Abstract:The authors summarized the resources of wild vegetables and wild fruits based on the investigation results of the project of“investigation of biological resources of agriculture in Yunnan province and its peripheral area”. The resources of wild vegetable and wild fruit in Yunnan province and its peripheral area included all the edible wild vegetables and wild fruits except domestic vegetable and fruit, and their wild relatives. Yunnan and its peripheral area are the concentrative areas inhabited by minority nationality people, who has the consuetude of eating wild vegetable and wild fruit, and accumulates many methods in the living of eating wild vegetable and wild fruit. The aim of authors was focused on scientific research, development and utilization of the resources introduced in the paper, and providing basic information and scientific evidences for constituting the conservation policy of wild plants resources.
Abstract:Natice areas of Oryza officinalis Wall in Guangxi wer damaged seriously.During the first round field survey in 1970',Oryza officinalis were found in 58 communes in Guangxi.However,when we carried out the second round survey in 2002-2009,it was only found in 43 townships.Compared with 1970'distribution of Oryza officinalis,the number of native areas has decreased by 25.9%.To conserve resources of Oryza officinalis wall safely,2142 accessions from 170 populations have been collected based on scientific sampling methods.At the same time,15 new native areas and some special germplasm resourses such as high plant height(5.2m),tilling from high nodes with 3-4 branches and half-curved leaves were found during the field surcey.result showed that genetic diversity of Oryza officinalis Wall in Guangxi was very abundant.Based on the field survey and analyses on the threats and root causes for Oryza officinalis,the authors provide
Abstract:China is one of the major origin centres of Vitis species, and has lots of grape species and inherited resource in the world. There are 40 species, 1 subspecies and 13 varieties originated from China. According to the “description standard and data standard for grape (Vitis L.)”, taking a number of character index as a identification parameters, the genetic. diversity of 23 Chinese wild grape species were analysised by identifying botany characteristics and agronomic traits.The results showed that Chinese wild grape had rich diversity in main phenophase, young shoot down, young shoot color, blade shape, blade color, teeth, berry size, skin color, berry flavor, floral organs and so on, with abundant genetic diversity. It can provide reference for classification,evolution and breeding of vitis . It is suggested that “description standard and data standard for grape (Vitis L.)” for further revision and improvement, in order to adapt Chinese wild vitis resource diversity evaluation research.
Abstract:The genetic diversity of wild apple species is very rich in China, and they have great value of research and utilization. This article summarize and analyze on the natural geographical distribution, polytypism, utilization value and so on of wild apple species based on comprehensive field survey data and literature materials. And then the collection, protection and utilization of wild apples are discussed, our own suggestions are put forward simultaneously.
Abstract:Colored barley is the type of precious barley germplasm resources. The color of its seeds is caused by the deposition of different pigments in pericarp and aleurone layer. Colored barley seeds contain many kinds of nutrient components such as natural pigments, essential amino acids, vitamins and mineral elements including calcium, selenium etc., which play important physiological roles in human health. The seeds of colored barley can be used as raw materials for producing nutraceuticals, food additivies for the food processing industry, and they can also be used for manufacturing suntan cream and hair coloring agent in cosmetics industry. The colors of barley seeds are mainly blue, purple and black because of various components and contents of anthocyanins in them. Black barley is controlled by a dominant gene Blp located on chromosome 1HL; purple barley is controlled by two complementary dominant genes, Pre1 and Pre2, both of them located on chromosome 2HL; blue barley is controlled by five complementary dominant genes, Blx1、Blx2、Blx3、Blx4 and Blx5, among of them Blx1、Blx3 and Blx4 located on chromosome 4HL, Blx2 and Blx5 located on chromosome 7HL.
Abstract:The morphological genetic diversity and population phenotypic characteristics were evaluated by principal component analysis and cluster analysis among 103 soybean landraces collected from Chongqing. The results showed that gray pubescence, yellow seed coat and brown hilum were detected in the majority of the tested soybean accessions, and larger variation in quantitative traits were shown among individual accession. Three main principal components reflected most information over 10 agronomic traits, and the main agronomic traits of soybean landraces could be summarized as yield factors, growth potential factors and grain factors. Cluster analysis divided the 103 soybean landrace into 6 subgroups. Although a few accessions showed distinct differentiation, germplasms collected from the same district showed widely similarity in morphological characteristics. Genotypic differentiation among soybean subgroups had a certain but not absolute correlation with geographic distribution. In addition to utilizing geographical-distant germplasms, exploiting the potentialities of genetic variation of characters within the landraces should be considered in selection of parents of breeding.
Abstract:Eight morphological characteristics on leaf and inflorescence of 31 chrysanthemum species were recorded, and converted to the corresponding code according the method of characteristics evaluation and classification in guidelines for the conduct of tests for distinctness, uniformity and stability of chrysanthemum. Depend on these code of characteristics and 7 quantitative characters calculated from 14 morphological traits, the phylogenetic relationship of 31 species form Chrysanthemum and Ajania were analyzed respectively through clustering analysis using SAS software, So as to assess the effectiveness of the method compared with traditional morphological classification and other results of clustering analysis depend on molecular markers, the result showed that, relevant multiple both qualitative traits from DUS test and quantitative traits from leaf covers large amount of diversity, could be compare the similarity of species from Chrysanthemum and Ajania, is able to accurately reflect the genetic relationship between species. and results form two method is consistent with the traditional classification and molecular classification result, also, clustering analysis using multivariate qualitative morphological characteristics is far more effective than the method using multivariate quantitative characteristics.
Abstract:Sulforaphene, an isothiocyanate, converted from glucoraphenin in radish, and plays an important role as plant defensive compounds and cancer-preventing agents for humans. In this study, the optimized HPLC method was used to detect the sulforaphene content of fleshy roots among 93 accessions of radish germplasm, and the distribution of sulforaphene content in different origins and different types of radish germplasm was analyzed. The results indicated that the content of sulforaphene among the gemplasm was significantly different. The content of sulforaphene ranged from 34.445 mg/kg﹒DW to 1446.9 mg/kg﹒DW. The highest content is almost 42 times more than the lowest one. The average content of the red skin white flesh and green skin green flesh radish germplasm was high. The average sulforaphene content of the radish germplasm in the eastern China was higher than those in other regions. Two radish germplasm of high sulforaphene content were screened out, which are good materials for further studies.
Abstract:Abstract: To rich the biodiversity of seashore mallow in China and develop new cultivars with high-quality and high-yielding, 15 populations was introduced from its native 9 states of America in 2011, and planted together with Lab1 and Lab2 in barren soil along with Yellow River, Zhengzhou city, Henan Province. Traits of 17 groups of materials and phylogenetic relationship among them were analyzed. The results showed that these populations survived barren lands during the whole growth period. They can adapt to the local climate and soil conditions with high yield in the experimental field. According to the significant different characters and phylogenetic tree, 15 populations are divided into two groups, early-maturing group and late-maturing group. Seed yields of species of south Carolina and Texas is highest, which are up to 160 kg per mu. These results provide the base for artificial hybridizations between populations.
Abstract:Mentana is one of the backbone parents in wheat breeding of our country. In order to investigate the contribution of Mentana in quality breeding, the HMW-GS composition and evolution of Mentana and its derivations were analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The results showed that the HMW-GS composition of Mentana was N/7 8/2 12 and its quality score was 7. The average quality score of the derivations was 7.62, which was high than Mentana.45.45% was carried the same HMW-GS with Mentana in derivations, and N/7 8/2 12 was dominant HMW-GS compound in every generation. The heredity of HMW-GS for Mentana from first to forth generation was very well, the frequency of N, 7 8, and 2 12 were high than 50%, and the highest was 100%. 12 varieties extended in large areas derived from Mentana had merit of high yield, adaptability, and resistance, which were same with Mentana. The results above indicated that the backbone parent Mentana contributed little to its derivations in quality, but probably lot in stripe rust resistance and high yield potential.
Abstract:Main agronomic characteristics of 12451 (repetition eliminated) rice germplasm resources collected and conserved in Hunan plant gene bank during 1992-2012 were analyzed and evaluated. The results showed those germplasm resources showed significant regional characteristics. Different types of rice germplasm resource had their own unique characteristics. 75.43% of the germplasm was utilized. Moreover, some suggestions were put forward for the collection, conservation, evaluation and utilization of rice germplasm resources.
Abstract:One hundred and thirty six peanut cultivars (including main breeding parents)originating in different provinces in China were selected as research population and the quality traits such as protein content、oil content、oleic acid content were tested. Whole genome of the cultivars were scanned with 64 SSRs of a high level of diversity and located dispersedly on a composite genetic linkage map constructed at HAAS. By using Structure2.3.1, the genotypes of peanut were used to detected the cultivars and to assign individuals to subpopulations by Q. Then by using Tassel 2.1, GLM (Q) model was successfully established by joining 136 genotypes of germplasm and quality traits in 3 years with Q of population structure as the covariate. The main results shows: ①136 cultivars according to individual genotype was assigned to 5 subpopulations. Because the population structure was consistent with the characters and geographic origins of cultivars respectively, these selected germplasm was proved to be suitable for association analysis as a result.②By constructing GLM(Q) with 64 genome-wide SSR loci and quality traits from the year 2010 to 2012, 18、31、26 SSR markers associated with quality traits significantly were detected respectively.③Integrating the information of SSR associated with quality traits from 2010 to 2012 , 4 SSR could be identified repetitively, and 40 alleles corresponding to these markers were identified totally.
Abstract:For exploring the feasibility that seed survival curve were transformed into line by survivor germination percentage transformed to survival rates, and to predict longevity of seed using seed survivor proportion ,Germination percent of wheat seeds of 8 seed lots of 3 species stored at 20℃,30℃and40℃ up to 810d with 3 levels of seed moisture content, were obtained. Seed survival curve which drawn using probability and survival proportion against storage time, fitting between regression equation of the probability and survival proportion established, and impact of interaction between storage temperature and seed moisture content on standard deviation of seed depth distribution in time were all compared and analyzed. The result showed that survivor proportion were easier than probability make seed survival curve to transform into line, the fitting of liner regression equation by survivor proportion against storage time established were also better than probability regression equation. Influence of interaction between storage temperature and seed moisture content on seed longevity were existing, its action were also bigger than independent temperature and moisture or logarithm of seed moisture content. Linear regress equation of predicting longevity of seed with survivor proportion, that is Gi/G0=A-P/10KE-CWT(t譵),were only proposed containing interaction between storage temperature and seed moisture content, and this equation were demonstrated to be fit to predict longevity of wheat seeds stored at low temperature genebank, by actual germination percent and storage time of common wheat seeds stored at low temperature genebank ,it was especially higher veracity for predicting germination percent than storage time.
Abstract:It is not easy to distinguish pine hybrids and their parents using their morphological characteristics. The traditional method (chemical analysis or molecular marker technology) of identification is complicated, time-consuming and costly. The truth of pine hybrids must be confirmed during the program for forest tree breeding and popularization of good pine varieties. Therefore, partial least square-discriminant analysis(PLS-DA) regression modeling was constructed using the data of near-infrared spectroscopy of the pine foliage for 2 pine hybrids and their 3 parent species in southern China. The results showed that PLS-DA has a high accuracy rate , allowing a secure identification of 2 hybrids and their 3 parent species. It is clear, from the results, that near-infrared technology would be used to identify hybrids and purebreds in pine and it possesses the advantage of being simple，inexpensive，and easy to operate.
Abstract:Applying SSR molecular marker technology to analysis genetic diversity for 60 potato cultivars which contained liangshan landraces, varieties bred by xichang college and varieties bred by other place. We had Screened out 16 effective SSR primers. 68 loci had been found using those markers in the test materials. There were 42 polymorphic loci which accounted for 61.76%. The average value of PIC was 0.4717. The genetic distance among all materials had been calculated by NTSYSpc2.0, the average genetic distance between 2.43 to 3.96. The test materials had been divided into 3 categories through MEGA4 analysis software and in the dendrogram two Liangshan landraces was first separated out. The Liangshan landraces and other materials had been classified into two groups by PoPGEN. Those results indicated definite difference between Liangshan landraces and other materials in the genetic basis. So the Liangshan landraces are useful resource for breeding. This study provides some partly reference for application of Liangshan landraces potatoes in the further breeding.
Abstract:The International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (hereinafter with the Treaty) and the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Sharing from Their Utilization to the Convention on Biological Diversity (hereinafter with the Protocol), which has established its own access and benefit-sharing mechanism, are both important international legal instruments in the in regard with access and benefit-sharing of genetic resources which have established their own access and benefit-sharing mechanism. However, China has not ratified both instruments due to the concerns about regulatory overlap, as well as the lack of understanding regarding the status quo of the protection and utilization of genetic resources. This article compares the Treaty and the Protocol from with objective, scope, the framework and model modality of access and benefit-sharing, and beneficiaries of two legal instruments, proposing. the The possibility possibilities of the ratification of the Treaty and the Protocol are analyzed based on the status quo review of the conservation and utilization of genetic resources in China: (1) both international legal instruments should be ratified; (2) the conservation of crop wild relatives should be strengthened to halt the outflow of resources, while implementing the Treaty; (3) monitoring and evaluating the utilization capabilities of genetic resources domestically, the revision proposal of the Protocol should be raised as appropriate time while implementing the Protocol.
Abstract:Plant receptor like kinases perceive diverse signals and stimuli from the environment. BAK1(BRI1-associated kinase 1), one of the thorough studied plant receptor like kinases, which involves in the diverse physiological signals regulation process, such as: growing and development, cell death and plant immunity. In this review, we summarize BAK1, as a co-recepter and signaling regulator of the different pattern recognition receptors, involves in mechanism of regulating signal recognition and transduction. And we hope that this review may supply useful information for the further research on the functions of BAK1 gene family in the plant’s resistance response, and provide some clues in clarifying the plant immune signal transduction pathway.
Abstract:Male sterile is a common phenomenon in the plant kingdom which is important for both plant reproductive biology study and crop breeding research for heterosis utility. Many studies on this issue were reported which were mostly carried out with the model species of Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza Sativa. According to the abortion stages in anther development, plant male sterile can be classified into several types such as degradation of pollen mother cells, early or late degeneration of tapetum cells, critical chemical changes in pollen wall development, failure in anther dehiscence, and other types. Mutations in genes encoding tapetum and pollen wall development most likely create a complex phynotype in microspore development. The results so far obtained indicated that mutations of related genes that are critical for anther and pollen development will create male sterile. This paper is a review on those researches and we hope it can facilitate related studies for a much promising future.
Abstract:A total of 215 pairs of EST-SSR primers were used to screen the genetic diversity of peanut landraces in Hebei Province. The results showed that 58 pairs of EST-SSR primers were polymorphism with a polymorphic rate of 26.98%. One hundred and sixty eight alleles were detected in different materials and 156 of which were polymorphic loci. The polymorphic information content (PIC) of each primer varied from 0.063-0.9825 with an average of 0.5244. Cluster analysis was conducted and showed that materials tested could be divided into 2 groups, the first group was A. hypogaea and the second group was A. vulgaris and A. fastigiata, which was consistent with the botanical classification. The trait and marker correlation analysis revealed that one marker could be related with different kinds of traits and 12 pairs of EST-SSR markers were selected with significant correlation with 5 different kinds of agronomic traits.
Abstract:The full length cDNA sequence of β-galactosidase gene named McGAL was cloned by 3’RACE technique based on the related EST sequence from the normalized Full-Length cDNA Library of bitter gourd Fruit. Sequence analysis showed that the nucleotide sequence of the gene is2261bp，containing a 2187 bp open reading frame(ORF) that encodes 719 amino acids. The sequence has been deposited in GenBank database with the accession number of AFD54987.1. The gene contains the putative active site-containing consensus sequence pattern G-G-P-[LIVM]-x-Q-x-E-N-E-[FY] belonging to glycosyl hydrolase family 35 without lectin domain at their C-termini. The McGAL exhibits a typical structure with a membrane -spanning domain. In the secondary structure, α-helix, Extended strand ,β-turn and Random coil are 19.89%, 26.98% , 6.54% and 46.59%, respectively. Amino acid sequence alignment shows the McGAL shows higher identity with Cicer arietimum, Medicago trumcatula, Vigna radiate, Glycina max and Lupimus angustifolius, as 73%, 73%, 73%, 72% and 71%. Subcellular localization revealed the McGAL was located in mitochondrial inner membrane. Fluorescent quantitative PCR analysis shows the McGAL gene expressed the highest levels at the mature green stage and decreased thereafter, which means the gene may be related to early ripening stage.
Abstract:Cellulose synthases of advanced plants have multiple functional domains and belong to the family of glycosyltransferases. They act as the catalyst for the transfer of the β-1, 4-glucan, and construct the cellulose molecule which is one of the important cell wall components of advanced plants. Comparison among cellulose synthase family members within one species such as Arabidopsis demonstrated that there are two hypervariable regions (HVR) in its protein, The first HVR lies at the NH2-terminal (NHVR) and is rich of acidic amino acid residues. In this study, we cloned the NHVR coding sequence of the Boehmeria nivea (ramie) cellulose synthase gene (BnCesA1). Then the gene fragment was subcloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pQE-N1 after its 6×His tag in the right reading frame to construct pQE-N1-NHVR recombinant expression vector. After the confirmation of the expression of the fusion protein His-tag-NHVR by western-blotting, the expression conditions had been optimized using orthogonal array testing in E. coli BL21(DE3). The results showed that the optimal combination of small-scale expression conditions is: colony No. 2, with concentration of IPTG at 0.1 mmol/L, inducing time for 4 h and temperature at 37℃. Altogether, our results would benefit the subsequent purification of His-tag-NHVR fusion protein and the preparation of its antibody, and support the further study to regional functions of BnCesA1 and its tissue specific functions in ramie.
Abstract:Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is one of the staple vegetable crops with significant economic value. Investigation of pepper genetic diversity is crucial for the collection, identification and application of pepper germplasm resources. EST-SSR markers, derived from the transcript regions, can detect the polymorphism in the transcript regions on the genome and thus exhibit the ‘true genetic diversity’. In the study, a total of 33 EST-SSR markers were employed to investigate the genetic diversity harbored among 31 pepper varieties. A total of 91 alleles were detected among the tested pepper varieties by the EST-SSR markers. The maximum number of alleles and the average alleles per locus amplified by EST-SSR markers were 6 and 2.76 respectively. The polymorphic information content (PIC) per locus ranged from 0.03 to 0.74 with the average of 0.38. Systemic cluster analysis separated the tested pepper varieties into two major groups which showed certain correlation with the morphologic traits of the fruit. Principal coordinate analysis acquired the similar results with the systemic cluster analysis, but exhibiting more thoroughly genetic variations harbored among the tested pepper varieties.
Abstract:Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to construct the DNA fingerprinting database of 27 Seedless Watermelon Major varieties in China and the genetic diversity was also analyzed. 24 polymorphic primer pairs could amplify 66 genotypes, and 2.75 genotypes were detected by each primer pair with the range from 2 to 5. The PIC values ranged from 0.19 to 0.66 with the mean of 0.37. 4 varieties had unique bands. The genetic similarity coefficients of the 27 varieties ranged from 0.7045 to 1.0 with the mean of 0.8683. Besides ‘Zhengkangwuzi No1’and‘Xuefenghuapiwuzi’, the other varieties could be separated clearly from each other. Furthermore, all the varieties were classified into 3 groups, at the level of genetic similarity coefficient 0.83 according to cluster analysis by an un-weighted pair-group average method with arithmetic mean.
Abstract:DNA barcoding is a technique that helps in identification of species by using DNA sequences from a small fragment of the genome. In the present study, we used this technique to identify Dalbergia odorifera from its adulterants Five populations from different regions of Hainan province were selected and psbA-trnH, rbcL nuclear ITS and ITS2 sequences were amplified from twenty-four samples using PCR. Sequence amplification and sequencing efficiency of the samples was compared.We used BLAST1 and building system clustering tree method by NJ to determine interspecific and intraspecific variations. Our results showed that ITS2 had the highest amplification and sequencing efficiency among all the studied materials, while ITS had lower amplification efficiency. The complete sequence of ITS2 demonstrated greater advantages in distinguishing different strains of Dalbergia odorifera. Our study demonstrated the efficacy of ITS2 to distinguish between Dalbergia odorifera and other adulterants species at the molecular level.
Abstract:The salt tolerances of 157 maize inbred lines were evaluated during the seedling stage by means of potted identification, and the population structure of the studied inbred lines was analyzed using 115 SSR markers. The results showed that ten maize inbred lines, including T5V, N1026, Nongda 1145, 4S and so on, were highly salt-tolerant maize germplasms; the plant height in 10 days after treatment (10DPH), shoot fresh weight (SFW), root fresh weight (RFW), shoot dry weight (SDW), root dry weight (RDW) and survival rate (SR) could be used as key indicators for identification of salt tolerance in the maize seedling stage. Evaluation of population structure indicated that 157 inbred lines could be classified into six groups, which were generally consistent with their known pedigrees. The inbred lines derived from Tongxi 5 ( group Ⅰ) , the waxy germplasms from Thailand (group Ⅲ) and those from LRC, Huangzaosi and so on, were highly tolerant to salt, which were important germpalsms in maize breeding for salt tolerance. These screened salt-tolerant maize germplasms would provide excellent genetic resources for the studies of genetic mechanisms in maize, maize improvement and molecular breeding for salt tolerance in the future.
Abstract:We obtained 1 a low temperature tolerant cultivar E659 by screening from 100 eggplant germplasm resources under low temperature stress. E659 and E646, a cold sensitive cultivar were subsequently Two eggplant genotypes, E659 and cold sensitive cultivar E646, were analyzed for low temperature tolerance to low temperature during early vegetative growth. Through measurements of photochemical capacity, oxidative damage, hydrogen peroxide accumulation, and antioxidant enzyme activities. After 5days of 4°treatment , compared with E646, the low temperature resistant genotype E659 showed, less decrease of FV/FM ratio and less increase of Malondialdehyde(MDA) content and electrolyte leakage, respectively, demonstrating minor damage of PSII system and oxidative damage by lipid peroxidation in this cultivar. Furthermore, within 24 hours of 4℃ treatment, the measurement of the antioxidant enzymes activity showed E659 has higher constitutive superoxide dismutase (SOD), and reduced or delayed damages of the ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and catalase (CAT) activity. These finding indicate that the low temperature tolerant cultivar E659 can possesses a rapid response mechanism and has higher reactive oxygen species system(ROS) clearance capacity to lower cold injury when facing low temperature.
Abstract:To analyze the genetic variability and select elite germplasm of isoflavone content in soybean seed, 213 accessions, including 181 cultivated and 32 wild soybean originating from HuangHuaiHai ecological region, were tested by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique. The results showed that the linear range of isoflavone components were all between 2.5-80.0 μg/mL, and the applied method possessed good linearity, precision and accuracy. A significant difference was found in isoflavone concentration among the different soybean accessions. Identification of 213 soybeans showed that a large genetic variation in total isoflavone and its components existed in both cultivated and wild soybeans. The range of total isoflavone in cultivated soybean was 1462.6-6115.5 μg/g, with an average of 3558.2 μg/g, while the total isoflavone in wild soybean was 3896.1-7440.4 μg/g, with an average of 5182.4 μg/g. The average content of total isoflavone in wild soybean seed is much higher than the cultivated seed. From the accessions, four elite germplasm with high isoflavone content (>6000 μg/g) were screened out (one elite accession content was above 7000 μg/g), and could be used to increase isoflavone content in soybean breeding.
Abstract:In this study, in order to screen disease-resistant tobacco germplasms, forty six different type sources of tobacco germplasms were selected as experiment materials. Field observation and molecular identification were used to screen and measure these tobacco germplasms’ disease resistance ability to TMV. The results of field investigation showed that 14 moderate resistant tobacco germplasms, 8 moderate susceptible germplasms and 2 susceptible ones were screened out from 24 unidentified tobacco geramplasms, while 22 tobacco geramplasms’ resistance to TMV characteristics are basically the same as the previous results. Further, by means of specific primers of TMV-resistant gene (CN), specific fragments were amplified in 36 tobacco geramplasms’ genomic DNA. Taken together, it showed that 62.9% tobacco germplasms which have CN gene or homologous gene showed moderate resistant or highly resistant to TMV by field identification, and 83.3% tobacco geramplasms which have CN gene or homologous gene showed moderate resistant or highly resistant to TMV by molecular identification, and by combining both field and molecular methods, 3 moderate susceptible tobacco geramplasms and 11 moderate resistant ones were identified.
Abstract:The study aimed to evaluate the Ascochyta blight resistance of 25 chickpea varieties through artificial inoculation by Ascochyta rabiei spore suspension both in lab and outdoors. At the same time, the genotype of these chickpea varieties’ were identified by RAPD amplification and the genetic relationship among these chickpea varieties were analyzed by NTSYSpc 2.10t software. Results of resistance identification showed that: “xixuan 03” and “216” have a stable R level of resistance and “beiyuanchun” has a MR level of resistance to Ascochyta blight respectively. In genetic relationship analysis by RAPD amplification: 129 DNA bands were amplified from these 25 chickpea varieties in total, 67 of these 129 bands were polymorphic, and the ratio of polymorphic fragments was about 51.94%. Genetic similarity coefficient among these 25 chickpea varieties were 0.3731-0.9254. Combined with disease resistance identification results and genetic polymorphism analysis, there were no significant relevance between the resistance to Ascochyta blight and the genetic relationship of these tested chickpea varieties by analysis of variance.
Abstract:In order to make better research, enrich the content of quantitative and normalized grape germplasm descriptor system, 114 table grape cultivars from the National Grape Germplasm Repository in Taigu were studied, mainly 8 quantitative characteristics, including cluster length, cluster width, cluster weight, vertical diameter of berry, transverse diameter of berry，berry mass, average size of cluster and average size of berry. The results showed that the coefficients of variation of all the 8 characteristics were above 17%. The largest one occurs in berry mass (48.05%), while the smallest in cluster width (17.58%). The largest variation range is in cluster weight (100.0～1030.0 g), with the variation coefficient of 41.28%, while the smallest in transverse diameter of berry (1.3～3.5 cm), with the coefficient of 20.82%. These main quantitative characteristics were also analyzed by K-S test. The results showed that the values of characteristics could be divided into 5 grades by dividing points of（X-1.281 8 S）, （X-0.524 6 S）,（X+0.524 6 S） and （X+1.281 8 S）. Occurrence probability of 1 to5 grade was 10%，20%，40%，20% and 10% respectively. This research will provide reference for specification and data standardization of grape descriptor system.
Abstract:Genetic diversity of 74 pear rootstock germplasm resources was analyzed by using 9 pairs of specific SSR markers in this experiment. The results showed that 9 SSR markers amplified 57 alleles, with an average of 6.33 alleles per locus. 9 pairs of SSR primers could distinguish 70 pear rootstocks except for K11, K12, No. 13 and No. 15 of Pyrus betulaefolia Bunge. UPGMA cluster analysis showed that similarity coefficients were varied between 0.41~1.00, exhibiting high genetic diversity. All the cultivars were classified into 7 groups at the similarity coefficient of 0.67, which accorded with genealogical sources and geographic distribution.
Abstract:Abstract: K Type thermo-sensitive Cytoplasmic male sterile wheat which was based on two-line hybrid wheat ,could produce hybrid wheat seeds because of its completely sterility in normal wheat growing season of northern China, but fertility restored partly in anti-season seeding . This study has made a more fine research on the fertility-conversion critical period, abortion of pollen development process of KTP116A and K116A by using artificial climate chamber and the smear method. The results showed that KTP116A can carry the normal meiosis and develop into mature pollen grains under fertile environment; but in sterile environment, only a few can go through the second mitosis and produce two sperm cells, most of the them are arrested at binucleate grain, abnormal pollen grains and shell anthers without protoplast; two fertility sensitive periods of KTP116A were from meiosis to early microspore and binucleate to trinucleate, corresponding to 2-8d before heading and the 3-5d before flowering. Temperature sensitive stage is about 10d. These findings will make a foundation to further study of abortion mechanism, aboration reasons analyzing and the better use of TCMS.
Abstract:The chromosome number and karyotype of 5species in east aisa region of Alnus was studied by shedding cell wall and dialysis methods.The results showed that the karyotypes among them were not distinct and most chromosomes were metacentric or submetacentric.The chromosome number of A.nitida was 28,the karyotype formula was K（2n）=28=22m 4sm(2SAT) 2st(2SAT);2n=42 and K(2n)=42=36m 6sm for A.hirsuta;2n=56 and K(2n)=56=2M 40m(1SAT) 14sm(1SAT) for A.cremastogyne;2n=56 and K(2n)=56=46m 8sm 2st for A.formosana;2n=112 and K(2n)=112=80m 28sm 4st for A,firma.
Abstract:Fast, accurate and non-destructive identification of seed viability is a critical factor in the safe preservation of germplasm resources. In this paper, we have used yellow soybeans of different preservation period as samples, and established a mathematical model of non-destructive determination for its viability by employing Fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIRS) in combination with partial least squares (PLS). Simultaneously, we have compared and analyzed the prediction performance of the model by using different spectral-pretreatment methods and different band ranges. Results indicate that the model has higher prediction accuracy in 4000~10000nm full-band range. After preprocessing these spectra data with Savitzky Golay second derivative and standardized pretreatment, we’ve found that the PLS model is the best for viability non-destructive determination. The correlation coefficient of calibration set samples is 0.937, and the correlation coefficient of prediction set samples is 0.902. RMSEC and RMSEP are 2.190 and 2.684 respectively. Therefore, the prediction accuracy of the model is close to that of normal germination method, and can meet the requirement in rapid non-destructive identification of seed viability, which provides theoretical basis for rapid non-destructive determination of seed vigor in the future.
Abstract:Wheat is one of the most important food crops in the word, but the heat stress hazards for wheat production, especially, flowering and grain filling stage of high temperature stress seriously affect the yield and quality of wheat. This article proposed evaluation indicators of wheat heat tolerance from two aspects, namely direct and indirect identification, and analyzed the temperature signal perception and transmission under heat stress as well as plant responsive mechanism to high temperature. In addition, we summarized the research progress of wheat heat tolerance cultivation from the traditional breeding methods and genetic engineering strategies. In the end, we make a conclusion on improvement measures of the wheat heat tolerance and problems, and put forward the future wheat heat tolerance research prospects.
Abstract:This study was carried out to identify germplasms with multiple disease resistance for wheat improvement. Using field and artificial inoculation tests, reactions of 28 synthetic wheat accessions from CIMMYT to cereal cyst nematodes (Heterodera avenae and H. filipjevi), sharp eyespot (caused by Rhizoctonia cerealis), stripe rust and leaf rust (caused by Puccinia striiformis and P. recondita, respectively) were determined. Various levels of resistance were observed in reaction to these pathogens. Lines C2 and C20 were resistant but lines C5, C10, and C25 were susceptible to all the four diseases tested. Eight lines displayed resistant reaction to both species of Heterodera. However, some lines were only resistant to either H. avenae or H. filipjevi. The synthetic wheats tested exhibited good resistance to sharp eyespot, and 19 lines showed resistant reaction. Nine lines were resistant to P. striiformis races CY30, CY31, CY32, and CY33, and 5 lines were resistant to both P. triticina races of THT and PHT.