Abstract:The safety storage life of seeds is the time taken for seed viability reduced from the original value to the regeneration standard. The safety storage life of germplasm resources under low-temperature or ambient storage is rarely studied. To address this question, the viability monitoring data of rice and wheat seeds that being stored at the National Genebank, mid-term genebank and ambient conditions were analyzed. Viability of 3500 rice accessions and 3279 wheat accessions in the National Genebank and 801 accessions in Guangxi mid-term genebank were monitored by germination test after being stored for 20 to 22 years or 17 to 19 years respectively. Results showed that over 99% rice seeds and 96% wheat seeds could be safely conserved for more than 20 years in the National Genebank. In the mid-term genebank, the safety storage life of rice was shorter than that of the National Genebank, but still over 17 years. The germination percentages of rice and wheat seeds stored under ambient condition in different climatic regions suggested that the viability of seeds kept in the low temperature region was higher than that in the warmer ones, and the safety storage life of seeds with optimum moisture contents was longer than 14 years. The length of the safety storage life was related to not only the storage conditions but also the initial quality and the variety types of the seeds.
Abstract:In order to study the relationship between elevation and populations of Populus szechuanica var. tibetica located on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, 24 pairs of SSR primers were used to study genetic diversity and structure of populations in Sejila Mountain of the southeastern plateau. A total of 126 alleles was detected from 469 individuals, with an average of 5.25 alleles per locus, a PPL (polymorphism percentage level) of 100%, and a relatively high expected heterozygosity (HE) for populations at high and low altitudes (0.48 and 0.49, respectively), Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that the differentiation between populations was accounted for 6.38% to of the total anand the most variation existed was among the individuals within a population. That estimation of A differentiation coefficient (Fst) of Fst was 0.02 also supported the conclusion that the differentiation between populations was in low level. T and the value of gene flow (Nm) was 9.89 at which was in a very high level. also supported the conclusion that the differentiation between populations was at a low level. In conclusion, no geographical separation and differentiation of populations along the altitude of the genetic diversity and population structure of populations sampled from Sejila Mountain showed no evident pattern along altitude gradientwere observed. As a result, The strategic cconservation and utilization of Tibetan poplar could be facilitated on the base basis of understanding of differentiation and distribution patterns of the species. The and study about on mechanism of adoption of aptation to a high altitude could be processed smoothly.
Abstract:To verify the combining ability of photosynthetic characteristics of function leaves, thirty hybrid combinations were obtained from incomplete diallel cross between six sterile lines and five restorer lines of indica hybrid rice cultivars. The photosynthetic characteristics in hybrid combinations and their parents were measured and statistically analyzed. Result showed that there were significant genetic differences among hybrid rice combinations in photosynthetic characteristics. The genetic variations of photosynthetic characteristics mainly came from additive effect of genes. Intercellular CO2 concentration, transpiration rate, chlorophyll content (a & b) and carotenoid content were influenced greater by sterile lines than the restorer lines but stomatal conductance, chlorophyll content (a+b) were influenced greater by restorer lines than the sterile lines. The broad genetic heritability was greater than narrow genetic heritability in photosynthetic characteristics of indica hybrid rice combinations. Each trait was mainly affected by gene interactions as well as environmental factors. The nine phenotypic values of photosynthetic traits of indica hybrid rice combinations were highly correlated (p<0.01) with the sum of the general combining ability (GCA) of parents Thus, it is possible to predict the phenotypic values of photosynthetic traits in indica hybrid rice combinations according to the GCA of parents, which is helpful for efficiently breed higher photosynthetic efficiency indica hybrid rice combinations.
Abstract:For reveal differences and characteristics of Pinus latteri Mason natural populations in Bawangling forestry area of Hainan province on the level of genetic diversity, SSR molecular markers technique were used to study genetic diversity of 350 single individual plants representing 6 nature populations of Pinus latteri Mason. The result showed that 38 alleles were detected using 12 polymorphic SSR primers. The observed heterozygosity (Ho), expected heterozygosity (He), Shannon information index (I) and Nei′s expected heterozygosity were 0.1933-0.4679, 0.4150-0.5321, 0.5225-0.7384 and 0.3451-0.4819, respectively. Pinus latteri Mason had a low genetic diversity level among populations in Bawangling. The proportion of genetic differentiation among the populations accounted for 0.0628, Most of variation (97.8%) appeared inner population and there were not gene differentiations among populations. The 6 populations were divided into 2 groups based on genetic distance，showing that the genetic distance was less significantly affected with the geographic latitude，but was not strictly according to the geographic distance clustering, which was influenced by natural geographic isolation.
Abstract:The pedigree, characteristic, agronomic and economic traits of 62 rapeseed varieties registered in Jiangsu province in 1982 to 2012 was analyzed in this paper, especially the pedigree of important varieties Ningyou No. 7, Zhongyou 821, Yangyou No. 1 and Su 2051. Results showed that most of the rapeseed varieties registered in Jiangsu was originated from the variety Victor, the trait of low erucic acid content was originated from Zephyr Primor, Midas and Rongshan, and the trait of low glucosinolate content was from Tower, Wesroona, Marnoo and Wesbrook. The whole growth period of varieties was trended to shorten and reached to about 243 days, the plant height varied greatly and decided by different varieties. Within the seed or oil yield component, oil content varied greatly, especially in 2003-2012, the genetic gain reached to 0.65% per year, the silique number per plant and seed number per silique trended to increase, while the 1000 seed weight changed relatively smaller. Owing to the negative effect of double low traits on yield, the genetic gain of seed and oil yield in 1982-2012 was small, but which of the superior quality variety reached to 23.10kg/hm2 and 13.20kg/hm2 per year, respectively. The results of this study were help for the breeding and popularization of new rapeseed varieties in Jiangsu province.
Abstract:China has a long history in the use of wild Vitis species. In Chinese wild Vitis species, V. davidii has the larger berry size, is disease resistant and tolerant to hot climates and can be used as table grape directly. The people who live in Jiangxi, Jiangsu, Hunan, and Guizhou provinces usually cultivate this kind of wild Vitis as a table grape. The fruit of several wild Vitis species have been used in winemaking in many parts of China, among which V. amurensis is the most valuable one. There are plenty of V. amurensis resources in Changbai Mountain. Some wineries have used this wild Vitis in winemaking for 90 years. The wine made from V. amurensis has good taste with a dark ruby colour, and is a famous local product. Some species have been used as rootstocks and breeding materials for resistance to biotic and abiotic environmental factors. Considerable achievements in studying and utilizing wild grape germplasm resources have been made since the 1950’s. V. amurensis was the first species to be successfully domesticated. Grape researchers did a series of selection and domestication studies on the species in the Northeast part of China, and after many years they had selected a series of fine varieties and types. At the same time, a series of work on cultivation and extention on the varieties of V. amurensis was carried out. Selection studies have also been conducted on V. heyneana Roem. & Schult (V. quinquangularis Rehd. V. 1anata Roxh., V. pentagona Diels & Gilg) in the central part of China. Duaan Winery of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Zaoyang County of Hubei Province and Danfeng County of Shaanxi Province use the fruit of V. quiquangularis to make the special wine. Wineries in Feixian County of Shandong province and Zuopgong County of Tibet use the local wild grapes as wine material.
Abstract:Abstract：Employing fluorescent AFLP marker, we analyzed population genetic diversity and genetic structure of wild Pyrus ussuriensis with the aim to provide scientific foundation for wild Pyrus ussuriensis germplasm conservation and utilization. 90 accessions from Hailin, Dongning and Sunwu country of Heilongjiang province were selected as the research material. The results showed that the percentage of polymorphic loci (P) was 82.95% at species level, Nei's's gene diversity (H) was 0.1467 and Shannon information index (I) was 0.2397. And the genetic diversity of wild Pyrus ussuriensis Maxim was low. The polymorphic loci (P), Nei’s gene diversity (H) and Shannon information index (I) at population level were sequenced from high to low as Dongning population＞Hailin popultion＞Sunwu population, which means that genetic diversity of Dongning population is the richest in the three populations. The genetic differentiation coefficient (GST =0.1008) of the three populations showed that genetic variation mainly occurred within populations. There was higher level of gene flow between three populations (Nm=4.4603) which indicated that there were frequent gene exchange between populations. The UPGMA cluster analysis indicated that three populations are mendelian relative independent population, and the closer genetic relationship exist between Hailin and Dongning population. Dongning population has the most abundant genetic diversity and is the preferential population for the implementation of situ germplasm conservation strategies.
Abstract:To understand the genomic characteristics among founder parents and widely grown cultivars in wheat, we screened the genomes of 4 founder parents and 4 widely grown wheat cultivars with 428 SSR markers covering the whole wheat genome. The Nei’s distances among the eight cultivars varied from 0.460 to 1.126, with an average of 0.876. The average of Nei’s distances among the founder parents was 0.955, which was higher than that among the widely grown cultivars (0.718). The alleles detected in the founder parents were over 16.4% than that presented in the widely grown cultivars. The average of alleles per SSR locus in the founder parents was 2.90, which was higher than that in the widely grown cultivars (2.43). Similarly, the means of alleles observed in the founder parents were higher than those in the widely grown cultivars on A, B and D genomes, or 19 chromosomes except of 2D and 6D. Furthermore, the founder parents had 518 specific alleles compared to widely grown cultivars, and Xwmc513 and Xbarc59 were common SSR loci. Whereas 315 specific alleles were observed in the widely grown cultivars compared to founder parents, Xpsp3029, Xwmc235, Xgwm518, Xgdm43, Xbarc146 and Xcfd80 were common SSR loci. The chromosomal regions may play an important role for the production of founder parents and widely grown wheat cultivars.
Abstract:Distribution of resources and ecological environment for Idesia polycarpa were revealed via visiting and investigation in field, and the plus trees were selected through the economic characters such as yield and oil contents from the wild populations in eight provinces. The results were as follows: Idesia polycarpa Maxim. is mainly distributed in Anhui, Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Jiangxi provinces, while Idesia polycarpa Van Vestita Diels is mainly distributed in Hubei, Hunan, Shanxi and Sichuan provinces, especially densely distributed in Sichuan province. The characters of high adaptability, low requirement to the climate, and the suitability to grow in the acidic soil, especially in fertile soil for Idesia polycarpa were revealed after the investigation of climate and soil conditions. Forty-three plus trees were preliminarily chosen from 234 seedling trees based on the criteria of superior selection for Idesia polycarpa as energy oil plants. Forty-three plus trees were divided into three major categories of the highest, higher and middle yield according to the principal component and cluster analysis, and yield per plant, yield per unit area and oil contents of forty-three individuals were higher than those of group average by more than 20%. The studies lay an improtant foundation for collection and evaluation of germplasm resources, breeding of cultivated varieties of Idesia polycarpa.
Abstract:Abstract：Drought resistance at germinating stage of 56 Broomcorn Millet selective bred varieties from different province were identified using PEG-6000 treated, and drought resistance also were evaluated by direct and comprehensive assessment methods. The result showed that 56 varieties existed great differences in investigated traits and drought resistance between 20%(w/v) PEG-6000 treatment and CK. By two kinds of methods , three varieties with strong drought resistance have screened，namely Jinshu No.2, Longmi No.5, Longmi No.8. The result also showed that relative germination rate，relative shoot dry weight, relative root dry weight and storage matter relative transfer rate can be used as the main drought resistance identification indexes of broomcorn millet at germinating stage；Relative germination rate and weighted subordinate function value method are an ideal method of drought resistance evaluation at broomcorn millet germinating stage.
Abstract:In this study, morphological characters and AFLP markers were used to reveal the genetic diversity of 57 accessions in mango germplasms from Nujiang Dry-hot Valley.Morphological characters displayed significant difference in these mango gerplasms,with a coefficient of variation ranging from 16.98%-61.50% and the average Shannon index was 3.975,in which the weight of simple fruit was the highest CV vaule. AFLP analysis showed that 8 primer combinations generated 1098 bands，with 1032 of which were polymorphic，and the overall polymorphic loci percentage was 94.0%.The genetic similarity coefficients ranged from 0.55 to 0.82. The UPGMA phenogram and principal component analysis In this study morphological characters and AFLP markers were used to reveal the genetic diversity of 57 accessions in mango germplasms from Nujiang Dry-hot Valley.Morphological characters displayed significant difference in these mango gerplasms,with a coefficient of variation ranging from 16.98%-61.50% and the average Shannon index was 3.975,in which the weight of simple fruit was the highest CV vaule. AFLP analysis showed that 8 primer combinations generated 1098 bands，with 1032 of which were polymorphic，and the overall polymorphic loci percentage was 94.0%.The genetic similarity coefficients ranged from 0.55 to 0.82. The UPGMA phenogram and principal component analysis showed complicated genetic relationship among varieties.Based on these results, there was no direct connection between the genetic relationship and geographic distribution for mango germplasm in Nujiang Dry-hot Valley. The result of the clustering analysis with AFLP molecular marker was similar to morphological data on accurately clustering dominant groups, which suggested a higher genetic diversity these mango germplasms .
Abstract:Many species of Theaceae are not only important food oil materials, but also significant industrial oil, cosmetics and pharmaceutical raw materials. The analysis based on determination of theaceous seed oil content, as well as the field investigation, and related literature searching, the results indicate that there are 75 species in 10 genera of Theaceae distributed in Jiangxi province, China; and among them, the rate of oil content in nine species is more than 50%, such as Camellia oleifera, C. chekiangoleosa, C. brevistyla, C. microphylla, C. furfuracea, C. subintegra, Tutcheria hirta and T. championi; the rate of oil content in 13 species is between 30% and 50%, about 16 species is between 10% and 30%. Then, the species composition, the ecological habits, the potential value of exploration and utilization of theaceous plants in Jiangxi province were studied in this paper. The last results supposed that Camellia oleifera, C. chekiangoleosa, Tutcheria hirta, C. subintegra and C. brevistyla can be used as the key development species.
Abstract:In order to investigate the genetic diversity of Lilium pumilum populations in terms of palynology, the pollen morphology of 25 populations of L. pumilum were observed with the scanning electron microscope, the results showed that the pollen grain of L. pumilum was single, nearly elliptic in shape, with one germination groove on its surface. There are different degrees of difference existed among pollen morphology of 25 populations on size, mesh diameter, germination furrow width, P/E and exine ornamentation, and variability coefficient of pollen traits within populations was greater than that among populations, the maximum variation coefficient of 25.52%.
Abstract:Take 20 wild Iris lactea germplasm materials collected from 11 leagues of Inner Mongolia as the research object, through the principal component analysis, correlation analysis and cluster analysis for the 13 agronomic traits, to discuss the genetic relationship between different germplasm, genetic variation characteristics and the reasons, and to provide theoretical basis for the development and utilization, resources protection and breeding of Iris lactea. The results showed that: (1) The agronomic traits of Iris lactea germplasm of different sources showed different degree of variability, and the variation coefficients range of 9.72%-300%, the traits with larger variation coefficients were 1000-grain weight, embryo length and germination rate, the traits with smaller variation coefficients were plant height and leaf width. (2) 10 main traits of 1000-grain weight, germination rate, water absorption, embryo length, endosperm length, seed length, reproductive shoot, vegetative shoot, leaf width and plant height were the major indexes which led to agronomic traits differentiation of Iris lactea germplasms of different sources. (3) There were different degree correlation among the agronomic traits, longitude, latitude and altitude were the main factors causing the variation of Iris lactea germplasm, embryo length, 1000-grain weight and water absorption were easily affected by environment factors. (4) 20 Iris lactea germplasm of different sources had been clustered into 4 classes, the vast majority of the germplasm materials showed obvious regionality, the regionality in similar longitude, latitude or habitat would be clustered into one class.
Abstract:Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an important edible legume. Feasibility of the Fourier Transform Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-NIRS) on estimating quality traits in pea was evaluated in current study. A total of 190 pea accessions were involved with their protein, starch, oil and total polyphenol content chemically analyzed. After obtaining spectra of the samples in milled powder and intact seed forms, partial least squares (PLS) regression was applied for model development. Models of powder were generally superior to models in intact seed. The optimal models were powder-based for protein and starch with residual predictive deviation (RPD) of 5.88 and 5.82 as well as coefficients of correlation (r2) of 0.99 and 0.99, respectively. High values of correlation coefficient (r2) revealed that models had good predictive capacities for rapid germplasm analysis of pea. To explore the relationship between quality traits and producing regions, 150 pea varieties with specific information were analyzed by two-step cluster analysis. Three distinct groupings were obtained with obvious features. Group1 was in low protein content. Group2 was in high total polyphenol content. Group 3 was in high protein, starch and oil content. The nutrition contents were affected by longitude, latitude and altitude of planting location as well as seeding date. These results can provide reliable information for the collection of excellent germplasm resource in good quality traits.
Abstract:Plant is frequently exposed to various pathogens environments during its growth and can withstand most attacks by inducing appropriate defense systems. Most of the NHL genes appear to be involved in pathogen-resistance mechanisms in higher plant. The steady-state transcription levels of some NHL genes could be altered when plants were attacked by bacterial pathogens. NHL-like proteins play important roles in the defense systems in higher plants. In this study, bioinformatics approach was utilized for analyzing nucleotide and amino acid sequences of AgNHL gene, which were cloned from celery (Apium graveolens) cultivars ‘Jinnan Shiqin’ and ‘Meiguo Xiqin’, respectively. Sequence analysis indicated that the AgNHL gene contained a 636 bp ORF, which encoded 211 amino acid residues. There is only one nucleotide site and no amino acid site difference between the AgNHL genes from two cultivars of celery. NHL-like protein of celery has a high homology with other higher plants, such as Vitis vinifera and Glycine max. Among the amino acids, 80-185 has a conserved domain: LEA-2. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that the AgNHL gene was tissue-specific expressed mainly in the stem in celery, but expression level is low in the root. The expression profiles of the AgNHL gene were also detected by real-time quantitative PCR under 4 oC, 38 oC, NaCl and PEG treatments for 2 h in the two celery varieties. The gene expression was significantly induced under low temperature and salt stresses.
Abstract:A dwarf and fragile mutant temporarily designated as dwf1 was screened out in the progeny of an excellent indica restorer line Jinhui 10 with seeds treated by ethyl methane sulfonate(EMS). As compared with the wild type, its plant height was shorter with drooping leaves, the roots, stems, leaves and grains of dwf1 displayed extremely brittle during its whole growth period. Agronomic traits such as plant height, panicle length, seed setting rate, internode length and 1000-grain weight was lower at different degrees than those of the wild type. Comparing of the mechanical strength between dwf1 and Jinhui 10 showed that dwf1’s mechanical strength obviously decreased. Moreover, cellulose and lignin content in dwf1’s cell wall decreased, hemicellulose content increased, and silicate content had no significant difference. Genetic analysis demonstrated that the mutational characters were controlled by a single recessive nuclear gene. A single base missense mutation arised on the seventh extron in DWF1 (LOC_Os09g25490) in dwf1 when compared with the wild type, resulting in an amino acid change from cysteine to arginine. Homologous comparison revealed that this mutation occurred in DWF1’S highly conserved region. These results of dwf1 contribute to mutational mechanism research of rice dwarf and brittle mutants.
Abstract:Resistance evaluation and gene postulation of the eight wheat breeding parents were carried out by using 19 Puccinia triticina races with different virulent patterns at seedling stage and adult stage. 31 molecular markers closely linked or co-segregated with 24 wheat leaf rust resistance genes were used to test the 8 wheat breeding parents. The results indicated that lines L83#-5 and L83#-6 carried Lr1, might contain Lr2c or Lr42. L/PL2003-1 carried Lr1, might contain Lr2c, Lr28 or Lr42. Guinong 13 might contain Lr28. Line 92R137 might contain Lr2c or Lr28. Line L201 carried Lr1, might contain Lr2c, Lr16 or Lr28. TM carried Lr41 and unknown resistance genes. The results also indicated that the resistance of TM is the strongest in the 8 wheat accessions, and will be a good accession in wheat leaf rust resistance breeding programs.
Abstract:The aim of this study was to construct a DNA fingerprinting database of 52 sweetpotato germplasm from ‘The National Germplasm Guangzhou Sweetpotato Nursery Genebank’ using EST-SSR. Sixteen EST-SSR core primer pairs with high polymorphisms and good repeatability were successfully screened out from 324 candidates. The 16 core primer pairs amplified a total of 159 alleles among the 52 sweetpotato germplasms. Alleles amplified by each pair of primers ranged from 5 to 19, with a mean of 9.94. The polymorphic information content values (PIC) ranged from 0.6235 to 0.9593, with a mean of 0.7991. Two primers were selected to construct the fingerprinting database. Clustering analysis by the software of NTSYS indicated that EST-SSR markers could effectively detect the genetic relationships among the various sweetpotato gersmplasms.
Abstract:Chinese cabbage is one of the most important vegetables in the world. Identifying and distinguishing between Chinese cabbage varieties is critical to management of genetic resources, new variety testing and seed quality supervision. In this study, we screened from 205 mapped SSR markers for those that amplify stably in PCR reaction and are easily scored and relatively evenly distributed on the ten linkage groups of Chinese cabbage. 30 such makers were selected for Chinese cabbage identification. The 30 selected markers were labeled with four fluorescent dyes and allele sizing were conducted using DNA analyzers based on capillary electrophoresis and fluorescent detection. Allele sizes of same groups of samples determined using three DNA analyzers of two models were compared and analyzed. And it was found that systematic errors often occur between DNA analyzers. Values of the systematic errors depended on the markers and varied between 1 and 4 bps. Alleles of the SSR loci were named according to the length of the amplified DNA fragment determined by an ABI 3730 XL analyzer. It was proved that systematic errors can be removed by using a group of reference varieties so that repeatability and reproducibility can be ensured for results from different laboratories. Molecular data of 184 Chinese cabbage varieties were collected based on the SSR marker detection system.
Abstract:In order to explore the regulation mechanism of flowering, the flowering gene CONSTANS gene, designated as PyCO (GenBank accession number: KF246752), was isolated from Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai by homologous cloning strategy. Sequence analysis revealed that the full-length cDNA sequence of PyCO is 1023 bp and encodes 340 amino acids, molecular weight and isoelectric point of the protein is 37.81 and 5.95 respectively. The sequence of PyCO that contains B-box and CCT domain has the typical structure characteristics of CO gene in plants. According to the phylogenetic analysis of CO genes, deduced amino acid of PyCO gene demonstrates high homology with MdCO (93%), and more than 70% homologous with that in Prunus persica, Theobroma cacao and Fragaria vesca. In the end, the fusion protein was produced at a high level by prokaryotic expression and then 58.5 kD protein was obtained. This study will provide a foundation for further discuss the flowering mechanism of pear.
Abstract:LFY gene plays an important role in the transformation process from vegetative growth to reproductive growth in flowering plants. Feijoa sellowiana, a promising fruit, was introduced to China recently. To clarify the expression and pattern of the FsLFY (F. sellowiana LFY) gene, the spatial and temporal expression pattern of the FSLFY gene was revealed by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (qPCR) technology, and the promoter sequences of the FsLFY gene sequences were isolated by the chromosome walking technology. QPCR analysis showed that the FsLFY gene was expressed at all developmental stages of floral buds and all different tissues/organs. In developmental buds, the expression level of the FsLFY was the highest in small bud stage and the lowest in middle bud stage. In tisses/organs, the expression level was the highest in stems from vegetative branches and the lowest in sepals. The newly cloned FsLFY promoter was 2436 bp in length and was deposited in GenBank under accession no. KF766536. Promoter analysis with online softwares PLACE and PlantCARE showed that the FsLFY promoter contained not only CAAT-box, TATA-box and other core promoter elements, but also the unknown cis-regulatory elements response to the water, light, and gibberellin(GA), implying that the expression of the FsLFY gene is regulated by various external environment conditions. This study would provide atheoretical basis for fully understanding the flowering mechanism of F. sellowiana and accelerating flowering and fruit setting via molecular breeding strategy.
Abstract:Based on the nucleotide sequence of phytoene desaturase gene NtPDS of Nicotiana benthamiana published on NCBI, specific primers were designed and synthesized. With the total RNA from leaves of Nicotiana tabacum cv. Hongda used as the template, the NtPDS gene was obtained by PCR. Sequence analysis showed that the gene contained a full coding region of 1,749 bp encoding 582 amino acid residues with a the molecular mass of 65.04 kDa and the isoelectric point of 7.53. The fragments of the NtPDS gene were cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pET-32a and the fusion expression vector pET-32a-NtPDS was constructed, which was then transformed into Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). The fusion protein NtPDS in the form of soluble fraction was effectively expressed under 1 mmol/L IPTG concentrations at 37°C for 4 hours. And then this result was proved by Western blotting. The semi-quantitative PCR results revealed that the transcript of NtPDS gene was detectable in leaves, flowers and stems, but no such transcript detected in the roots. It laid a foundation for the further study on the enzyme activity of NtPDS and its functions.
Abstract:Free proline accumulation in plant tissues is a self-protection mechanism protecting plant from abiotic stresses. A P5CS gene was cloned using a candidate gene approach from wild soybean seeding treated with NaCl. Sequence analysis showed that, the full-length cDNA sequence is 2,232 kb, containing an open reading frame of 2148bp, encoding 715 amino acids. The cDNA sequence shared 98.79% similarity with PvP5CS1 from common bean. Real Time PCR analysis showed that the gene was significantly induced up-regulated expression by salt stress, the relative expression of the gene reached to the maximum at 200 mM NaCl treatment in roots and 300 mM NaCl treatment in leaves. And the expression models of GsP5CS gene were similar with the proline accumulation models in leave and root of wild soybean treated with different concentration NaCl. The above results showed that the cDNA sequence obtained in this study was the proline synthetase gene of wild soybean (Glycine soja), named GsP5CS.
Abstract:Physical biolistic particle approach is one of the main techniques used for wheat genetic transformation. Efficient biolistic transformation system is benefit to the development of new wheat varieties, identification of candidate genes, and functional genomics study. In this paper, the main factors including genotypes and explants of wheat, plant growth regulators, bombardment parameters, selection system, etc, which affect wheat transformation efficiency mediated by biolistic bombardment, were reviewed, and the purpose is to provide some useful information for improving the protocol and efficiency of biolistic particle mediated transformation in wheat.
Abstract:The intergeneric hybrids of broccoli and radish were obtained by embryo rescue and identified by morphological characterization, cytological observation and molecular marker techniques. The results showed that the hybrids showed stronger growth vigor compared with their parents. Most phenotypic characters of the hybrids were beyond two parents. Cytological observation revealed that the hybrid plants possessed male sterility characteristic as female parent broccoli. According to SSR molecular marker analysis, the hybrids contained genetic information of both parents, which proved that hybrids were real hybrids. The creation and identification of the hybrids provide basic materials for producing new radish germplasm and useful bridge for gene communication between Brassica and Raphanus.
Abstract:In this paper, the tender shoots of main stem, primary and secondary branch of 23 typical jute germplasm collected from home and abroad were first made into natural heavy metal adsorbent to determine the removal rate of Cr (Ⅵ) in solution. Investigation, variance analysis and correlation analysis of functional traits closely related to adsorption capacity and production of tender shoot were conducted, including growth duration dynamic, plant height, branching habit and tender shoots yield at all levels branches. The results showed that the removal rate of Cr (Ⅵ) was varied with variety of jute from 85.25-96.88%. Different branching levels of tender shoot lead to different yields and removal rates. All characters investigated were quite different except emergence speed of 23 jute germplasm. In addition, there was significantly negative correlation between plant height and removal rate(P < 0.01). With excellent production and removal rate on Cr (Ⅵ), the J001 and J011 were suitable for cultivating as special germplasm for heavy metal adsorption.
Abstract:Sixty-one sorghum germplasm resources were evaluated on dry and irrigated land in order to identify those with high drought resistance and superior yield performance for sorghum breeding. The results showed that 14 materials were drought resistant above grade 3, of which 2 were grade 1. In the mean time, in order to study the genetic variation of sorghum at molecular level, 109 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were explored to characterize those germplasm resources. The results revealed that 51 pairs of SSR markers were highly polymorphic, and 508 alleles were amplified with the average of 10 alleles per marker. The mean polymorphism information content (PIC) was 0.6615 with a range from 0.0322 to 0.9134. The sorghum materials were classified into 4 groups based on the SSR experiments. The clustered results were similar to those based on geographical origins and genetic backgrounds. Genetic distances among Chinese sorghum restorers were relatively close indicating that they had a narrow genetic basis. It is suggested that the genetic basis of the restorer lines should be broaden in future breeding program.
Abstract:Almost all insect-resistant genes applied in China is Cry1Ab/c and the resistance risk is increasing. Cry5Aa insect-resistant gene was synthesized according to the codon preference of cotton, it is transformed through pollen tube pathway into cotton plants, and it is identified through Kanamycin test, PCR and insect resistance test for different generation in the paper. The main results are shown as following: Firstly, transgenic plants of Cry5Aa were gotten successfully by pollen tube pathway method, and gene transformation efficiency of T1generation, T2 generation T3 generation was 7.76%, 73.1%, 95.5%, respectively. Secondly, results of identification of PCR showed that the positive rate of transgenic plants in T1 generation, was 2.35%, and 55.8% in T2 generation. Thirdly, corrected mortality rates of second, third and fourth generation of cotton bollworm for these transgenic plants was 85.42%, 75.35% and 62.79%, respectively, and the difference between these Cry5Aa insect-resistant transgenic plants and GK19 is not significant. Lastly, all above results indicate that Cry5Aa Bt can replace the current insect-resistant genes, and it is an ideal source for bollworm resistance.
Abstract:Color of stigma, percentage of stigma exsertion, pollen fertility, and seed setting rate by self-pollination and under natural conditions were investigated for 40 natural populations of Oryza. rufipogon Griff . collected from north part of Hainan Province . The results showed that there were several kinds of stigma color named brown,purple,white, mixed color of purple and white, mixed color of brown and white. Percentage of stigma exsertion exceed 60%,among which 28 natural populations come up to 80%,and highest percentage of stigma exsertion was 96.7%,. Average percentage of pollen fertility was 25.6%,and over 40% populations accounting for 22.5%.and highest pollen fertility was 91.4%.Seed setting rate under natural conditions was 3.0-53.1% , and seed setting rate of self-pollination was 0-46.8%,.4 natural populations were barrenness.Highest rate of seed setting under natural conditions reached 98.6.The findings may provide reference for further study and breeding utilization of Oryza rufipogon Griff. indigenous to Hainan.
Abstract:The resistances of 166 soybean cultivars to prevalent strains were evaluated using manual inoculation method. These cultivars were selected from Huang-Huai-Hai and the strains were SC3, SC7, SC6, SC11 and the mix of the four. The results showed that, there were 82 cultivars resistant to the four strains, accounting for 49.4%; Among them, 32 cultivars immune or high resistance to the three strains and 23 cultivars immune to all the four strains, accounting for 19.3% and 13.9%, respectively. There were 108 cultivars resistant to the mix of the four strains, accounting for 65.1%. Among them, there were 45 immune and 29 high resistant, accounting for 27.1%, 17.5%, respectively. 62 cultivars resistant to the four strains and the mixed strains, taking up 37.3%, while 14 cultivars immune or high resistance to them, taking up 8.4%. The results also showed that, the resistance of the recently bred varieties was significantly enhanced than the early bred varieties to SC3 and SC7. Cultivars from Hebei, Beijing, Shanxi are more resistant to the strains with the lower disease index. Jidou9 and Shidou6 were immune to all strains and can be used as resistance resources in breeding programs. It is also demonstrated that some cultivars showed resistance difference after inoculated with the four and the mixed strains, indicating that there were significant interactions between strains.
Abstract:Volatiles of four loquat cultivars, Xiangtian, Jiefangzhong, Xiangzhong No.11 (Xiangtian♀×Jiefangzhong♂) and Zhongxiang No.25 (Jiefangzhong♀×Xiangtian♂) were evaluated by HS-SPME-GC-MS. Results showed that 91 aromatic volatile compounds in 11 categories were detected, in which terpenoids D-Limonene was the highest, accounted for 62.59%-68.32%, aldehydes were the next, accounted for 12.53%-18.15%. Sixty two components of volatile in Xiangtian were detected, in Jiefangzhong only 44 components. The volatile quantities in Xiangzhong No.11 and Zhongxiang No.25 were between in their parents. The common aromatic components present in both Xiangtian and its hybrid progeny were 38 and 36 kinds, respectively, whereas in Jiefangzhong and its hybrid progeny were 27 and 26 kinds of components, indicating that most of aroma compounds in offsprings were inherited from Xiangtian. The main aroma components were D-limonene, (E)-2-hexenal, , octanal, hexanal, benzenemethanol, .alpha.-methyl-, acetate, butanoic acid, 2-methyl-, methylester, allyl heptanoate and butanoic acid, 2-methyl-, ethyl ester. And the reason of Jiefangzhong has no significant aromatic volatiles were discussed.
Abstract:In 2011 and 2012, the resistance to sugarcane mosaic disease caused by Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV-HH, GenBank accession number DQ530434) was identified and evaluated in 49 new improved varieties and 19 elite intermediate materials of Yunzhe series by dropping inoculation on stem-section and SrMV RT-PCR detection. The results showed that of the 49 new improved varieties, 29 (59.18%) were highly (Grade 1) to moderately resistant (Grade 3) to SrMV. Nine varieties were highly resistant (Grade 1) to SrMV, which included Yuegan 40, Yuegan 42, Yuetang 55, Yunzhe 03-194, Yunzhe 99-596, Yunrui 06-189, Guitang 30, Dezhe 03-83 and Mintang 01-77 and presented 18.37% of the 49 new improved varieties. Resistance (Grade 2) was found in 14.29% (7 out of 49) of the 49 new improved varieties, which included Funong 0335, Liucheng 05-129, Yuetang 96-86, Yunzhe 01-1413, Yunzhe 03-258, Yunzhe 06-80 and Guitang 02-351. Of the 19 fine intermediate materials of Yunzhe series, 13 (68.42%) were highly (Grade 1) to moderately resistant (Grade 3) to SrMV. In 19 elite intermediate materials of Yunzhe series, seven materials (Yunzhe 04-622, Yunzhe 05-197, Yunzhe 06-267, Yunzhe 05-194, Yunzhe 06-160, Yunzhe 07-2384 and Yunrui 05-704) were scored as highly resistant (Grade 1), counting for 36.84 % (7 out of 19). One material (5.26%), Yunzhe 06-362 were resistant (Grade 2) to SrMV. The results in the present study could provide scientific basis and valuable resistance resource for the furher breading of sugarcane cultivars against mosaic disease, and effective control of sugarcane mosaic disease by selecting and extending elite resistant cultivars.
Abstract:The genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship of 20 pumpkins landraces of Zhejiang province were investigated by 82 phenotypic traits and cluster analysis. The results showed that the variation coefficient of the 36 quantitative traits varied between 7.33% and 59.11%, and Shannon-weave genetic diversity coefficient of the 46 qualitative traits ranged from 0 to 1.99, implying the abundant genetic diversity. The cluster analysis based on the phenotypic traits indicated that 20 pumpkins landraces were divided into two categories, and this was agreement with the traditional classification. One category of 19 pumpkins landraces could be further divided into five groups at Euclidean distance of 15.0. The divisions were correlated with the size of sepals, pedicel hairy, melon shapes and skins, and the divisions criterion were independent of each other. The results of this study enriched the evaluation system and provided important information for the exploitation and utilization of excellent gene resources of pumpkins.
Abstract:To study the relationship between different Saccharum spontaneum L. genotype clones, karyotype analysis of these clones were performed by using the method of wall degradation and low osmosis. The results showed that most of the chromosomes were median region (m) types, only a few were submedian region (sm), median point (M), terminal point (T) and terminal region (t) types in all of the materials used for study. The karyotype formulas of each accession were summarized based on the datum. The karyotype of 2 accessions exhibited 1B type, 7 accessions for 2B and 1 accession for 2C. All of the materials showed karyotypic difference and asymmetry types.