2015, 16(6):1135-1140. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2015.06.001
Abstract:Tea germplasm are the fundamental materials in the cultivar development. In this paper, the achievements and progress has been systematically reviewed in collection, conservation and identification. The focused was the chemical characteristics and the cultivar achievements of black tea. The trend of cultivar breeding was discussed and prospected.
2015, 16(6):1141-1151. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2015.06.002
Abstract:Vitis davidii is mainly distributed in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River and south of the Yangtze River area in China. For Chinese Vitis wild species, Vitis davidii not only has larger berry size, but also presents a high resistance to anthracnose and white rot. Vitis davidii has been used as a table and wine grape cultivation in hunan, Jiangxi, Fujian, Guizhou and other regions of China. This study analyzed and reviewed the intraspecific genetic diversity of Vitis davidii, from the point of phenology, flower types, physical and chemical property, pollen morphological characters, fruit shape, DNA levels and resistance for grape species diversity. The objective of the study is to explore genetic diversity between Vitis davidii clones, which will provide a basic for protection, identification and utilization of Vitis davidii.
2015, 16(6):1152-1156. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2015.06.003
Abstract:Wide relatives of maize have rich genetic variations, which are valuable materials for maize germplasm resources and genetic basis. By a large number of hybridization between ordinary maize and tetraploid perennial maize, a partially fertile offspring MT-71was obtained, and it created new ordinary maize germplasm. The setting percentage of MT-71 was 7.84%(3X/2X)，0.56%（2X/3X），and 0.52%(3X /4X) respectively. The open pollination rate was 1.18% The chromosome configuration of the pollen mother cells (PMC) was 2.30I+3.72Ⅱ+6.49Ⅲ+0.23Ⅳ. The chromosomes of 3X/2X progenies had almost all 2n=20-30 chromosome number, while the chromosome number was only 2n=20, 21 in 2X/3X and open pollination progenies. These results showed that the MT-71 could produce a function male and female gametes, and n=10, 11 gametes were heritable. Meanwhile, the extra chromosome transmission ability of the female gametophyte was significantly higher than the male gametophyte, and 3X/2X was the most effective mode of allotriploid.
2015, 16(6):1157-1167. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2015.06.004
Abstract:Knowledge of genetic diversity and population structure is essential for the effective use of wheat germplasms resistant to stripe rust in southwest China in breeding programs. In this study, DArT-seqTM based on genotyping by sequencing (GBS) approach was used to screen a collection of 134 common wheat varieties from the whole genome, and 6919 informative single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were obtained. The polymorphism information content (PIC) of SNP markers was in the range from 0.01 to 0.50, with the average of 0.32. SNP-based genetic similarity (GS) value among 134 wheat accessions ranged from 0.51 to 0.98, with the average of 0.61. The unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) dendrogram indicated that the wheat accessions were clustered into five groups according to their origins and pedigrees. Two clear groups (Group I and Group II) were identified using principal-coordinates analysis (PCoA) of the whole-genome level. Group I is highly clustered with no obvious separation of cultivars (lines) originating from different geographic regions, most of them carried Yr9 locus; Group II was mainly composed of varieties from Guizhou province, most of them carried Yr26 locus. Our results provide valuable information of genetic diversity for stripe rust resistant wheat germplasms in Southwest China, which will facilitate wheat breeding for resistance to strip rust in our country.
2015, 16(6):1168-1171. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2015.06.005
Abstract:Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) disease has seriously affected rice production in China in recent years, giving rise to an imperative of breeding rice new varieties with high resistance to RBSDV. Rice resources highly resistant to RBSDV play key roles in breeding procedure. In this study, 2000 local varieties were evaluated on the resistance to RBSDV for two consecutive years. 38 varieties without disease symptoms were primarily screened, of which 6 japonica varieties with preferred agronomic traits were selected to perform artificial inoculation identification. One variety,12G1, highly resistance to RBSDV was obtained ultimately. The expression of RBSDV in 12G1 decreased 71.5 times compared to the sensitive control, indicating a notable inhibition of RBSDV replication in the disease-resistant variety. This study laid the material foundation for RBSDV resistance breeding procedure and cloning of resistance genes.
2015, 16(6):1172-1178. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2015.06.006
Abstract:Abstract: In this study, the SRAP markers were employed to analyze the genetic diversity and relationship between 56 spaghetti squash and 32 Cucurbita genus cultivated species (Including Cucurbita moschata, C. pepo and C.maxima). The results showed that: (1) There were 50 SRAP primer pairs selected from 285 primer pairs, which amplified a total of 713 bands via PCR. Amongst them, 586 bands were polymorphic with a percentage of 88.92%, which suggested that Cucurbita genus was rich in genetic diversity. (2) There were 586 bands generated within the 56 spaghetti squash accessions. 350 (59.7%) of these bands were polymorphic, which revealed that the genetic similarity of spaghetti squash cultivars was high. (3) the 56 spaghetti squash accessions could be clustered into five major sub-groups, according to the analysis on genetic similarity coefficient. Spagetti squash had the closest genetic relationship to C.Pepo; a closer relationship to Cucurbita moschata whearas its relationship with C. Maxima was farthest. According to the above results, we could confirm that the spaghetti squash could be regarded as a variationsubspecies of C. pepo.
2015, 16(6):1179-1187. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2015.06.007
Abstract:A comprehensive survey on wheat varieties was conducted in the coastal area of 12 counties, Jiangsu province. The data of wheat sowing area, production, yield, cultivars as well as their importment agronomic traits from 1975 to 2010 were collected to summarize the changes and developmental tendency. The main results are as followings: The wheat sowing area showed a downward tendency, while the total wheat production and yield are increasing continuously. Of all the factors increasing grain production, the yield contributed more to grain production than sowing area. Extension of elite wheat cultivars is the determinant factor in production increase. However, the contribution is decreasing with time because of the difficult in further yield improvement. As variety is the main factor in production increase, we also analyzed the changes of the agronomic traits, the evolution trends are (1) There were four times of variety replacement for wheat in coastal area. The improved varieties which have replaced local varieties were the dominant type, and accounts for an increasing proportion with time. Mean while varieties from Shandong province and Henan province also had a greater affect in the northern coastal area. (2) The adapted wheat varieties with excellent integrated traits and wide adaptability have been planted for a long time and covered a wide area. (3) Grain numbers per spike, 1000-grain weight, spike length, and plant height have been improved for yield. Breeding for multiple disease resistance would be one of important objectives in the future.
2015, 16(6):1188-1193. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2015.06.008
Abstract:Lodging is an important factor limiting yield increaseing in crops, while plant height, panicle length, panicle diameter, grain weight per panicle are closely related to yield. So clear deciphering the relationship between lodging resistance and these yield-related traits is important for launching lodging resistance, high-yield breeding in foxtail millet. In this study, 41 foxtail millet cultivars were selected to investigate seven traits including lodging index, plant height, panicle length, panicle diameter, branch number per panicle, grain number per branch and grain weight per panicle. The results indicated that all the 7 traits showed significant difference among 41 foxtail millet cultivars, and except panicle diameter, the remaining 6 traits showed rich genetic variation. Correlation analysis showed that some negative correlation was existed between lodging index and plant height, but not reach a significant level. Some positive correlation was existed between lodging index and panicle length, branch number per panicle, grain number per branch, grain weight per panicle, but only positive correlation between lodging index of second basal internode and panicle length reached significant level（P<0.05）. Correlation between lodging index and panicle diameter was complicated. Some negative correlation was existed between lodging index of the first, third basal internodes and panicle diameter, but a positive correlation was existed between lodging index of the second basal internode and panicle diameter. Though they both didn’t reach significant level. A significant (p<0.05) or very significant (P<0.01) positive correlation between plant height and panicle length, panicle diameter, branch number per panicle, grain weight per panicle was existed.A very significant positive correlation among panicle length, panicle diameter, branch number per panicle, grain number per branch and grain weight per panicle was existed (P<0.01). The results above indicated that within a height,of 80 cm, increasing plant height wouldn’t weaken the lodging resistance of foxtail millet. Lodging resistance of the second basal internode played a key role in lodging resistance of the plant, which should be attached great importance in lodging resistance, high-yield breeding of foxtail millet.
2015, 16(6):1194-1205. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2015.06.009
Abstract:Resistance to downy mildew, Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV), black rot, verticillium wilt and clubroot were evaluated by inoculation under controlled conditions at seedling stage in 203 Chinese cabbage inbred lines from 2012 to 2014. The result showed that 7 lines were highly resistant to downy mildew, 9 to TuMV, 0 to black rot, 31 to verticillium wilt and 12 to clubroot. Out of 203 inbred lines, 82 showed resistant to only one of these diseases, 62 ones showed resistant to two kinds of diseases, 28 lines showed resistance to three disease and 4 lines showed resistance to 4 diseases. The data also showed that inbred lines, 11-234, 04-622, 12-85, 13-108 and 09-894, were elite materials for disease resistance breeding. In addition, the difference of disease resistance was observed among three types of Chinese cabbage for spring, summer and autumn cultivation, which also existed among four heading types.
2015, 16(6):1206-1213. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2015.06.010
Abstract:The pedigree of 290 accessions of Wickham germplasm resources, preserved in the Germplasm Repository of Rubber Tree (Hevea spp.) JingHong City, Ministry of Agriculture, was analyzed. The results showed that 210 accessions were the offspring of rubber clones GT1, PR107, PB86, RRIM600, Yunyan277-5, PB5/51 and IAN873, which accounted for 72.41% of all 290 germplasm resources. Wickham germplasm resources had abundant population variances on phenotype, but actually had very narrow genetic basis on genotype. In this article, the family trees were set up mainly based on the rubber clones GT1, PR107, PB86, RRIM600, Yunyan277-5, PB5/51 and IAN873, and characteristics of some germplasm resources were analyzed. The Genetic regulation of hevea brasiliensis was sought out and it can provide reference for rubber breeders.
2015, 16(6):1214-1222. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2015.06.011
Abstract:Sugarcane parents are important genetic resources for genetic breeding and innovation of sugarcane. In order to learn the genetic diversity of Yunnan commonly-used parents, about sixty three clones were screened by using 30 pairs of high polymorphic SSR primer with ten origin species as outgroup. The results showed that total 363 bands were obtained by these SSR primers, of which 353 were polymorphic bands. High Percentage of polymorphic bands and Polymorphism information content (96.97% and 0.9441) indicated Yunnan commonly-used parents possess rich genetic diversity. The analysis of Jaccard similar coefficient of all clones illustrated the big genetic differences appeared among these parents with a low average similar coefficient of 0.4309(range between 0.2804-0.7329). These parents from main land of China exhibited the biggest genetic differences, followed by these parents from foreign countries. By using UPGMA cluster method, all parents can be assigned into two groups of different sizes. Moreover, the big group containing most of parents also can be segregated into two subgroups. Based on the results of clustering, some parents from main land of China, which are not only excellent parent but also main cultivar, performed a close genetic relationship. And this relationship is also found between these parents from foreign countries and some old parents from main land of China. Finally, these results mentioned above will improve the exploring efficient of Yunnan commonly-used parents and provide an important direction for screening parent and making cross combination in breeding and innovation programs.
2015, 16(6):1223-1228. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2015.06.012
Abstract:Genetic mutations of 49 M.ruthenica wild gemplasm from 7 Different Origin in Inner Mongolia. 12 floral properties, including calyx diameter, coronary length, number of inflorescence flowers have been studied and investigated with morphological marcers.The results showed that M. ruthenica between material the magnitude of the coefficient of variation was the largest flower traits for inflorescence length, the variation coefficient of 79.12%, The variation of the smallest for the calyx diameter, the coefficient of variation was 3.82%. Principal component analysis showed that floral traits in the first 7 principal components reflect the total information content 85.465%, inflorescence length, inflorescence axis length, Corolla length, Inflorescence podding number, Inflorescence seeds, flower color and Little flower shank length of 7 characters is the main factor causing variation in traits of M. ruthenica. The correlation analysis showed that:More flower traits were highly significantly and extreme significantly related, For example,inflorescence podding number and Inflorescence seeds had extremely significant difference, 0.811, had a significant positive correlation, while significant inflorescence axis length and Little flower shank length showed a significant negative correlation, -0.340. The 49 materials are divided into 6 kinds of cluster analysis. Flower character same source or geographical variability with similar material part can get together.Floral traits in M. ruthenica materials have abundant genetic diversity.
2015, 16(6):1229-1236. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2015.06.013
Abstract:Head cracking is the most serious physiological disease in the production of cabbage. The splitting resistance of 7 spring and 8 autumn cultivars were evaluated under natural conditions by comparison of cracking type, cracking rate and degree of cracking extent, and the grading system of cabbage head splitting was established according to the number of split leaf layers and area of the maximum head cracking. The head splitting index of post harvesting-5 days for spring cabbage and 15 days for autumn cabbage can be used to accurately identify head splitting resistance of cabbage. The varieties can be divided into 5 levels: High Resistance, Resistance, Moderate Resistance, Susceptibility and High Susceptibility. Further it was used for screening high resistance to head-splitting of 59 germplasm resources, and some high resistant cultivars were screened out. Also the indoor head soak method was evaluated at the same time. Through head splitting of 15 cultivars survey and analysis by indoor soak method, we can achieved that the method can also identify resistance to splitting-head of cabbage accurately. The research developed a set of identification method and standard for screening splitting resistance germplasm. These resistance germplasm would provide materials for theory and breeding of cabbage.
2015, 16(6):1237-1244. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2015.06.014
Abstract:Heterotic grouping of 40 Alfalfa materials(six male sterile lines and 34 alfalfa breeding materials) genetic distance were analyzed by SSR markers, and using the six sterility strain and 14 alfalfa varieties test cross lines, in further to analysis for genetic distance (GD), yield combining ability and heterosis effect. The results show that, article 25 for SSR primers amplification out 189 band, including 136 polymorphic bands, the average polymorphism loci percentage was 69.23%. The genetic distance of 40 copies of alfalfa materials was 0.1818-0.9091, an average of 0.4544. Each parent effect of general combining ability were significant positive correlation with alfalfa heterosis, and GD ware also that, the correlation between general combining ability and heterosis was higher than GD and heterosis. Therefore, SSR genetic distance was not enough to assemble strong hetrosis combination, should be based on the character analysis of combining ability.
2015, 16(6):1245-1251. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2015.06.015
Abstract:Astragalus sinicus L. is one of cross-pollinated plants with heterogeneity in cultivar population which results in difficulty for cultivar identification. In this study, 3 cultivars selected from Minzi cultivar series bred in Fujian have been analyzed by using SSR molecular marker and the effect of sampling strategy on cultivar differentiation was investigated. The results showed that: (1) When the primer combination was confirmed by 4 pairs and the sampling amount ranged from 5 to 50 in each cultivar, the amplified loci and the observed number of alleles tended to increase in the cultivar, but the effective number of alleles，Shannon index，and genetic diversity index tended to decline after reaching to a maximum as sampling amount was as much as 30 for total sample; With the increase of the amount of sample, the Nei’s genetic distance between cultivars and the PhiPT value among population obtained from AMOVA reduced，but the confidence level of PhiPT was raised. (2) When the sample capacity was constant with 30 or 50, and the primer number was increased to 6 with the added 2 primers amplifing the marking locus of different frequency among the cultivars, the tested cultivars could be effectively identified because of the higher PhiPT value and more significant confidence level (P<0.001). The analysis of principal component further indicated that the distribution of samples from 3 tested cultivars along principal component axis was similar between sampling amount of 30 and 50 . This study of sampling strategy for Astragalus sinicus indicated that: In order to enhance the ability in identification of cultivar of Astragalus sinicus L., the optimum sampling amount was as much as 30 that could achieve the better effect for cultivar identification as well as reduce the cost in analysis.
2015, 16(6):1252-1257. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2015.06.016
Abstract:In order to provide base material on the conservation, research and development of stress-tolerant crop germplasm resources. Through referring literatures, visiting and field survey to investigate of stress-tolerant crop germplasm resources during 2011-2013 in arid region of Gansu province, including 81 villages in 48 towns of 18 counties. The survey collected local varieties and wild resources of grain crops, economic crops, vegetables, with the total 845 collected samples which belonged to 62 species of 46 genera in 16 families, including 27 drought-resistant germplasm, 4 salt-tolerant germplasm and 14 high resistant rust germplasm. In this study, local situation, growth, and decline conditions of crop germplasm resources were analyzed. Besides, the botanical classification and utilization importance of crop germplasm resources were estimated. Furthermore, the conservation, development, and utilization of crop germplasm resources in coastal areas of arid region of Gansu province were also discussed in the paper.
2015, 16(6):1258-1263. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2015.06.017
Abstract:Anlong, located in southwest Guizhou, is one of the typical karst desertification areas where are featured by richness and diversity in bio-agricultural resources. It has great significance of conservation and development of these traditional resources. The systematic investigation on distinctive bio-agricultural resources was carried out for 9 villages distributing in 4 townships of Anlong in 2014 by ways of professional team, doucuments review, local symposium and field work. The result showed that 220 samples of these resources and their geographic ecology data were investigated, collected and systemized. In this paper, the current situation of utilization, the reasons for the growth and decline of collected these resources were analyzed. The suggestions on the utilization, conservation and development for these resources were proposed.
2015, 16(6):1264-1271. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2015.06.018
Abstract:Identification and evaluation of the sensitivity of nitrogen is an important content to breed maize varieties for low nitrogen tolerance and nitrogen used efficiency. In this research, a pre-built, rapid and non-destructive determination of the relative chlorophyll content based on SPAD data was used into the different parts of the leaf at the different growing stages across 189 maize inbred lines, which were widely used into maize breeding programs and corn production in China, under low nitrogen and normal nitrogen treatments. The variance analysis results showed that the chlorophyll contents were significantly difference of genotype and environment in both the low and normal nitrogen treatments. The genetic variance was one of the most important reasons of the difference in nitrogen sensitivity among inbred lines. The chlorophyll content of the three ear leaves, the most important functional leaves in pollination stage, had high significant positive correlation at the 0.01 level with that of ten days after pollination stage. However, the chlorophyll content of the full expanded leaves in pre-tassel stage only had moderate significant positive correlation at the 0.01 level with the chlorophyll contents of other leaves measured in different growing stages. We defined the nitrogen sensitive coefficient as the ratio of the difference between normal nitrogen trait value and low nitrogen trait value versus the normal nitrogen trait value. The sensitive nitrogen average index ranged from 23.86% to 36.00% among 189 inbred lines. Forty inbred lines such as He 344 and Chang 7-2 are highly low-nitrogen resistant materials. While, 40 inbred lines out of them such as CML206 and CA375 are highly sensitive materials. This study has provided a quick and an efficient nitrogen sensitivity way for identifying and evaluating maize germplasm, and provided some basic and important data for maize breeding for nitrogen use efficiency and low nitrogen tolerance.
2015, 16(6):1272-1276. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2015.06.019
Abstract:Abstract:Crop germplasm resources in Qinghai plateau regions refers to the distributed resources from Qinghai and other ecological similar surrounding area.According to the nearly ten years working basis on local germplasm resources investigation,collection and research ,analysis the status of protection and utilization of the local resources,considering that some results related to protection and utilization have been obtained, the basic work accumulation and the research team and strength have been strengthen and improved,the consciousness of protecting and utilizing also have been improved.But,the protection and utilization of resources was quite at odds with the rapid development of agriculture industrialization and the requests to get a breakthrough from germplasm innovation and utilization,especially in accurating evaluation and identification of inventory resources,which is difficult to provide effictive service and support for breeding work.With the aid of the platform advantage of the National Dulplicate Genebank for Crops and the modern biological techniques,exerting the superiority of plateau specific resources,introducing and using the foreign outstanding resources to finish the germplasm creation and ecological agriculture germplasm resources research with plateau characteristics,in order to provide support for the sustainable development if plateau agricuture,which should be used as the direction of future research of local resources.
2015, 16(6):1277-1282. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2015.06.020
Abstract:To clarify genetic difference and relationship among Vigna radiate cultivars from different regions, ISSR molecular marker technique was used. It is showed that 10 primers with clear amplified bands and high polymorphism which selected from 46 primers were amplified a total of 118 fragments from 33 cultivars of Vigna radiate germplasm resources ,in which there were 115 polymorphic fragments and the ratio of polymorphic sites was 98.18%. The genetic similarity and cluster analysis indicated that the genetic similarity coefficient varied from 0.50 to 0.98 and the average coefficient was 0.68. All of the tested Vigna radiate were divided into four ISSR groups when the genetic similarity coefficient was 0.682. Nine cultivars came from Heilongjiang and Jili and one cultivar came from Hebei were grouped into IG-I; 14 cultivars were grouped into IG-Ⅱ, with four cultivars from Hebei, and the rest from Henan, Shanxi and Shanxi; five cultivars of insect-resistant Vigna radiate came from Thailand were grouped in IG-Ⅲ; four cultivars from Shandong and Inner Mongolia were grouped into IG-Ⅳ,with two cultivars from each province. All the tested Vigna radiate can be distinguished when the genetic similarity coefficient was 0.98. The ISSR genetic diversity analysis showed that there may be some correlation between the ISSR grouping and the geographic origin of Vigna radiate, while there is genetic diversity in the same germplasm resources which come from the same geographic origin.
2015, 16(6):1283-1289. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2015.06.021
Abstract:The course from bolting to blooming is the crucial period for plant to transform from vegetative growth to reproductive growth in Brassicaceae. As the results of interaction between environmental factors and endogenous gene networks, plant bolting and flowering characteristics，which are closely related to the formation of propagating and product organs, are mainly controlled by multiple genes. In order to provide comprehensive background information and possible new clues for further understanding and manipulating the molecular mechanism of bolting and flowering in Brassicaceae vegetables genetic improvement and the cultivation of high yield and good quality of these crops, we summarized the existing studies about the molecular markers and molecular mechanism of plant bolting and flowering traits in Brassicaceae vegetables，and discussed the problems in present studies and related development direction.
2015, 16(6):1290-1297. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2015.06.022
Abstract:In this work, we used 27 apple (Malus Mill.) accessions originated from China to assess the feasibility of using tailed primer M13 microsatellite markers (TP-M13-SSR)to establish genetic fingerprints and barcode technology to establish molecular identity cards of the apple collection. For the 27 accessions, twelve SSR markers resulted in the amplification of 251 alleles, with an average of 21 alleles per locus. The ranges of gene diversity, PIC and locus heterozygosity of the accessions using 12 SSR loci were 0.6620-0.9455, 0.6327-0.9211 and 0.6538-0.9319, respectively. The primer CH05b06 successfully differentiated all of the accessions. Based on the genetic fingerprints at CH05b06, we could obtain the special molecular identity cards for every accession. This technology could be used to establish genetic fingerprints and then obtain molecular identity cards for every accession, which could develop a set of reference standards for the apple collection which could be used as a database to identify unknown apple varieties.
2015, 16(6):1298-1306. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2015.06.023
Abstract:The purpose of this study focused on molecular mechanism under low temperature of homologous diploid and tetraploid watermelon seeding. Homologous diploid and tetraploid of female Jingxin 83166 were used as materials. Genes different expression using MSAP andlevel were analysised under low temperature stress and different bands were selected to be cloned, sequenced and compared.A total of 1564 locus were amplied using 22 MSAP primer combinations. Declining levels in the total methylation was 2.8% and 6.4% of the diploid and the tetraploid of watermelon, respectively. Blast 12 different bands in watermelon genome database,and 7 bands were identified as watermelon genome sequence. After being screened with 26 cDNA-AFLP primer combinations, 1267 bands were amplied, including 48.2% with up-regulated expression, 51.8% with down-regulated expression in the diploid of watermelon,58.6% with up-regulated expression,41.4% with down-regulated expression in the tetraploid of watermelon. NCBI Blast search showed that 23 bands were homologous functional genes,including hypothetical protein（39.13%）,energy and metabolism protein（43.48%）,material transportation protein（8.70%）,transcription relation protein（4.35%）and stress-related protein（4.35%），and other 10 bands with remained unknown function. Under low temperature stress,the methylation rate and up-regulated genes of the tetraploid of watermelon were greater than the diploid of watermelon, the tetraploid of watermelon induced genes involved in energy and metabolism and stress-related process, illustrating that the tetraploid of watermelon had stronger resistance than the diploid of watermelon.
2015, 16(6):1307-1314. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2015.06.024
Abstract:Abstract: Multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins, comprising the most recently designated family of multidrug transporter proteins, are identified, characterized and found to be involved in the detoxification of endogenous secondary metabolites and xenobiotics. Recent researches also showed that some of the MATE members play essential role in plant development and organ initiation. So far, the MATE family in common tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) hasn’t been further studied. In this research, 131 MATE genes were preliminary identified in common tobacco by bioinformatics, and they were classified into 4 subfamilies. We also found that subfamily 3 was distinct from other subfamilies, including the conserved domain prediction, TM prediction and subcellular location prediction, there was the same situation in subfamily 3 in Arabidopsis. Many MATE genes showed low expression level in all tissues by transcript analysis. GO analysis indicated that as a kind of transporters, the MATE family members are involved in a series of biological processes such as stimulus responses and biological regulation. The results we got will be helpful for the further analysis of the MATE family proteins in other plants.
2015, 16(6):1315-1320. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2015.06.025
Abstract:Calmodulins (CaMs) are highly conserved Ca2+ sensor proteins and play important regulatory role in Ca2+ signal transduction. In the present study, we analyzed the expression patterns of AmCaM1 in Ammopiptanthus mongolicus, a plant with very strong resistance to adverse environments, under abiotic stresses. We then cloned this gene and constructed its plant expression vector. We also transformed Arabidopsis thaliana with AmCaM1and performed a preliminary analysis of its function. The results showed that the transcription levels of AmCaM1 were rapidly up-regulated by cold, drought and salt stresses; the complete coding region cDNA of AmCaM1 contains 450 base pairs and encodes a protein consisting of 149 amino acid residues. Four conserved EF-hand motifs exist in the primary structure of AmCaM1 protein. The transgenic Arabidopsis lines of AmCaM1 showed enhanced tolerance to water stress but had no obvious change in salt and cold tolerances during their seed germination.
2015, 16(6):1321-1329. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2015.06.026
Abstract:The members of CYC/TB1 subclass in TCP gene family play an important role in the regulation of shoot branching. Four new NtBRC1-Like genes, designated NtBRC1-Like1, 2, 3 and 4, were isolated from Nicotiana tabacum using silico cloning strategy combined RT-PCR methods. The length of CDS sequences of four NtBRC1-Like genes were 1140, 1062, 987 and 1041 bp, respectively. The deduced protein sequences contained 379, 353, 328 and 346 amino acids, respectively, and exhibited high homology with other members of CYC/TB1 subclass. The analysis of conserved domain showed that, in addition to the TCP core domain, four NtBRC1-Like proteins also had the R domain specific to CYC/TB1 proteins. The phylogenetic tree showed that four NtBRC1-Like proteins belonged to CYC/TB1 subclass of TCP family, however, four NtBRC1-Like proteins could be divided into two groups, one is NtBRC1-Like1/4，another is NtBRC1-Like2/3. Real-time quantitative PCR assay indicated that the expression profile of NtBRC1-Like genes exhibited significant tissue specificity. The expression level of NtBRC1-Like1/4 in axillary bud was the highest, however, NtBRC1-Like2/3 expressed higher in leaf and axillary bud. These results demonstrated that the functions of NtBRC1s in tobacco might be differentiated just like in tomato.
2015, 16(6):1330-1337. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2015.06.027
Abstract:This study aimed to provide basic materials for new germplasms breeding of alfalfa with high yield and good quality in the irrigation of northwest desert. Through field experiments, hay yield traits, crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) of Gannong No.3, Gannong No.5, Eureka and their 16 hybrid progeny were investigated and appraised. The variations of nineteen alfalfa germplasms were great in hay yield characters and nutritive qualities. The coefficient of variation of hay yield is the largest, which is 23.80%, while the variation coefficient of ADF is the smallest, which is 6.00%. A single character comparison between different germplasms showed that White 1# had high hay yield, being 22.72 t/hm2 ;Fast-growing 4# had high CP, being 22.74% while the lower NDF and ADF was for White 3#, being37.85% and 31.17% respectively. Based on the single character, White 1# may be used as the high yield material, Fast-growing 4# may be used as the high nitrogen material, White 3# may be used as the low fiber material. Whether the excellent characteristics of these germplasms could inherit stably still need to participate in next transgeneration detection Based on yield and nutrient quality characters, merging the cluster analysis result of four index and combining gray systematic theory, Fast-growing 4# and White 3# are of high yield, high nitrogen and low fiber materials, Fast-growing 12# is of high yield and high nitrogen material, Fast-growing 1# and White 1# are of high yield and middle nitrogen materials, Fast-growing 15# is of high yield and low fiber material, while White 2# is of middle yield and high nitrogen material. The above mentioned materials as high yield and good quality materials can be used to develop new germplasms. The above mentioned germplasms could be used as good alfalfa breeding materials after further transgenerational screening,
2015, 16(6):1338-1344. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2015.06.028
Abstract:Seeds of the melon strain ‘3-2-2’ were treated by ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) with 8 different concentrations and 4 different time in this study, and the suitable EMS mutation dosage for seed mutagenesis was determined as a concentration of 1.2% and 24 h by studying the germination rate of M1 plants. By this way, the melon mutant library containing 67 M1 families and their selfing seeds of M2 was constructed. For M1 individuals in the mutant library, phenotypic traits of 541 seedlings at whole growing period were investigated, resulting in total mutant frequency of 71.53%. For M2 individuals in the mutant library, length of internode, diameter of main stem, length of leaf, width of leaf, length of petiole and diameter of petiole of 603 seedlings were investigated: in addition to length of internode, differences of the other 5 traits were significant compared to the wild type; variation coefficient of different phenotypic traits were different, the maximum was 15.37% in length of petiole, and the minimum was 7.10% in length of internode; in M2 generation, leaf color of No.25 line appeared in segregation of yellow and green.