressed HMW-GS, and mutant developing on HMW-GS loci, were also reviewed. Besides, crucial issues in current studies on wheat HMW-GS were discussed. It is suggested that the key point on HMW-GS in the future will be to pyramid some desirable HMW-GS genes by marker assisted selection and transgenic strategies for the development of wheat varieties with good bread-making quality and the functional dissection of each HMW-GS gene accurately.
2016, 17(4):710-718. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2016.04.016
Abstract:Seventy alien chromosome addition lines of wild wheat-relatives are screened in this study to identify and chromosome map the genes of tolerance to the stress of low phosphorus under phosphorus-deficiency and phosphorus-sufficient conditions. On the basis of relative-biomass examination of young shoots, roots, phosphorus efficiency, uptake efficiency and utilization efficiency, the genes of high phosphorus efficiency are identified and located on chromosome 4H of H. vulgare and 7E of Agropyron elongatum. Besides, genes accelerating root growth are also identified on chromosome 6E from Agropyron elongatum, 1R and 6R from Secale cereal, 4Ug and 6Mg of Ae. geneculata and 4Sv of Ae. variables. In addition, Genes of high phosphorus uptake efficiency and efficiency are respectively located on the alien chromosome 5S of Ae. speltoides and 4V from H. villosa. These genes can be further introduced into wheat by inducing alien chromosome segment translocation between wheat and wild relatives, being benefit to both wheat improvement and understand of molecular mechanism of the tolerance to the stress of low phosphorus.
2016, 17(4):719-725. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2016.04.017
Abstract:The soybean isoflavone is a kind of widely used active materials which has medical and healthcare functions. To analyze the differential expression patterns of genes associated with isoflavone synthesis in soybean, seven related genes were studied at different developmental stages and organs in different varieties by real-time quantitative PCR method. The results showed that the expression levels of phenylalanine ammonialyase PAL, cinnamate-4-hydroxylase C4H and 4-coumarate: coenzyme A ligase 4CL in Zhongdou 27 (high isoflavone content variety) in the leaves were significantly higher than that in Chuxiu (low isoflavone content variety) during the R2 growing period. Meanwhile, the expression levels of chalcone synthase CHS and isoflavone synthase IFS in Zhongdou 27 were significantly higher than that in Chuxiu during the R8 growing period in the seeds. While the expression level of cytochrome P450 reductase CPR in Chuxiu was significantly higher than that in Zhongdou 27 during the R7 period in both of the leaves and seeds. Thus, these differential expression levels of related genes in different developmental stages and organs may be the main reasons to explain different seed isoflavone contents in soybean.
2016, 17(4):726-731. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2016.04.018
Abstract:In order to study the role of HMGR in biosynthesis of rubber. 'Huazhong 6' were used in this study, and tThe full-length cDNA of EuHMGR was cloned from leaves and pericarp of 'Huazhong 6' based on the databases of Eucommia ulmoides genome and transcriptome，the sequence consists of 1773bp, which encoding of 590 amino acid residues .The real-time PCR method was used for evaulating the EuHMGR expression of leaves and pericarp at different developmental stages. It was found that the maximum expression amount of EuHMGR in pericarp was in mid May，while in leaves was in mid July. Besides, we useand the Soxhlet extraction method was used for analysising to analysis the rubber-content of leaves and pericarp in corresponding period. It showed that rubber-content of pericarp increased rapidly from mid April to late May, which of leaves showed a steady increase over time.Comparing the trend between the expression level of EuHMGR and the rate of rubber growth, It was found that the change of EuHMGR expression level in pericarp was similar to that of the rate of rubber growth at different developmental stages, on the contrary, in the leaves, theses tendency have no obvious correlation. Therefore，it was speculated that the expression of EuHMGR is related with the biosynthesis of rubber.
2016, 17(4):732-737. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2016.04.019
Abstract:Plant LEAFY COTYLEDON (LEC) proteins, which belong to the NF-Y transcript factor B subunit, play central role in plant embryogenesis. To investigate the mechanism of microspore induced embryo in vitro in barley, a novel LEC gene, HvLEC1, was cloned from barley using the RACE method. The isolated full-length cDNA sequence of HvLEC1 was 1004 bp, containing a 597-bp open reading frame (ORF) coding for 198 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of HvLEC1 contained a LEC domain located between amino acids 1 and 59. HvLEC1 can be detected in roots, stems, leaves, and the cultured microspores, and presented the highest expression in 7 days of cultured microspores. The expression of HvLEC1 at 7 days of cultured microspores was higher in barley line BI04 than that in barley line Ji19, and callus yield at 21 days of cultured microspores was also higher in BI04 than that in Ji19, which revealed that the expression level of HvLEC1 might be in a consistent with the callus yield. The expression of HvLEC1 can also be quickly up-regulated in barley root by salt stress, which suggested that the gene of HvLEC1 may be involved in not only microspore embryogenesis but also the responses to salinity stress.
2016, 17(4):738-747. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2016.04.020
Abstract:Four copies of the sorghum sterile lines and five types of Sudan grass for parents, according to the NC Ⅱ design，were formulated to 20 hybrid combinations. Eight hybrid combinations of strong heterosis were selected with evaluation of the phenotypic value and the mid-parent advantage. heterobeltiosis Using cDNA-AFLP technology, differentially expressed genes from hybrid and parental seedling leafwere analyzed and correlated with main yield traits of hybrid performance and the heterosis. Research shows that: (1) 12 pairs of primers amplified a total of 315 TDFs, the gene expression types of sorghum-sudan grass were classified into 7 catagries: single parent expression of the same type (P1F1 type) , single parent expression with type 2 (p2f1 type), hybrid specific expression type (F1), single parent expression silence type 1(P1), a single expression silence type 2 (P2), and parents silent type (P1P2 type) and hybrid- parents joint expression type (P1F1P2 type). (2) the correlation analysis of yield components showed significant positive correlation between effective tiller number and P1F1 type, fresh weight per plant and P1P2 type; it showed significant negative correlation between leaf number and F1 type, leaf length and P2 type. the correlation analysis between mid-parent heterosis and gene types showed significant positive correlation between the spike length and the P2F1 type, fresh weight per plant with P1, P2 and P1F1P2; significant negative correlation between leaf width and P1P2. After correlation analysis with the super parent heterosis, the spike length was significantly positively correlated with P2F1, and the leaf width was significantly negatively correlated with P2F1 and P1P2. (3) differential display types of P1F1, P2F1, P1 and P2 are dominant effects, which are 91.4% of the total. Differential Display type F1 and P1P2 performance super dominance, acount for 4.8% . It indicated that the hybrid performance of each trait was mainly influenced by the (super) dominant effect. (4) 8 TDFS associated heterosis were retrieved and found homologous nucleotides with BLAST analysis, and seven homologous proteins were found important in the control of plant growth and development. (5) the nucleotide sequence was obtained by cloning and sequencing, and semi quantitative RT-PCR was used to verify the nucleotide sequence. The molecular mechanisms of heterosis were revealed, and the selecting efficiency should be improved in screening strong advantage combinationsand providing basis for the creation of germplasm resources in Sorghum-sudan grass.
2016, 17(4):748-755. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2016.04.021
Abstract:Squalene content is one of evaluation standards for high quality edible oil. Squalene synthase is the directly upstream regulation key enzyme for squalene synthesis. In this study, based on the transcriptome database of Camellia oleifera seed kernel, the specific primers were designed and full-length cDNA clone was obtained by RACE. The cDNA was named CoSQS (GenBank accession No. JX914592). The results of bioinformatics analysis showed that: the cDNA full-length was 1554 bp with a 1245 bp-open reading frame, the gene encoded 415 amino acid residues. CoSQS protein was alkalescent non-secreted protein with two transmembrane regions and two specific signal area of squalene and phytoene synthase. CoSQS protein had the closest relationship with Diospyros kaki DkSQS and belonged to a hydrophobic protein. Real time fluorescent quantitative PCR analysis showed that: during May to October, the CoSQS expression firstly up-regulation and later down-regulation. The transcription peak was in late September. CoSQS gene expression was closely related with squalene content ,but no significant correlation with oil yield.
2016, 17(4):756-765. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2016.04.022
Abstract:Chalcone synthase (CHS) provides the first committed step of flavonoid biosynthesis by condensing one molecule of p-coumaroyl-CoA with three molecules of malonyl-CoA to produce tetrahydroxychalcone. Chalcone synthases are closely related to stilbene synthases (STS), the key enzymes of the stilbenes pathway, as illustrated by the fact that both enzymes share the same substrates. To better understand the variety and quantity of CHS and STS genes in grape, we used bioinformatics methods to screen the auxin-response genes from the grape genome database, and analyzed their chromosomal location, phylogenetic analysis and conserved motif. Our results showed that 33 STS and 9 CHS genes were identified, and there genes were concentrated on 6 chromosomes, and some of them formed distinct tandem duplicate gene clusters. Grape CHS and STS genes had conserved sequence length, gene structure, protein motif, and closely evolutionary relationships. The available grape microarray databases showed that all of CHS and STS genes were expressed in grape pulp and skin, especially CHS Groups Ⅲ genes were highly expressed in grape skin. STS genes were poorly expressed in grape fruit, but some of them were highly expressed in the skin of mature fruits. This paper provides a resource for functional studies of CHS and STS genes in grape fruit development.
2016, 17(4):766-772. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2016.04.023
Abstract:Four non-coding chloroplast region, trnL intron, trnT-trnL, trnS-psbC and accD-psaI were used to assay genetic diversity and phylogenetics of 88 pear accessions from Hubei Province. A totle of 11 variation sites included 6 SNP sites and 5 indel sites were recognized. Among 4 cpDNA regions, accD-psaI exhibited highest polymorphism with the most number of variable site, the most abundant haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity. The values of nucleotide diversity and haplotype diversity of pear accessions in this study identified by four combined cpDNA fragments are 0.00112 and 0.769, respectively. All Tajima's D values are not statistical significant in P > 0.10, which indicate that variation of those chloroplast regions are based on natural theory of molecular evolution. A total of ten haplotypes are detected by the four cpDNA regions merging analysis. Among 13 collection sites, Jingmen and Xingshan own the most haplotypes. Hap2 and Hap5 are the two major haplotypes, which accounted for 31.82% and 30.68% of the total accessions, respectively. The network analysis of Pyrus L. cpDNA sequences showed that P. communis L. can be completely separated from oriental pear, and the rare haplotype Hap8 and Hap9 are all located in Jingmen, suggesting that the area may be one of the centers of origin or diversity of Pyrus L..
2016, 17(4):773-780. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2016.04.024
Abstract:Rice blast is one of critical factors that reduce rice production. Breeding and cultivation of cultivars with durable blast resistance and broad-spectrum has been proved to be the most promising strategy to solve this problem. To improve blast resistance of Jinggeng1, the introgression and pyramiding of blast resistance genes Pi9, Pigm, and pi21 were conducted through crossing, backcrossing, multiple crossing and self-crossing in combination with marker-assisted selection (MAS) and selection against agronomic traits. The results showed that resistance frequency of the resistance-improved line with Pi9 reached 100%, and that of the resistance-improved lines with Pigm averagely reached 90%. Both of them were extremely significantly higher than that of recurrent parent Jinggeng1. And the agronomic traits of these lines were quite similar with that of Jinggeng1. The resistance-improved line with pi21 had no significant difference of resistance frequency with Jinggeng1 but had significantly decreased grain yield per plant as compared with Jinggeng1. Comparing with Jingjing1, the resistance frequency of pyramiding line of Pi9 and pi21 was significantly improved, reaching 93.33% with significant decrease in grain yield per plant. The results indicated that introgressions of Pi9 and Pigm can greatly improve blast resistance and have less negative effects on agronomic traits, thus showing great potential application of the two genes in rice breeding for blast resistance. Due to pi21's relative poor resistance and narrow resistance-spectrum as well as possible negative effects on yield, it isn’t recommended to separately use it for improvement of blast resistance. Combination of pi21 with other strong resistance genes could be proper for improvement of blast resistance by multiple backcross and selfing to break its unfavorable linkage drag with yield trait.
2016, 17(4):781-785. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2016.04.025
Abstract:Common buckwheat is a cross-pollination crop. The germplasm resources of the common buckwheat is in a biological mixing state in nature and each of common buckwheat could be divided into several new genetic germplasm resources. This problem could reduce the effectiveness of breeding and scientific evaluation of the germplasm resources. Simplifying the genetic background of the common buckwheat germplasm resources, and accurately describing the parent offspring relationship and genetic background are difficult technical issues facing the buckwheat germplasm researchers around the world. Breeding of germplasm resources requires quarantine measures in the trial fields, which needs to consider the size of pollen, mechanisms of buckwheat pollination, species of visiting insects, and amounts of seeds to produce etc. Here in this study, we developed a new method called “Five Nurseries” which includes quarantined hybrid nursery, quarantined individual breeding nursery, quarantined propagation nursery, quarantined control nursery, and field trial nursery. The purpose of this study is to explore the new buckwheat germplasm resources. The results of this study will allow us select the best generation lines for crossing and provide the best germplasm resources of new buckwheat varieties.
2016, 17(4):786-790. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2016.04.026
Abstract:Guizhou is the concentrative areas inhabited by minority nationality people where the vegetable resource is quite abundance in diversity . however , the vicissitude is happening that minority nationality cultures and vegetable resources are disappearing gradually along with economic development and infiltration of external cultures in recent years. In order to protect and develop traditional culture of ethnic minorities and vegetable resources in the minority area , fifteen counties and nine minority nationalities were investigated by system , in which the aim was focused on providing basic data and research materials for conservation and development of traditional culture of minority , and constituting the conservation policy of the vegetable crops resources and scientific research.