Abstract:The comparision of main agronomic traits of different period rice varieties（strains） commercially grown in Ningxia showed the significant difference of agronomic characters between the first stage (1950 ~ 1962) and the second(1978～1989 year), the third (1990～1999 year),the forth(2000～2005 year), the fifth(2006～2012 year),the six(2010～2013 year) stage. This means that, the agronomic traits of rice varieties in Ningxia was improved by breeding techniques. There was a decreasing trend of effective panicle and a increasing trend of days of growth period, panicle length, spikelets per panicle, weight per panicle, weight per plant, and grain yield per unit area from the second stage to the sixth stage were found. The pattern of breeding of grain yield traits become to panicle weight type or both of panicle and spikelet type from panicle number type. The analysis of the genetic diversity of 76 rice varieties bred in different period of Ningxia was analysedby using 48 polymorphic simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers shows that there was total of 290 alleles were detected, and the number of alleles per pair of primers ranged from 3 to 15 with a mean value of 6.04. Among which, 109 alleles (37.59%) were minor alleles. RM333、RM297、RM249、RM501 and RM206 showed higher score of alleles and minor alleles, which were suitable to assess the genetic diversity of rice varieties from Ningxia. Polymorphic information content (PIC) was ranged from 0.1423 to 0.8783 with a mean value of 0.5512. The Nei’s genetic diversity index (He) was ranged from 0.1492 to 0.8945 with a mean value of 0.6032. The results of analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that the genetic variation among the six decades stages was just only accounted for 19.27% of the total genetic variation, but which the genetic variation among the variety varieties within during every decade stage was accounted for 80.73%. The UPGMA cluster analysis of 76 rice varieties in Ningxia showed that there were five categories were clustered in the 0.805 level of genetic similarity coefficient. Twelve rice landraces were clustered into the Ⅰ group; the Ⅱ group included eight conventional japonica rice varieties, which had blood relationship with foreign varieties; the Ⅲ group included five high quality rice improved varieties; the Ⅴ group included two large-panicle and high-grain yielding improved cultivars. 49 conventional japonica rice varieties were clustered in the Ⅳ group, it showed that majority rice varieties in Ningxia had a closer genetic relationship. The UPGMA cluster analysis of six stages of rice varieties in Ningxia showed that , the first stage (Landrace) was clustered into a separate category , it has a relatively low genomic affinity to others. The relationship was relatively distant between the second, the third, the forth stage and the fifth, the six stage. The results of genetic diversity analysis of different period rice varieties in Ningxia showed that there was greater differences of genetic diversity betweenamong the six different periods, and the genetic diversity decreased after 2005. In order to accelerate the rice breeding process in Ningxia, we should strengthen the introduction and use of rice germplasm resources from other provinces and abroad, and to explore the favorable genes from rice landrace and weedy rice in Ningxia, to and broaden the genetic basis of in order to improved the rapid development of rice breedingcultivars in Ningxia.
Abstract:Based on three hundred and twelve samples of eight natural Larix principis rupprechtii Mayr populations in Hebei province of North China, ten pairs of SSR primers were utilized to study the genetic diversity and population structure of these populations. A total of 42 alleles were detected，with a mean of 4.2 bands per primer, and the alleles of each locus (Na) were 2-6. The mean allele of population was 3.36，the mean Shannon’s information index (I) was 0.749，and the observed heterozygosity and expected heterozygosity were 0.405 and 0.423，respectively． Among the eight populations，Taizishui and Jizi from Weichang county and Wuling mountain populations which were all located in the north of Hebei had the richest genetic diversity，while fuping population had the poorest one．The AMOVA analysis showed that the percentage variation among the populations was 3%，while the percentage variation within the populations was 97%，and Gst was only 0.028, illustrating that the genetic differentiation was quite low. Clustering result showed that，the two Weichang populations were clustered into one group，the Yuxian， Longhua and Zhuolu populations were clustered into another group，and the Fuping population and Chicheng population were clustered into one group. The Wuling population was far from the others. The north population have a higher diversity than south, it means than the Evolution direction was from north to south, and north may be the center of origin.
Abstract:Wild rice distributes widely in 77 countries of the Asia, Africa, Latin America and Australia. It is generally accepted that there are 21 wild rice species in the world, but only 3 in China. Wild rice has a number of elite characteristics (genes) which have been not found in cultivars so far. Wild rice is considered to be a rich gene pool and important basic material for rice genetic improvement. China is a large rice producer, but some diseases such as bacterial blight, blast, sheath blight, have seriously affected rice production. It is an important way for breeding resistant varieties to discover and utilize disease-resistance genes from Chinese wild rice. This paper reviewed the research progress in identifying and utilizing disease-resistance resources in Chinese wild rice. In addition, the present problems and some suggestions on further research were also discussed.
Abstract:Abastract: in-situ FGR conservation system in China is made of three types, namely region conservation, population conservation and individual conservation, to consider nature reserve, in- situ stand and ancient tree respectively as region, population and individual conservation type . Up to 2012, there were 2,669 national nature reserves with a total area of 149.79 million ha, accounting for about 14.94% of China’s total area. Up to 2011, a total of 2,747 forest parks with a total area of 17.03 million ha were established; and up to 2011, a total number of 962 national and provincial-level scenery parks have been established, with a total area of 19.75 million ha. Up to 2012, in situ conservation stands and natural seed collection stands of more than fifty species have been established. Up to 2005, 2.853 million ancient and rare trees have been identified and most of them have been labeled for protection. About 90% of all the natural terrestrial ecosystems, 85% of wildlife animal populations with protection priority, and 65% of community types of higher plants have been well protected in China. China has made significant progresses in in-situ FGR conservation, but defects still existed. Future needs were identified to be improvement of the quality of in situ conservation, harmonization of protection and economic development, enforcement of dynamic monitoring and evaluation of the in situ conservation of FGR.
Abstract:Abstract：In this paper, the domestic former researches on the genealogical classification, germplasm resource, biology of development, vegetable physiology, chromosomology, genetic breeding science, introduction and acclimatization, reproduction and cultivation of Clematis L. were introduced. And the future key research fields on germplasm resource collection, preservation and variety innovation of Clematis L. were suggested. Keywords：Clematis L.; Progress of Research
Abstract:Phenotypic diversity of 103 Asiatic cotton (G. arboreum L.) accessions, which collected from India, Vietnam and Guizhou province, Guangxi Province and Yunnan province of China, was analyzed. Different genetic diversity indexes exist between qualitative and quantitative characters owing to the difference of cultivated geographic regions. The diversity indexes of 21 qualitative characters including stem, folium, floral and boll varied from 0.04 to 1.01 with an average of 0.57, as well as the 3 quantitative characters from 1.65 to 1.96 with an average of 1.82. These variations indicate that the genetic diversity of quantitative traits is more abundant than qualitative traits. The 103 Asiatic cotton accessions were clustered into 8 groups.
Abstract:Drought stress is a major problem for mungbean production and the drought tolerance evaluation is a priority research for mungbean in whole world. The germination rate of four accessions of mungbean germplasm resources was tested with 5 PEG-6000 density. The results showed that 21.8% (-0.9MPa) of PEG-6000 is the suitable density for screening drought resources at bud stage for mungbean. The drought resistance of 113 accessions of mungbean germplasms resources were evaluated with -0.9MPa PEG-6000 solution. Correlation analysis results showed that relevant germination energy, relevant germination rate, relevant hypocotyl length, relevant radical length, relevant total length, relevant fresh biomass, relevant dry biomass, relevant germination index and relevant vigor index were closely related to the drought resistance. Based on the average membership function analysis, the highest drought resistant germplasm, Dangdijidou (C0000626) and 16 drought resistance germplasms were identified and recommended to be used in the drought tolerance improvement for mungbean breeding.
Abstract:Thousand fruit weight, the kernel weight of 100 grains, the shell weight of 100 grains, rate of shell, the flavonoid contents of kernel and shell of 171 tartary buckwheat landraces, were investigated to survey their genetic variation through frequency distribution, correlation, cluster analysis. The results showed large variation in the thousand fruit weight, the kernel weight of 100 grains, the shell weight of 100 grains, rate of shell, the flavonoid contents of kernel and shell. And their variation ranges are 21.73-42.13 g, 0.974-2.606 g, 0.468-1.363 g, 17.594-38.017 %, 1.008-4.368 % and 0.002-0.986 %, respectively, with the average of 29.43 g, 1.988 g, 0.729 g, 24.702 %, 2.019 % and 0.144 %, respectively. The analysis showed very significant correlations between the thousand fruit weight and the kernel weight of 100 grains (r12=0.579**, r12. other =0.315**) , the thousand fruit weight and shell weight of 100 grains (r13=0.746**, r13. other =0.989**), the thousand fruit weight and rate of shell(r14 = 0.216**, r14. other = -0.980**), shell weight of 100 grains and rate of shell (r34= 0.807**, r34.other = 0.993**), respectively. There were significant correlations between kernel weight and shell weight of 100 grains (r23 =0.521**), kernel weight of 100 grains and rate of shell (r24= 0.247**), rate of shell and the flavonoid content in shell (r46= 0.187*), respectively. The clustering divided 171 tartary buckwheat accessions into 5 clusters, meanwhile six traits are gathered to 3 clusters. Some accessions with high thousand fruit weight or high flavonoid content of kernel and shell were screened out. The above results provided clues for tartary buckwheat genetics and breeding parent matching.
Abstract:Abstract: Analysis on quality characters of taro germplasm resource was done. It indicated that: divided by corm type, the turn of dry matter content was: taro with large corm＞taro with multi-headed corm＞taro used for both corm and cormels＞taro with numerous cormels. The turn of starch content was: taro with large corm＞taro used for both corm and cormels＞taro with multi-headed corm＞taro with numerous cormels. Dry matter content and starch of taro with large corm were the highest, which were 27.38% and 20.21% respectively. Dry matter content and starch of taro with numerous cormels were the lowerest, which were 19.54% and 13.35% respectively. The turn of protein content was: taro with multi-headed corm＞taro with large corm＞taro with numerous cormels＞taro used for both corm and cormels. Protein content of taro with multi-headed corm was the highest, which was 1.54%. There was no obvious difference among those of the others. The turn of soluble sugar content was: taro with large corm＞taro used for both corm and cormels＞taro with numerous cormels＞taro with multi-headed corm. Soluble sugar of taro with large corm was the highest, which was 1.21%. There was no obvious difference among those of the others. Divided by the color of corm bud, in taro with numerous cormels, the turn of dry matter content, starch content and protein content was: Taro (red bud) with numerous cormels＞taro (white bud) with numerous cormels. The turn of soluble sugar was: Taro (white bud) with numerous cormels＞taro (red bud) with numerous cormels. In taro with multi-headed corm, the turn of dry matter content, starch content and soluble sugar content was: Taro (white bud) with multi-headed corm＞Taro (red bud) with multi-headed corm. The turn of protein content was: Taro (red bud) with multi-headed corm＞Taro (white bud) with multi-headed corm. In all taro germplasm resources, there was very distinct correlation between dry matter content and starch content (r=0.9583**), dry matter content and protein content (r=0.5529**), starch content and protein content (r=0.5284**). There was very negative distinct correlation between dry matter content and soluble sugar content (r=-0.2934**), starch content and soluble sugar content (r=-0.3391**), protein content and soluble sugar content (r=-0.4498**). In this article, analysis on quality characters of taro germplasm resource was also done, divided by petiole color.
Abstract:Abstract: Wild Rhododendron mucronulatum has a good characteristics of cold-resistance, early flowering, bloom-heavily and highly ornamental value, but was rarely applied in the landscape gardens. This study aims to investigate the distribution of wild R. mucronulatum resources, which may provide a rational scientific basis for the utilization of it. In this paper, the wild R. mucronulatum were used as materials, the germplasm resources of five mountains (Yashan, Kunyushan Wulianshan, Jiuxianshan, Laoshan) in Jiaodong Peninsula had been aborative surveyed by sampling method. The distribution ranges, population sizes, growth conditions and ecological habits of R. mucronulatum had been elaborately recorded. In addition, the physical and chemical properties of mountain soil were also examined. These results indicated that R. mucronulatum had a widely distribution on altitude and good adaptability to the environment, which is located between 100 m and 1100 m and can be found in several diversity regions, such as the sunny slope, shade slope, mountain top, valley and the chink of the rocks, especially in the shade slope ones. Various accompanying plants together with the R. mucronulatum comprising the steady community. The R. mucronulatum blossomed early and had heavily flower productivity. Additionally, the flower color altered significantly even in the same red-purple strains. It has a bigger differences in terms of plant height, breadth and numbers of flowers, but smaller difference in the diameter of the flower. Otherwise, the pH of the surveyed mountain acid soil is mostly the same, except for the soil organic and the content of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.
Abstract:Seventy-nine SSR primers with high polymorphisms and abundant information were used to detect genetic diversity of the total 87 winter wheat cultivars, including 85 cultivars authorized in Hebei province, and the two control cultivars used in the regional test of China for drought-resistant wheat variety, Jinmai 47 and Luohan 2. A total of 175 allelic variation loci were detected in 79 SSR primers, ranging from 1 to 6 per primer pair with an average of 2.215. The polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.824 to 0.998, with an average of 0.941. The effective number of alleles for each locus (Ne) varied from 1.644 to 20.333, with an average of 4.708. The Shannon-weaver diversity index, also referred to as Shannon-Weiner index (H’) ranged from 0.148 to 1.102 and averaged 0.544. These indicated that genetic diversity of 87 tested cultivars was low based on SSR markers. The genetic similarity coefficients (GS) varied from 0.184 to 0.899, with an average of 0.418. Among them, the GS (0.899) between Henong 826 and Shijiazhuang 8 was the highest, but the GS (0.184) between 71-3 and Gaoyou 9618 is the lowest. The GS averages were different among the cultivars released from different breeders. The UPGMA cluster indicated that genetic difference was high between the cultivars from Shijiazhuang New Wheat Variety and Technology Research Institute and those from other breeders.
Abstract:An investigation was carried out to study the variation of 6 phenotypic traits of stem form and branching structure from 1904 accessions of Hevea brasiliensis germplasm conserved in Jinghong, Yunnan Province．The results showed that there are abound genetic diversity in Hevea brasiliensis germplasm conserved in Jinghong（1.6731-0.2604）.The diversity stem straightness is the highest,than stem devergence, branch diameter, branch whorl,branch angle， while branch extension is the lowest.The minimum value of distribution frequency of relative traits ranged from 2.92% to 8.05%, and the maximum from 39.64% to 93.37% among the 6 traits. Based on the Euclidean distance, 1904 accessions germplasm were divided into 5 groups at 1.05 thresholds by UPGMA and divided into 5 groups at 1.45 thresholds by furthest-neighbor cluster analysis. Abundant phenotypic variation existed in the populations of germplasm resources．
Abstract:To reveal the genetic basic of rice varieties from different countries and use rice germplasm resources effectively, the genetic diversity of 36 rice varieties from different countries was analyzed by using 63 SSR markers. As the result, 269 alleles were detected between these varieties. And 4.27 alleles were on per gene locus averagely, the average effective number of alleles was3.22, the average gene diversity of these rice varieties was 0.62, and the average Shannon's Information index was 1.16. The marker RM206, RM257, RM410, RM235 and RM266 have more alleles than 7. Rice verities from countries at the similarity latitude were aggregated together, while from countries with more different latitude were assigned to different groups. The results indicated that genetic difference between the rice varieties from different countries had a close relationship with the geographical position and the latitude.
Abstract:Jidou4, which was developed through sexual hybridization by Handan agriculture academy of sciences, was an elite soybean variety with high yield, high quality, resistant and wide adaptability. It won the third prize of national science and technology progress in 1990. 16 varieties were developed from Jidou4 and its derivative materials through hybridization or mutation in Hebei, Shanxi and Shan’xi, among which 7 varieties were approved by National Crops Variety Approval Committee, 5 varieties were high oil with the fat content among 21.79% -23.97%. These varieties are fit to plant in Huanghuai and Northeast where were major producing areas in China and play an important role in soybean production. Jidou4 was widely used in breeding that demonstrated it’s not only an excellent variety, but also a rare elite germplasm. Screening and cultivating excellent germplasm is a basic work for soybean research.
Abstract:143 newly-bred greenhouse cucumber cultivars belonging to different ecotypes were treated with 100mM solution of Mg(NO3)2 for 4 days at germination stage. And eight indices including germination potential, germination index, salt-damage index, germination frequency, relative germination frequency, radicle length of 2 and 4 days after salt treatment, radicle elongation speed of the latter 2 days were investigated. Using the Membership function value of these indices to cluster the new-bred greenhouse cucumber cultivars, and primarily select salt-tolerance germplasms through growing them under salt-free conditions after 4 days salt treatment. The results showed that cucumber salt-tolerance at germination stage were affected by multiple factors. The variation coefficient of eight indices were ranged as 10.0%-81.0%. Except variation coefficient of germination frequency and relative germination frequency was less, other indices variation coefficient was larger as 32.0-81.0%. The variation coefficient of these indices was different among different ecotype germplasm. The variation coefficient of salt-damage index is the largest of North-China Ecotype and European Greenhouse Ecotype, however in South-China Ecotype and European-processing type germplasms, the variation coefficient of radicle elongation speed of the latter 2 days is the largest. From overall view of Germplasm Salt tolerance, European greenhouse Ecotype and Processing Ecotype is better than South-China Ecotype, and then South-China Ecotype is better than North-China Ecotype. All the germplasm were divided into three groups according to the cluster results of Subordinate function value: better, moderate, and less salt-tolerance. There are 54 high salt-tolerance cultivars as accounting for 37.8%. By emergence selection of these high salt-tolerance germplasm after salt treatment, 12 cultivars were chosen as better restore-growth germplasm. They were arranged as J31-1＞Lvjingling＞DRT5＞YT24＞dongnong2> Shanghanongke 4＞Dongling 1 02＞IVF8＞Jinyou35＞HGS-2＞Yangda13＞J30-1 according to their restore-growth ability.
Abstract:Dihydroflavonol reductase is a key enzyme in anthocyanidin synthesis of plants. Cloning and analysis of Dihydroflavonol reductase gene (DFR) was carried out in China’s peculiar radish germplasm ‘Xinlimei’ with red flesh. By blasting the complete CDS sequence of Chinese cabbage DFR gene with white radish inbred line ‘36-2’ whole genome sequences (unpublished), a homologous single gene Rsa10008592 was obtained. The complete CDS of RsDFR was amplified from the fleshy root of ‘Xinlimei’ radish inbred line ‘HX12Q-49’ with the primers designed according to the Rsa10008592 sequence by RT-PCR. The ORF of RsDFR contained 1,164 bp (Genbank accession number: KF280272), which encoded the protein of 384 aa. The sequence difference of 19 nucloetide acids and 3 amino acids were found between ‘Xinlimei’ radish and white radish through sequences comparison. Phylogenetic tree showed RsDFR had the highest homology with the DFRs of Chinese cabbage and mustard. qRT-PCR result showed the expression patterns of the RsDFRs in the fleshy roots of ‘Xinlimei’ radish and white radish were different. RsDFR in white radish only expressed at early developmental stage, while it expressed at all developmental stages and reached the peak at the splitting stage in ‘Xinlimei’ radish. The protein from RsDFR was further analyzed.
Abstract:The full length cDNA sequence of chalcone synthase gene (CHS) from Abelmoschus esculentus was isolated by homologous sequences cloning and RT-PCR. This sequence is 1175bp, and it predicts an open reading frame of 1170bp corresponding to 389 amino acids, which is designated as AeCHS. Bioinformatics analysis shows that the deduced AeCHS amino acid sequence has the higher homology with Abelmoschus manihot and Gossypium hirsutum, respectively 99.23% and 97.44%. The deduced AeCHS amino acid sequence contains a chalcone synthase family tag sequence(GFGPG) and four conserved active sites: Cys164, Phe215, His303, Asn336. The expression analysis of AeCHS gene in different growth period of okra fruits, flowers, leaves are carried out by RT-qPCR and the results indicate that AeCHS gene shows different expression patterns: flower > fruit > leaf. Specific to different plant tissues, the expression of AeCHS gene reachs a higher level in fruits grown six days, blooming flowers and the fourth leaves numbering from the top of plants.
Abstract:Dasypyrum villosum, a wheat wild relative, carries many disease resistance genes which have not been cloned yet. Considering majority of the plant disease resistance (R) proteins belong to the nucleotide-binding-leucine rich repeat (NBS-LRR) -containing R gene family, the conserved sequences of NBS-LRR resistance genes were used to design a primer pair MLA6-1-F/MLA6-1-R in present study. Genomic DNA and cDNA from Dasypyrum villosum were amplified with the primer pair, and in total twenty-three sequences were achieved. They were roughly divided into two groups based on their similarity in sequences with each other aligned by DNAMAN soft and with the resistance genes searched by NCBI BLAST. In Mla/RGAs-like group, twelve sequences had similarities of 91–93% and 87–90% to Aegilops tauschii resistance gene analogy (RGAs) and Triticum monococcum DV92 Mla1 gene, respectively. Another sequence H6 had 85% identity with Hordeum vulgare genes Mla1, Mla6, Mla12. According to the five sequences of the resistance gene analogues (RGAs) H-56/d6, H-66/b2 and CDS40, in which the sequences from both gDNA and cDNA were all obtained, primer pairs were redesigned to amplify common wheat, Dasypyrum villosum, Triticum durum- Dasypyrum villosum amphidiploid and its hybrids, and the wheat lines simultaneously carrying certain Dasypyrum villosum chromosome arms or entire chromosome such as 1VL and 2VS, 2VS and 4V, or 6V, separately. The result showed that the primer pair of H-56/d6 could not amplify an expected fragment from the lines with 1VL, 2VS, 4V and 6V, and primer pair derived from sequence of H-66/b2 could get amplification from Dasypyrum villosum, Triticum durum- Dasypyrum villosum amphidiploid, its hybrids, and the wheat lines carrying Dasypyrum villosum chromosome 1VL and 6VL, but not from the lines with 2VS, 4V and 6VS. While, primer pair designed from the sequence of CDS40 could not amplify an expected fragment specifically from the 6VS translocation line 10SR3109 and Pm97033. The markers not only confer novel molecular markers for tracing the alien chromosome in wheat background, but can also be tightly linked to R gene and R genes clusters, which will lay a foundation for further isolation and identification of the resistance genes from Dasypyrum villosum.
Abstract:Using the calli induced from the root segments of in vitro plantlets as the recipients, six models of particle bombardment were designed to develop a biolistic transformation procedure of garlic (Allium sativum. L ).Transgenic garlic plantlets have been recovered in four models of particle bombardment. The highest transformation frequency of 28.3% had been observed when bombarding calli twice at shoot distance 9cm with pressure 1300 psi helium. But the highest regeneration efficiency of 2.4% were obtained when respectively bombarding calli once at shoot distance 9cm with pressure 1100 psi and at shoot distance 12.5cm with pressure 1300 psi helium. The resistant plantlets were analyzed by PCR and Southern blot. The results showed that hygromycin phosphotransferase (HPT) selectable marker gene and β-glucuronidase (gus) reporter gene had been integrated in the genome. GUS expression assay of bombarded calli, somatic embryos, proembryos or young embryos, embryogenic roots, regenerated shoots and leafs showed that resistant materials distinctly demonstrated blue. So we established an effective biolistic transformation procedure for garlic whicn can be used to generate transgenic garlic plants with other agronomical beneficial traits.
Abstract:The contamination of heavy metals by mining and combustion of fossil fuel has brought about significant deleterious consequences not only to environment but also to human health. Ramie(Boehmeria nivea L.) is a China originated fiber crop that has great ability to tolerate and accumulate heavy metals. To explore the mechanism of ramie to tolerate cadmium, we isolated and analysed a novel gene(BnPCS1) exhibiting high homology with phytochelatin synthase gene(PCS) from Zhongzhu 1 ramie by RT-PCR and RACE methods. The full length sequence and the ORF of BnPCS1 gene is 1 888 bp and 1 512 bp, respectively, which encodes 503 amino acids(56.02 kDa) with a pI value of 6.76. The similarity comparison revealed that the deduced amino acid sequence shares 74%, 73%, 75%, 73% and 77% of homology with Lotus japonicas(Q2TSC7), Nelumbo nucifera(BAN08523), Pyrus betulifolia(AEY68568), Sesbania rostrata(ACT87974) and Sophora viciifolia(AFM38979). Real-time quantitative PCR was used to analyze expression pattern of BnPCS1 in different organs and under Cd, ABA and SA treatment. We found that BnPCS1 was mainly expressed in mature leaf and highly induced in leaf by Cd and ABA treatment, respectively. These results indicated that BnPCS1 may be involved in response of ramie plants to Cd stress. In this study, we succeeded cloned an phytochelatin synthase gene(BnPCS1) and studied in primary level, which established the foundation for the future study in the mechanism of ramie to heavy metal Cd stress.
Abstract:In order to reveal the molecular regulatory mechanisms of flavonoids biosynthesis in barley(Hordeum vulgare), the full length cDNA encoding of cinnamate-4-hydroxylase gene(HvC4H) was cloned from leaves of Qingke(hulless barley) through the methods of RT-PCR combining homologous clone and RACE technologies(Genbank accession number: KF927086). The full length was 1951bp , open reading frame (ORF) was 1518bp encoding 505 amino acids. Isoelectric point was 9.01 and grand average of hydropathicity (GRAVY) was -0.170, it meant the HvC4H was hydrophilic and alkaline protein. Advanced structure analysis showed HvC4H gene including family CYP450 conserved domains and specific functional active sites. The expression of HvC4H gene was analyzed in different tissues(stem, leaf and kernel) during 5 periods in endosperm development by real-time-fluorescence quantitative PCR(RTF-qPCR), the results showed obvious differences and the expression in stem was predominant . The study could lay the molecular foundation to raise the content of flavonoid in barley by controlling the expression of HvC4H gene and it provided useful informations to improve the quality, resistibility and growth of barley.
Abstract:Abstract: 90 Dioscorea polystachya Turcz. germplasm resources were screened using 30 pairs of polymorphic SRAP primer combinations. The amplification plot contained 722 points, including 581 polymorphic sites with a proportion of 80.47 %. Every primer combination could detect 3 to 30 polymorphic sites and each primer pair could identify 6 to 51 resources. DNA data analysis software was adopted to analyze polymorphic sites and build box fingerprint of Dioscorea polystachya Turcz. Germplasm. The box fingerprint could reflect the relationship of primer pair, resources and polymorphic sites, clearly. Then, DNA digital fingerprint of Dioscorea polystachya Turcz. germplasm resources was formed according to the 1/0 string encoding with the presence or absence of bands using 21 polymorphic sites from 10 pairs of SRAP primer combinations. The DNA digital fingerprint could identify 82 Dioscorea polystachya Turcz. germplasm resources from 90. These fingerprints were useful in the next variety identification and protection, evaluation and utilization of germplasm resources, molecular marker-assisted breeding of Dioscorea polystachya Turcz.
Abstract:Orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata) is one of the most famous cool-season perennial forage grasses worldwide, which is economically important for the development of animal husbandry and grassland ecological of our country. The aim of this study was to construct a DNA fingerprint of 21 dominant orchardgrass varieties of China using simple sequence repeat (SSR) makers and start codon targeted polymorphism (SCoT) makers. This study was necessary for orchardgrass varieties identification, management and use. Twenty-four of 180 SSR primer pairs and 24 of 80 SCoT primers were screened based on high polymorphic and clear bands. The 24 SSR primer pairs amplified a total of 186 bands (including 175 polymorphic bands and 6 specific varieties bands) among the 21 orchardgrass cultivars, and the rate of polymorphism was as high as 94.03%. The average value of polymorphic information content (PIC) was 0.845. The Shannon’s information index (I) values ranged from 0.2946 to 0.4633, and the Nei’s gene diversity (H) values ranged from 0.4479 to 0.6549. The numbers of identified varieties ranged from 2 to 21. The 24 SCoT primers amplified a total of 321 bands (including 249 polymorphic bands and 6 specific varieties bands) among the 21 cultivars, and the rate of polymorphism was 76.33%. The average value of PIC was 0.907. The values of I ranged from 0.2588 to 0.6329, and the values of H ranged from 0.1695 to 0.4451. The numbers of identified varieties ranged from 1 to 21. And 10 varieties had specific bands by 5 SSR primer pairs and 5 SCoT primers. And a total of selected 37 bands from 5 primers (A01E14, A01K14, B03E14, D02K13 and SCoT23) were used for the DNA fingerprint construction. Each variety had specific DNA fingerprint code in the database, which would contribute to the identification and the intellectual property rights protect of varieties worldwide.
Abstract:The discovery of maize drought stress related mutants has great value for finding new important drought-resistance genes. A drought sensitive mutant was detected from the inbred line Zong31 during multiplication in field. The mutant displayed rolled leaves under low-drought condition, and at severe stress the leaves turned to yellow which resulted senescence. The genetic analysis indicated that the mutant trait was controlled by a major single recessive gene, which was designated tentatively as Drought Sensitive (DS). In this study, the rolled leaf phenotype was regarded as a standard for identification of mutants under drought condition. Finally the DS gene was mapped between two SSR markers umc1772 and umc2158 on the maize chromosome 3 using F2 population. The physical distance between these two markers is about 5Mb. These results provide useful information for cloning the target gene and giving the keen insight into functional analysis.
Abstract:The wild rice species Oryza meyeriana Baill exibited high resistance or immunity to bacterial blight (BB). Two new germplasms, SH5 and SH76, were acquired through somatic hybridization with O. meyeriana L. as the donor parent. Using 11 BB races, the resistance spectrum of SH5, SH76 and other 16 reference lines carrying different major BB resistance genes were compared at the tillering and booting stages. The results showed that SH5 and SH76 had a broad resistance spectrum. The resistance spectrum of SH5 and SH76 was the same as IRBB21 (carrying Xa21), and similar to IRBB5 (carrying xa5), IRBB7 (carrying Xa7) and Asominori (carrying Xa17). The molecular marker pTA248 and XA21 were used to detect whether Xa21 existed in SH5 and SH76. The allelic test of Xa17 was conducted by crossing SH5 and SH76 with Asominori, respectively. The results combined with those of our previous analysis indicated that no Xa5, Xa7, Xa17 and Xa21 but a new resistance gene might exist in SH5 and SH76.
Abstract:A new tomato cultivar vs Zhefen 702 with high resistance to yellow curl virus disease was bred by integrating conventional breeding and molecular marker assistance breeding, using T7969F2-19-1-1-3 and T4078F2-3-3-3 as female and male parents. The female parent was derived from progenies by crossing of‘NEMO-TAMMI’（F1）and‘T9179’. The male parent was derived from progenies by crossing of‘qirouya’（F1）and‘T9178’. ‘NEMO-TAMMI’ is the hybrid that derived from Israel with long shelf life. The variety had been approved by non-main crop committee in Zhejiang province in 2011. Through identifying multiple horticulture characters, we found that Zhefen 702 is an excellent hybrid F1 with excellent quality, early-maturing, high yield, and with diseases resistance to TYLCV, leaf mold, fusarium wilt, and tomato mosaic virus (ToMV). Its average yield could reach 73.83 t. hm-2. The variety was suitable for multiple areas in our country, peoples of which like eating pink tomato fruits.
Abstract:Morphological traits and growth habits of F. viridis Duch. and five accessions of F. viridis self-cross progeny were described. Variation among five self-cross accessions and F. viridis was assessed, of all 67 biological traits, we obtained soluble solids and other fourty two significant differences. Fifteen obvious traits were conducted by principal component analysis and variation coefficient analysis, plant height, plant size, pedicle length, pedicle thickness, petiole thickness, inflorescence thickness and pollen vitality provide the key indicator for diversity of five self-cross accessions and F. viridis. A significant difference of self-cross fruit setting rate was found for this five accessions and Ls-S1-4 was considered as highly self-incompatibility. The research will lay the foundation for self-compatiblity/incompatibility lines.
Abstract:Germplasms with high anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity in mulberry are of importance for fruit mulberry breeding. 160 fruit mulberry germplasm resources were screened for evaluation of anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity in mulberry in this study．The results were summarized as follows，the ranges of anthocyanin contents, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), 1，l-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical(DPPH)scavenging ability in 160 fruit mulberry accessions were 106.5-1472.0 mg•L-1, 5.4-32.3 mmol•mL-1 and 33.7-87.8%, respectively, displaying significant varieties differences. The differences between accessions with Ploidies were not significant at 0.05 levels. 160 fruit mulberry accessions could be clustered into 7 clusters which consist of 13, 11, 56, 44, 10 and 26 accessions, respectively. There were significantly positive correlations between the anthocyanin contents and TAC, anthocyanin contents and DPPH. The results showed total anthocyanin in mulberry were the important antioxidation substances. The fruit mulberry accessions with high contents of anthocyanin and antioxidant activity are expected to be used in further quality breeding of fruit mulberry cultivars.
Abstract:153 bands were generated among 75 radish germplasms using 22 pairs of SSR primers which were screened out. Of them, 87 bands were polymorphic. The percentage of polymorphic alleles was 55.49%. On average, the number of alleles per SSR locus was 6.95 in total and 3.95 of polymorphic bands The genetic diversity among these radish germplasms was rich. After raw data processing and filtering by MATLAB, 75 radish germplasm could been distinguished and their molecular identities were constructed usingr 8 pairs of SSR primers. It showed that it is feasible to employ SSR markers to construct the molecular identities for elite germplasm resource and new varieties in radish.
Abstract:FBN 11 gene, a member of fibrillin gene family, is one of the important members of the FBN family of proteins in plastids of plants. It has the 300-500 amino acid residues longer than do other members in this family, suggesting its specific functions in higher plants. In this study, the full-length cDNA of a OsFBN11 gene regulated by abiotic stresses in rice seedlings was cloned and analyzed, it was found to contain 12 introns and 13 exons, and can encode a protein with M.W. 72.4 kDa, the pI value 9.3. Bioinformatics analysis showed that, this protein contains a random-coil, alpha helix and extended strand, does not contain a transmembrane domain, and is also highly hydrophilic. PSORT software predicted this protein may be localized in chloroplast. Analyses of FBN11 protein homologies in 14 plant species and conserved domains in 5 plant species showed that, this protein has a typical PAP-Fibrillin domain and PKc kinase domain. The whole growth period rice chip analysis showed that OsFBN11 gene is highly expressed in callus, leaves and root tissues. RT-PCR detection showed that OsFBN11 gene expressions were induced by ABA, NaCl and drought stress treatments in rice seedlings. These results above show that OsFBN11 plays an important role in the response to plastid development and abiotic stress in rice.
Abstract:Twenty-nine Xanthium sibiricum Patrin germplasm resources from different ecological regions in Shandong province was analyzed for the genetic diversity of seed traits, and ISSR molecular markers in order to provide a basis for germpalsm research and genetic improvement. The results showed that the average kernel rate is 32.20%, and coefficient of variation is 26.66%, diversity index is 1.94. The average oil content is 30.03%, and coefficient of variation is 20.85%, diversity index is 1.94. The average hundred grain weight is 9.95g and coefficient of variation is 33%, diversity index is 1.96. 134 polymorphic loci were detected through 21 ISSR primers amplification with 6.38 loci per primer and the ratio of polymorphic loci is 98.53%. Different geographic and ecological group of Xanthium showed different genetic diversity. The highest genetic diversity was found in Luzhong mountain area, located in the junction of Jiaodong peninsula and inland, where gene exchanges take place easily. The lowest gene diversity was found in Lakeside lowland area, where it is blocked by Thai-Yi Mountain and Nansi Lake, the exchange of gene is limited. 29 Xanthium sibiricum resources in Shandong province plus one each from Hebei province and Shanxi province, clustering analysis, the results show that the Siberian cocklebur resources in Shandong province and neighboring provinces have certain genetic exchange, but has own characteristic, and has evolved its relative independent genetic resources system..
Abstract:Persimmon resources are rich in Zhejiang province, but they are complicated between varieties or types. To investigate genetic diversity of Persimmon in Zhejiang, 40 Persimmon trees of 7 types were RAPD using 16 selected random primers. 156 fragments were showed in total, and in which 138 were Polymorphisms fragments. Average percentage of polymorphic loci was 87.76%, genetic diversity index (Dst) between types was 0.7604, outclass that within type (Hs) of 0.0603. The coefficient of differentiation (Gst) was 0.7604, and the gene flow was 0.1576. At last, 7 types of Persimmons were clustered according to the genetic distance between then. the result showed that genetic structure were basically identical within each type, but there were lot of different between 7 types, and some gene communication. Widely collection of Persimmons resources should be researched in future, so as to lay a foundation for the conservation and fine variety breeding of Persimmons
Abstract:With the development of biotechnology, DNA molecular marker technology is widely used in grapevine rootstocks improvement. In this paper, the application of grapevine rootstock improvements was reviewed in identifying grapevine rootstock cultivars, pedigree analysis and constructing the genetic map and the physical map. In addition, the application prospect of molecular marker technology in grapevine rootstocks is presented.
Abstract:Levels of genetic variation within 78 tobacco germplasm resistance to PVY, including three populations (Flue-cured 18, sun-cured 38, N.rustica L. 22), were investigated using simple sequence repeats (SSR). The results were as follows：(1)Totally 108 loci were produced with 96 polymorphic loci (88.89%) using 45 different primer combinations selected from 960 primers combinations. A high level of genetic differentiation among populations was detected based on Nei's genetic diversity analysis (0.3766), Shannon's information index analysis (0.5821) and the genetic similarity coefficient variation range（0.0454-0.9973）.(2) The genetic differentiation was different within the three populations: Sun-cured＞N. rustica L.＞Flue-cured. Compared the genetic distances among three groups, the similarity of mahogany and flue-cured tobacco genetic is 0.9840. (3) The cluster analysis indicated 78 tobacco germplasms were divided as N. rustica L. and N. tabacum L. There exists not a clear boundary line between Sun-cured and Flue-cured. The genetic relationship among populations was studied by Nei unbiased genetic coefficient and Nei unbiased genetic distance, clustering analysis. The genetic distance was far between N.rustica L. population and the other N.tabacum L. populations.