Abstract:Abstract: Mining different resistant genes is the basis for the genetic improvement of crops durable resistance. Two radish (Raphanus sativus L.) inbred lines resistant to black rot (Xanthamonas campestris pv. campestris) (KB10Q-22, KB10Q-24) and one susceptible inbred line (KB10Q-33) were used to construct F2 populations. Black rot pathogen Xcc8004 were used to inoculate seedlings by leaf-cutting spray method to identify the disease-resistance. The genetic characteristics of resistance to black rot were studied with a mixed model of major genes plus poly-gene using P1, P2, F1, F2 populations. The results showed that the inheritance of the resistance of the above two resistant lines to black rot was different. The plants of F1 generation from KB10Q-22 expressed resistant. Its genetic model was mixed two major genes with additive-dominance-epistatic effects plus poly genes with additive-dominance-epistatic effects ( E_0 model) , while the plants of F1 generation from KB10Q-24 expressed susceptible , and its genetic model was mixed one major gene with additive-dominance effects plus poly genes with additive-dominance-epistatic effects (D_0 model). Major gene heritability for the two crosses were 87.73% and 55.64%, respectively. The heritability was mainly dominated by major genes.
Abstract:In order to provide a theoretical basis for breeding and using of Dominant Genic Male Sterility (DGMS) lines and improved Ogura Cytoplasmic Male Sterility (Ogura CMS) lines in broccoli, we compared the growth trend of the main agronomic traits and bouquet yield among DGMS lines, Ogura CMS lines and the F1 produced by them. In this study, DGMS 79-399-3 and improved Ogura CMSR3 629 were used as the original sources to get broccoli high generation (n ≥ 9) male sterile lines DGMS8554, OguraCMS8554, DGMS93219 and OguraCMS93219. Those materials with maintainer lines of 8554, 93219 and F1 produced by them were used to systematically study growth trend of the plants’ main agronomic characters and curd-related traits through observing the entire growth period regularly and drawing growth curve. Results showed that under the same genetic background, the growth trend of plant width, plant height, length of the outer leaves, number of the outer leaves were almost the same among maintainer lines, two types of sterile lines and the F1 produced by sterile lines. Plant width, plant height, length of the outer leaves all showed fast growth in early period, after slowing, and finally leveled off or slightly declining. The numbers of the outer leaves were increasing at first, after decreasing. The numbers of the lateral branches were different in different years to different genetic background. The appeared and harvested time of the two types of male sterile lines under same background and F1 produced by them were nearly the same, the curd yield traits were different, but the appearance quality traits of the curd performed the same, respectively. The broccoli sterile lines came from the two types of male sterile sources DGMS and improved Ogura CMS performed well, therefore, the two types of male sterile sources have important application value in broccoli crossbreeding.
Abstract:Drought in autumn has negative effect on germination and growth of rapeseed in Yangtze River valley. It is critical to identify drought tolerance resource in Brassica rapa for rapeseed breeding for tolerance against drought. The drought tolerance of five Brassica rapa accessions with different genetic background were evaluated using seven treatments concentration of PEG-6000, ranging from 0 to 300 g/L during germination. Significant difference was detected for drought tolerance among seven treatments, and optimum concentration of PEG-6000 was 200 g/L based on the principal components analysis for five indexes related to drought tolerance, including drought resistance index, relative germination rate, relative sprout potential, relative root length and relative shoot length. Subsequently, 203 B. rapa collected worldwide were screened for drought tolerance with 200 g/L PEG-6000. Based on the result of membership function value analysis and cluster analysis, we prioritized all the experimental materials according to the drought stress. Additionally, PI226505 from Iran possessed strong drought tolerance, which laid foundation for further research in drought tolerance improvement in oilseed rape.
Abstract:Maize inbred line 08-641 was used as material to analyze the proteome difference during seed dormancy breaking by mean of 2-D electrophoresis method. The results showed that 600 protein spots were detected in fresh dormant seed and 620 protein spots were detected when seed dormancy was broken through 10d after-ripening, respectively. Among the 23 differential expressions Protein spots, there were 4 down-regulated protein spots, 4 up-regulated proteins, 8 protein spots with additional expression, and 7 protein spots with missing expression. The proteins identified by MALDI-TOF-MS were main involved in globulin, late embryogenesis abundant protein, legumin and other storage proteins; proteasome, sorbitol dehydrogenase which involved in metabolism; heat shock protein involved in protein structure and cell function regulation. The seed dormancy of maize inbred line 08-641 was due to lack of expression or over-expression of some dormancy-related proteins.
Abstract:Abstract: 66 hybrids (F1) were got by crossing 12 selected typical inbred lines according to Griffing 4 model. The analysis of combining ability and genetic parameters were conducted for Pb2+ contents in leaves and kernels under 3 Pb2+ contamination levels via pot cultivating method in the greenhouse. According to the results, there were significant differences between general combining ability and special combining ability of Pb2+ content in maize leaves and kernels, and the non-addictive variance was larger than the addictive variances. The genetic variance was larger than the environmental variance, as well as the broad-sense heritability was larger than the narrow-sense heritability, indicating that this trait’s variance is mainly from genetic factors with a higher hereditary capacity. During the germplasm screening process, when the soil Pb2+ concentration was lower than 333.32 mg/kg， Using combinations crossed by parent strain Zheng58 would focus on not only the Pb2+ content of kernels in standard, but also the high enrichment of Pb2+ content in leaves, the main purpose was to conduct bioremediation for Pb2+ contamination in soil while taking feed and food security into account. When the Pb2+ concentration was higher than 715.46 mg/kg, using combinations crossed by parent strain 178 should focus on selecting germplasm of low Pb2+ accumulation in leaves and kernels, and this would offer some certain guidance for screening maize varieties in Pb2+ contaminated soil in the future and selecting breeding strategy of avoiding pollution.
Abstract:In order to know the performance of different genotypes of soybean germplasms at flowering-podding stage, explore drought-resistant resource, we determined 18 morphological and biochemical indexes including stem thickness, branch No.and plant height in the pot experiment at flowering-podding stage with 22 soybean varieties(lines) widely grown under artificial water stress condition. Drought resistances of varieties were scored with drought coefficient method and principle component analysis and cluster under water stress. The result showed that there were certain variations of drought coefficient of 18 morphological and biochemical indexes under water stress and variation coefficient was more than 10%. The accumulative contribution rate of 5 comprehensive principle components was 84.82%, which could stand for 84.82% of primitive information of soybean drought resistance. Using drought-resistant balancing D-value, 22 different eco-type soybeans were divided into 3 types: high tolerant, moderate tolerant and weaker tolerant. In 22 varieties (lines), we screened out the high drought tolerant varieties consisting of ‘Jinda78’ , ‘Jinda74’ ,’Jinda70’ ,and ‘Jinda73’.The varieties (lines) ‘Jinda75’, ‘Bianjing’ and ‘Heizhenzhu’ had weaker drought resistance. The rest had medium drought resistance. We could avoid one-sidedness and instability by using principle component analysis and fuzzy cluster than single trait. The comprehensive D-value was a method for soybean drought resistance comprehensive evaluation and drought-resistant cultivars breeding, it could be used to identify soybean drought resistance.
Abstract:Diverse genetic variation is of great importance for crop ecological adaption and improvement. Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most important staple food for human worldwide. Wheat coverage and production of Hebei province ranked third in China. However, systematically understanding for genetic diversity in this province is scare. Therefore, the objective of present study is to investigate the genetic diversity based on genome-wide SSR markers. The results showed that among the wheat accessions studied, genetic diversity in A genome, the seventh homoeologous group and chromosome 1A is relatively poor. From the historical view, genetic diversity of Hebei wheat accessions presented a slowly increasing trend. Furthermore, based on genetic similarity, these wheat accessions can be clustered into five groups, which did not reflect, to some extent, the diverse characters for Hebei wheat cultivars, but also the breeding behavior in different institutes of Hebei.
Abstract:The major agronomic traits and main fiber quality traits of 57 ramie germplasm were studied. The results were as followed：10 accessions with high yield and 7 accessions with excellent fiber quality were screened out, respectively. Bast stripping percentage of 20 accessions were over 12.5%. Raw fiber hardening-off ratio of 9 accessions were over 65%. 7 accessions have high yield and high bast stripping percentage, and 1 accessions has high quality and high bast stripping percentage.
Abstract:In order to efficiently use watermelon germplasm，this study analyzed and compared the genetic diversity of 24 main characters of 783 germplasms using genetic diversity indexes，coefficient ofvariation，and cluster analysis． The results showed that coefficient of variation(CV)values of the 13 quantitative characters ranged from 0.48%(The first female flowers node) to 54.82%(Single fruit weight)with an average of 23.79%. CV values of the 11 qualitative characters ranged from17.95%(Stem section shape)to 70.90%(Seed speckle color)with an average of 39.95%. The average diversity indexes( H′) of the quantitative characters was 2.08, and the average diversity indexes(H′) of the qualitative characters was 1.23. The characters with higher diversity indexes(H′)wereleaf longitudinal diameter(2.29)，leaf transverse diameter(2.24)，the fruit peel thickness(2.24)，fruit transect diameter(2.23), fruit development period(2.19), length between nodes(2.09), fruit longitudinal diameter(2.07), 100-seed weight(2.07), Seed per fruit(2.04). Based on clustering analysis of 24 phenotypic traits, the 783 collections, at the Euclidean distance of 25, could be divided into 2 broad headings：A was Citrullus lanatus；B was Citrullus colocynthis. The collections were further classified into 3 categories by cluster analysis at the genetic distance of 20: A1 was sp.vulgaris, A2 was sp.lanatus, B was sp.insipidus. at the Euclidean distance of 15，A11 was var.vulgaris, A12 was var.megalaspermus. A2 was var.capensis. Coefficients of variation(CV)and diversity indexes(H′) of watermelon phenotypic traits were high，indicating that watermelon have abundant variation and diversity.Euclidean distance 25 Can be used as a watermelon divide into species genetic distance，20 can be used as a watermelon divide into subspecies Genetic distance，15 can be used as a watermelon divide into varietas Genetic distance.
Abstract:Fifteen agronomic traits of 100 chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes have been analyzed for genetic diversity by using cluster analysis and principal component analysis. The results revealed broad genetic diversity among these chickpeas. The diversity index of plant height is highest, followed by 100-seed weight. The coefficient variation (CV) of pod number per plant is highest, followed by seed weight per plant. Based on the genetic differenciation of agronomic traits, the 100 chickpea genotypes were divided into 4 groups. As candidate parents, the genotypes from the first group can be used for breeding varieties with high yield and moderate plant height, the genotypes from the second group can be used for breeding varieties with high population density and special seed color (shape), the genotypes from the third group can be used for breeding varieties with spherical and smooth seeds, the genotypes from the fourth group can be used for breeding varieties with large seed type and suitable for combine harvesting. The principal components analysis based on 9 quantitative traits, indicated the accumulation indices of 73.91% from the top four principal components which reflecting the breeding potential of major quantitative traits. Comprehensive analysis of agronomic traits provided scientific information for effective use of chickpea genetic resources.
Abstract:Abstract: We studied the morphological diversity of 111 types of Lagerstroemia indica germplasm resources in Hunan by examining 17 morphological Characteristics. The results showed that, Lagerstroemia indica germplasm resources in Hunan were rich in morphological diversity, with mean diversity index (Shannon’s index, H') of 0.707. On the whole, the morphological diversity index of quantitative trait was greater than that of qualitative trait. We observed significant varieties in 2 qualitative Characteristics (color, claw color) and 5 quantitative Characteristics (the flower diameter, flower number, length and the width of inflorescence, 1000 seed weight), with H' being greater than 1.2 and 1.4, respectively. The degree of genetic diversity among different groups of Lagerstroemia indica varieties germplasm resources varied considerably. The groups of Lagerstroemia indica ranged in a diminishing order of H’ value from L. indica Rubra Group (H'=0.838), L. indica Amabilis Group (H'=0.823), L. indica Alba Group( H'= 0.696), L. indica dwarf Group (H'=0.604), to L. indica Bicolor Group (H'=0.573). Based on principal component analysis, the contribution rate of the first 7 principal components was 67.70%, including the inflorescence length, inflorescence width, number of flowers, number of flower colors, flower color, 1000-seed weight, claw color, leaf color, branchlets four prism, potpourri, and flower diameter (11 morphological indices in total), which represent the crape myrtle Germplasm traits. Based on morphological traits, 111 copies of Lagerstroemia indica germplasm were analyzed in cluster and divided into five groups. The genetic clustering results are consistent with Zhang and Wang’s research in terms of morphological and molecular markers on the principle of classification of Lagerstroemia indica varieties and standards, i.e., using the source composition as the primary classification criteria, the plant height as the secondary, and the color as the third level classification criteria.
Abstract:In order to reveal the variation degree and variation pattern o f the phenotypic in Symplocos paniculata .11 phenotypic traits of 90 individuals from 6 natural population accessions belonging five areas of Hunan province were investigated. As well as their variance analysis, cluster analysis, principal component and correlation analysis were conducted. Results showed that there were rich genetic diversity morphologically (H' =1.487). Variance component between population was 52.34%，of that within population was 37%.Phenotypic variation between populations was greater than that within the populations of Symplocos paniculata. So Phenotypic variation between populations was the main source of phenotypic variation.Among 11 traits, factors of tree shape ( height of plant, canopy, base diameter of plant) were the main resources of phenotypic variation. And those factors significantly correlated with annual precipitation positively, But the other phenotypic traits were influenced greater by the hereditary variationin than surrounding environment.
Abstract:The relativity characters of the nitrogen absorption and utilization were analysed under two levels of N supply (0 and 180 kg/hm2) by using forty five rice germplasms, which were divided into four types based on grain yield under two N rates, such as efficient-efficient(EE), inefficient-efficient(IE), inefficient-inefficient(II) and efficient-inefficient(EI). Focus on the research of variance analysis and correlation among characters related to grain yield, the N accumulation(NA) and nitrogen-use efficiency(NUE) between different types. The results showed that the range of variance of grain yield per plant，straw yield per plant, the NA and physiological N use efficiency(PNUE) were 4.50-29.65 g, 6.35-18.70 g, 4.80-21.28 g/m2and 19.88-62.05 g/g , respectively. Grain yield was significantly positively associated with effect panicles per plant(EP), spikelets per panicle(SP), seed setting rate (SSR), the BA, the N accumulation in grain(NAG), the NA and PNUE and significantly negatively associated with the N concentration in grain(NCG) and N concentration in straw(NCS) whether in low-nitrogen or high-nitrogen conditions. There were significantly different between grain yield(GY) with BA, NA and PNUE for four types of rice. EE and IE were the most influence by nitrogen fertilizer, EI was the least. The research showed that Qing-ma-zao, Lu-Cai-Zao, Guang-lu-ai 4, Zao89-01 and Zao-xian152 had been selected for tolerance-low nitrogen and high NUE type，among them, Qing-ma-zao and Lu-Cai-Zao is the typical high NUE type that showed higher, stable yield whether in low-nitrogen or high-nitrogen conditions; Guang-lu-ai 4 is the typical tolerance-low type that showed higher yield in low-nitrogen and suitable planted in poor soil, however, Zao89-01 and Zao-xian152 are suitable planted in fertilize soil that showed higher yield in high-nitrogen conditions.
Abstract:The full sequence of GmMYB174 was isolated from soybean, including 1086 bp and encoding 361 amino acids. GmMYB174 belonged to MYB-related family. Bioinformatics analysis indicate GmMYB174 share a high similar with tomato, alfalfa and peanut, containing 2 conserved locus and a motif of SHAQKFF. GmMYB174 located in nucleus. The expression predication of tissue show that GmMYB174 expressed in many tissues and peaked in epicotyl. Promoter analysis indicate that the region of GmMYB174 promoter contain ABRE, MYB, MYC, LTRE and GT-1. Q-RT-PCR shows that GmMYB174 involved in various abiotic stresses. GmMYB174 maybe participated in multi-environmental stress responses.
Abstract:Using the 24 SSR markers recommended by “Sector Standard of Agriculture (NY/1433-2077)”, this study analyzed the DNA fingerprint and genetic diversity of the 49 rice varieties (the example varieties listed in Rice DUS Test Guideline). The results showed that, 141 and 156 alleles could be amplified by the 24 SSR primers in 19 indica rice varieties and 30 japonica rice varieties respectively, meaning each pair of primers can amplify 5.88 alleles (indica rice) and 6.50 alleles (japonica rice).The average shannon’s diversity indexes of the 24 SSR primers were 1.5141 (1.0406-1.9959) and 1.4389 (0.4677-2.4503) for indica and japonica group respectively.Based on the results of cluster analysis, the similarity coefficient of varieties within indica and japonica rice group were 0.45-0.81 and 0.36-0.76 respectively, and 19 varieties of indica rice and 30 varieties of japonica rice could be sorted into 16 sets and 28 sets respectively using similarity coeffecient of 0.72 as threshold. Thus, the genetic diversity of the 49 rice varieties is rich. Based on the consideration of cluster analysis of morphological characteristics (previous results) and genetic diversity, the number of example varieties used in Rice DUS test could be reduced from 49 to 46.
Abstract:Auxin affects many processes of plant growth and development. As an auxin receptor, Auxin Binding Protein (ABP1) plays an important role in the rapid reactions induced by auxin on the plasma membrane. The ABP1 in common wheat, named TaABP1-D, have beenwas previously cloned, but not been located on theits chromosome map and the distribution in the cell are still not clear. The distribution of ABP1 in the cell is still unclear. In this study, we located the TaABP1-D on the cytoplasm and cell membrane by transiently expressed system in onion epidermal cells, which indicated that TaABP1-D protein is a membrane protein. In addition, using Chinese Spring nullitetrasomic-tetrasomic lines and bioinformatics methods, we located the TaABP1-D in the pericentromeric region of the long arm of wheat chromosome 5D. EST markers BE490079 and BE405060 ﬂanked TaABP1-D by 0.51 and 0.28 cM, respectively.
Abstract:Rice bacterial blight is one of the major bacterial diseases of rice production. Rice bacterial blight resistance materials developed from wild rice may increase rice resistance resource. Xa21 gene in Yunnan wild rice was detected by inoculation identification and PCR marker analysis. The results shown Yunnan wild rice was excellently resistant to PX099A and Y8, especially, Oryza meyeriana was immunity. O. meyeriana, O. rufipogon and cultivated rice have Xa21 homologous fragment gene. It will lay the foundation for finding out new bacterial blight resistance resource and exploring new resistance gene.
Abstract:Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used to evaluate the genetic relationship among 21 Chinese dwarf cherry’s wild resources accessions from different regions and four close relatives (peach, apricot, plum and cherry etc.).The results of UPGMA cluster proved that 25 primers were selected for amplification wild Chinese dwarf cherry from different regions of unambiguous and high polymorphic bands. These 25 primers amplified total 441 bands out of which 366 bands（82.99%）were polymorphic. UPGMA cluster analysis of the similarity matrix obtained from the RAPD database resulted in a dendrogram of genetic relationships that grouped 21 accessions into 3 clusters as the genetic similarity value at 0.71. They were Northeast distribution group, Northern China and eastern China distribution group, and Central and Western China distribution group, respectively；Among Chinese dwarf cherry and its closely related plant species of unambiguous, 20 primers screened for amplification amplified 683 and 98.99 % out of which were polymorphic. UPGMA cluster analysis showed that Chinese dwarf cherry and its closely related plant species accessions were grouped into 3 separate clusters as the genetic similarity value at 0.61.The largest inheritance distance is between Chinese dwarf cherry and Prunus glandulosa while the least inheritance distance is between Chinese dwarf cherry and peach（Prunus persica）.
Abstract:Abstract The expression of specific genes may be activated under high temperature, which enhances the heat resistance of the plants. In recent years, with the continuous development of biotechnology, plant heat-related genes have been cloned and transferred to some plants. This paper will review the cloning of heat-related genes, its molecular mechanisms as well as the advancements of genetic engineering in this area and its prospects.
Abstract:Genetic diversity of 30 local wild rice populations of Zizania latifolia collected from the Poyang Lake valley was investigated using SSR (simple sequence repeat) and ISSR (inter-simple sequence repeat) markers. A total of 253 bands were generated from 19 pairs of informative SSR primers with an average polymorphism percentage bands (PPB) of 91.67%.The average index of Nei’s genetic diversity (He) and Shannon’s information (I) were 0.2712 and 0.4144, respectively. The genetic similarity index(GS) and genetic distance (GD) ranged from 0.5590～0.8368 and 0.1632～0.4410, respectively. In comparison，with 14 informative ISSR primers, a total of 83 bands were amplified with an average PPB of 78.29%. The average He and I were 0.2386 and 0.4174, respectively. The GS and GD ranged from 0.5132～0.9342 and 0.0658～0.4868, respectively. Cluster analysis showed that 30 wild populations of Z. latifolia could be classified into three groups respectively at the threshold of 0.698 and 0.728 based on SSR and ISSR genotypes using the UPGMA analysis. There was no significant association between the phylogenetic relationship and the geographic locations in the Z. latifolia populations which might be due to human activity, water flow, animal activity, wind, etc. The results indicated that the wild populations of Z. latifolia from the Poyang Lake valley had a rich genetic diversity in SSR and ISSR genotype and thus it is of great importance to explore genetic evolution and gene resources and to preserve the local Z. latifolia populations in this area and expanded area.
Abstract:Allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) was adopted to molecular evaluation to 330 hybrids from 4 hybridization combinations, which only one male parent was high oleate peanut line CTWE and female parents were 4 normal oleate conventional varieties. The results of agarose gel electrophoresis showed only 230 hybrids had a specific 539 bp band. Hybridization success rates of Baisha 1016 ?CTWE, Haihua1 ?CTWE , Ji 0212-2 ?CTWE and Yuanza9847 ?CTWE were 83.3 %, 50.0 %, 57.1 % and 50.0 % respectively. The Near-Infrared Spectroscopy analysis (NIRS) for single kernal was adopted to measure the F2:3 family lines of Yuanza9847 ?CTWE ,Baisha 1016 ?CTWE, Ji 0212-2 ?CTWE and Haihua1 ?CTWE. High oleic family lines were 9,8,2 and 3 respectively, which deduced the ratio of FAD2B-m/FAD2B-m in F2 population was 9.47 %, 4.17 %, 3.39 % and 3.37 % respectively. The genetic pattern of the high oleic trait of 4 hybridization combinations all accorded with 2 pairs of genes at p=0.05 level . This study has certain reference value for the chromosomal identification for high oleic trait and also could increase the efficiency of high oleate peanut breeding.
Abstract:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous non-coding single-strand molecules with 21-25 nucleotides in length, and they are widely existed in plants and animals. In plant, miRNAs have been confirmed that they negatively regulate gene expression negatively at the post-transcriptional level and play an important regulatory role in plant growth and development, and response to various biotic and abiotic stress. In recent years, miRNA has become the hotspot in modern molecule biology. In this paper, several methods for identification and charactrization of plant miRNAs were introduced, and further the processes and strategies for miRNA bioinformatics prediction were reviewed with emphasis, as well as investigation and analysis of some bioinformatics softwares. This paper will provide new ideas for miRNA identification in plant.
Abstract:The PEBP gene family encodes proteins with similarity to Phosphatidylethanolamine binding Proteins which found across the animals, plants and microbes. The PEBP genes have important roles in regulation of flowering time and seed dormancy. We presented here a systematic analysis of the PEBP gene family in soybean (Glycine max). At the level of genome-wide screening, we identified 27 PEBP candidate genes from soybean and considered 16 genes with full length of coding sequence as GmPEBP genes. Squence analysis showed the GmPEBP genes had conserved genomic structures and were distributed on nine soybean chromosomes. Genomic structures and chromosome locations were determined for the 16 GmPEBP genes. Phylogenetic analysis grouped the GmPEBP family into three subfamilies, namely FT-like, TFL1-like and MFT-like, and suggested that species-specific expansion contributed to the evolution of this family. Analysis of synonymous substitution rates indicated most duplicated pairs were from the whole genome duplication occurred at 59 and 13 million years ago.
Abstract:Glutelin is the most abundant storage protein in rice seeds, accounting for over 70% of the total seed protein, as well as the major rice protein absorbed. Rice with low glutelin content (LGC) is suitable for the special needs of patients suffering from diabetes and kidney failure. To improve the LGC rice variety, LGC-1, a LGC variety from Japan, was used to cross with “Wuyujing 3”, a japonica variety with high yield and quality in Jiangsu province. Three new LGC rice strains (F6 generation) with elite agronomic traits were obtained by agronomic traits selection and marker-assisted selection in 2013. SDS-PAGE analysis and glutelin content measurement showed that glutelin contents of the 3 new strains were reduced to LGC-1 level, significantly lower than ordinary commercial varieties.
Abstract:Rice germplasm for the resistance to southern rice black streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) was screened from rice lines of three ecological populations of Dongxiang wild rice and BC1F6 lines of the cross Xieqingzao B//Xieqingzao B/Dongxiang wild rice. A resistant line identified from the BC1F6 population was crossed to photo-thermo-sensitive genic male sterile line (PTGMS) C47S. Six PTGMS lines which were resistant or moderate resistant to SRBSDV were selected.. It was also found that the SRBSDV resistance was normally distributed in the segregating populations, indicating that the resistance to SRBSDV in Dongxiang wild rice was controlled by quantitative trait loci.
Abstract:Nine agronomic traits, like days to flowering, plant height, first branch number, were used to evaluate nine tartary buckwheat （Pagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaerth）varieties from different sources by using multiple comparison Tukey and principal component analyses. Among them, six lines with large variation in between were selected and conducted diallel crosses. According to the results of diallel analyses, two varieties showing widest pairwised differences in plant height, first branch number, etc, were selected. Finally, six most varied agronomic traits were selected to evaluate the segregating individuals from the cross between the two selected varieties. The mode of inheritance and genetic correlation of each agronomic trait were estimated. From the F4 generation of ‘Hokuriku No. 4’ and ‘Ishisoba’, we identified twelve excellent plants (days to flowering early, short plant height and high yield ) , and based on the genetic information of these agronomic traits of tartary buckwheat, selecting strategy for excellent offspring lines was discussed on traits by using hybrid breeding method. The most effective strategy was comprised by SSD method in promoting of segregating population to F4 generation, and pedigree breeding method afterwards.
Abstract:Guizhou HE Rice (O. Sativa L.), one of the valuable rice germplasm resources in China, is regarded as a special ecotype of rice. Protection and utilization of this resource is of great significance. In a variety of ways, the investigation was carried out in 15 Dong villages in 6 townships of Liping County, Guizhou Province. The survey collected accessions of 44 resources. Liping County, considered a main producing area of HE Rice, is one of the birthplaces of waxy food circle. Diverse genetic resources and wealthy traditional cultures are still well reserved in the area. As a symbol of the minority culture, the utilization, protection and inheritance of the rice were closely related to the local culture including Dong people’s daily diet, religious ceremonies and festivals. Countermeasures and suggestions were proposed for the protection and utilization of HE Rice resources.
Abstract:Abstract：The chromosome numbers and karyotypes of 12 Forsythia species and cultivars were studied using squashing method, and the results showed that 11 other Forsythia species and cultivars were diploid (2n=2x=28), except F. intermedia ‘Goldrausch’, which was tetraloid (2n=4x=56). The karyotypes of F. suspensa, F. ovate, F. mandshurica and F. koreana were 2A, 3B, 2B, 3B, separately. The karyotypes of 6 F. intermedia cultivars included 2A, 2B and 3B. The karyotypes of 2 F. koreana cultivars included 2B and 3B. Generally, the centromere index of 12 Forsythia species and cultivars were not distinct different, which arranged from 9.65% to 50.00%. The karyotypes of all the tested Forsythia taxa were mainly made of m, sm, and st, without chromosome or satellite The results from clustering analysis on karyotype parameters of the 4 Forsythia species showed that F. suspense and F. mandshurica have near genetic relationship, while the genetic relationship between F. suspense and F. ovata was distant. Meanwhile, F. intermedia cultiawrs have nearer genetic relationship with F. mandshurica and F. koreana, than F. suspense and F. ovata. The results provided cytological information for genetic relationship analysis and parent selection in interspecific hybridization in Forsythia genus.
Abstract:Abstract： Six populations of Atractylodes DC. (Compositae) were used to analyze their chromosome number and karyotype by applying root tip squash method. The results showed that chromosome number in all six populations of Atractylodes spp. was 2n = 24 and the karyotype formulas were as follows: Baokang population 2n=2x=10m+12sm+2st, Shangluo population 2n=2x=14m+10sm, Yuexi population 2n=2x=12m+12sm, Yingshan population 2n=2x=14m+10sm, Xinyang population 2n=2x=14m+8sm+2st, Shennongjia population 2n=2x=8m+10sm+4st. All of karyotypes for the investigated populations were 2B type but Yingshan population with 2A type, which showed that Yingshan population plant belongs to a relatively primitive type and relatively ancient or the primitive plant in evolutionary processes of Atractylodes. According to the dendrogram of Q analysis and karyotype analysis of Atractylodes plant, Yingshan and Shangluo population plant was clustered into one sub-subgroup, whose centromere karyotypes were same, and Xinyang population plant which belongs to A. chinensis and the former two population plant was clustered into one subgroup, and Baokang and Yuexi population plant which belong to southern A. lancea into another subgroup. The result don’t support A. lancea subsp. Luotianensis treated as a separate new subspecies and Yingshan population plant should be A. chinensis plant, but support northern A. chinensis is a new subspecies of A. lancea. The results also showed that there is distance relationship between ShenNongjia population and other five ones. This may relate to its high altitude and complex habitats so that ShenNongjia population plants have less gene exchange with them.
Abstract:Fruit cracking was the most serious physiological disease for yield and quality of Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.), it was also the most difficultly problem for prevent. The objective of this study was to reveal the mechanism of the cultivars with highly resistance, and provide scientific basis for prevention of the disease and relevant breeding. Cultivars with different resistance to fruit cracking were used as materials. During immersed in water, the water potential, water retaining rate, water absorption, fruit cracking rate and fruit cracking index were determined, and then the correlations between them were analyzed by SPSS software. Meanwhile, microscopic technology was used to observe the pericarp microstructure. Water potential of fruit did not reflect inherent resistance of jujube fruit to cracking; there was no significant correlation between water retaining rate and fruit cracking rate or fruit cracking index; however, water absorption was extremely significantly correlated with fruit cracking rate and fruit cracking index at fruit crisp-mature stage. The water absorption rate at the water absorption threshold was negatively correlated with the resistance to fruit cracking. The cultivar ‘Changhongzao’ with highly resistance to fruit cracking had the lowest water absorption rate (0.20 %?h-1) and that of the highly susceptible cultivar ‘Junzao’ had the highest rate (0.52 %?h-1). Compared with other cultivars, the wax layer of highly resistant cultivar ‘Changhongzao’ was the thickest, and its pericarp cells arranged much more regular and closer. No significant correlation was found between cracking resistance and the thickness of epidermis. The upper part of fruit was more sensitive to cracking.
Abstract:The karyological analysis on 25 populations of L. pumilum was studied by conventional pressed slice method. The results showed that: The karyological type on 25 populations of L. pumilum was various.every populations of Lilium pumilum DC were diploid, x=12. In root tip cells, Chromosome numbers was mostly 2n=2x=24. Chromosome types of L. pumilum DC included st，sm，t, m and T. The ratio of the longest chromosome/the shortest chromosome was from 1.73 to 5.90, mostly in the range from 2 to 4; asymmetry coefficient was between 75.6%to 89.6%; Six types were: 3A, 4A, 3B, 4B, 3C, 4C, and 3B was the most type, which was 60%.
Abstract:Genetic and difference of GABA and RS are studied, based on germinated brown rice and brown rice of 222 RILs as well as their parents, to breed new varieties of high content of GABA and RS. The results show that The different of GABA content between germinated brown rice and brown rice of RILs is not significant. GABA content present a wide range of genetic variation in germinated brown rice and brown rice, controlled by major gene. RS content in germinated brown rice is 1.2 times as much as the brown rice. RS content present a wide range of genetic variation in germinated brown rice and brown rice, but all appear the skewed distribution. High altitude and cold climate were effective to improvement and evolution of high content of resistant starch of brown rice.This study can be a theoretical basis for genetic and breeding of the functional rice.