• Volume 14,Issue 5,2013 Table of Contents
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    • >GENETIC RESOURCES
    • Stduy on Genetic Diversity of Natural Population in Malus sieversii with Microsatellite

      2013, 14(5):771-777.

      Abstract (2256) HTML (0) PDF 1.26 M (2387) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Abstract: In the study,we used 12 wild apples groups of Xinjiang which undered the four populations of Xinjiang Gongliu,Xinyuan,Huocheng,Tuoli as materials,involving in group microsatellite allele and genotype differences analysis of 12 linkage groups with 17 pairs of SSR primers,exploring genetic diversity and genetic structure of natural populations of Xinjiang wild apples from geographic populations,the altitude and the type of primer perspective.The results showed that the percentage of intraspecific polymorphic loci in Xinjiang wild apples with 17 pairs of SSR primers was up to 100%;the genetic diversity of group XY1 and HC2 were higher.Clustering results showed that the groups undered the same population were divided in the same group;The genetic relationships of the Gongliu population and the Xinyuan population were nearest,the Huocheng population was followed,the Tuoli population was the farthest.The Huocheng population was the highest,The Tuoli population was the lowest on genetic diversity in the different regions.The impact on the population genetic structure of altitude was smaller,excepting the observed heterozygosity and altitude exist weak positive correlation,most genetic parameters had no correlation with altitude.The variation within Xinjiang wild apples populations was greater than among populations,the differentiation among populations was small,the gene flow was higher.

    • Research Progress on Genetic Diversity Development in Rice by SSR

      2013, 14(5):778-783.

      Abstract (2472) HTML (0) PDF 1.18 M (2691) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Starting with the superiority and applicability of studying rice genetic diversity by SSR, this paper overviewed the research progress in constructing and evaluation of core collection, genetic structure, origin and evolution of rice. Summarized the zonal character of genetic diversity in rice (Yunnan was the richest center of genetic and gene diversity of rice in China; the west southern had richest japonica rice varieties genetic diversity and the japonica rice varieties genetic diversity of southern rice region rice area was higher than that of northern rice region), the genetic diversity was closely related with ecological and geographical location, present rice varieties genetic base was narrow and rice genetic diversity was decreasing etc. The genetic diversity cause and influence factors were analyed. The breeding behavior influenced rice genetic diversity was being specifically pointed out, which made the rice genetic diversity decrease. And it offered the countermeasures for current narrow genetic diversity of rice.

    • Studies on false smut resistance genetic in three-line indica hybrid rice

      2013, 14(5):784-787.

      Abstract (2034) HTML (0) PDF 1.13 M (2600) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:By cross with sterile(A) with resistance to false smut and resistant or susceptible restorer(R),studied the cytoplasmic effects of resistance to false smut of sterile and genetic of false smut resistance of restorer. The results showed that: among the combinations of sterile (R)譺estorer (S), the F1 showed susceptible that A(R)識(S)→F1?S) and not show the cytoplasmic effect, controlled the resistance to false smut of F1 by the restorer and showed the 3 types of dominant, incomplete dominant and recessive of hybrids resistant genetic that RRR 、RRMR and RRS. Dominant, and incomplete dominant frequency accounted for 81.25%. Significantly correlated that the disease panicle rate, disease index ,per panicle disease grains and highest disease grains of the diseasepanicle of F1 with restorer that’s. The correlation coefficient r=0.898**,r=0.868**,r=0.901**,r=0.569**.Hybrid F? and restorer between false smut condition indicators significantly correlated. HA188, HA197, HA198 and R288xuan Etc. the restore new germplasm with resistance to false smut has been breeding and screening. Discussed the hybrid breeding for resistance to false smut .

    • Study on Genetic Diversity of 60 Tomato Inbred Lines with Good Quality Based on AFLP Markers

      2013, 14(5):788-793.

      Abstract (2209) HTML (0) PDF 1.31 M (2161) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:AFLP markers were used to evaluate genetic diversity among 60 tomato inbred lines with good quality. Total 905 bands were amplified using 17 AFLP primer combinations, and 251 bands of them were polymorphic bands. Average number of polymorphic loci detected by per primer combination was 15, and mean polymorphism rate was 27.7%. Unique fingerprints of 60 tomato inbred lines were obtained by a minimum of 2 AFLP primer combinations, E7M4 and E7M10. Genetic similarity coefficients of 60 inbred lines ranged from 0.259-0.952 with a mean of 0.664. 60 tomato materials can be divided into seven groups at similarity coefficients from 0.54-0.57 when UPGMA clustering was used. It was showed clustering results had no pronounced relation with phenotypic traits, such as sources, fruit size, fruit shape, and so on.

    • Adaptability and Variation of an Applied Core Collection of adzuki bean in China

      2013, 14(5):794-799.

      Abstract (2015) HTML (0) PDF 2.07 M (2026) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:To accelerate the application of the core collection of adzuki bean in breeding, we investigate the adaptability of these germplasm under different environments at continuous years. The results show that all the core collections are erect and can be harvested in Nanning, while only 64.2%88 of them are erect in Tangshan and 25 germplasm even can not mature. The agronomic traits were significantly different between eco-environments, and in Nanning, there were also significantly variations from different years, indicating the sensitivity of adzuki bean to light or temperature and other environmental factors. The growth periods of the core collections were significantly shorter in Nanning than in Tangshan, however, the number of pods per plant and 100-seed-weight were much lower. The present result also indicated that breeding for new variety with wide adaptability was possible. Based on the agronomic traits, 8 and tenin total 16 elite germplasm, were selected to bethat can be used directly in breeding or production at Nanning and Tangshan, respectively, were selected.

    • Quality Traits Identify and Genetic Diversity Analysis for Waxy Maize Germplsms by SSR Markers

      2013, 14(5):800-808.

      Abstract (2066) HTML (0) PDF 1.71 M (2440) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:set of 165 accessions of Chinese waxy maize including landraces and inbred lines were chosen and analyzed for the genetic diversity with SSR markers. The results showed a wide genetic diversity for ear and starch quality characters in the Chinese waxy maize germplasm. A total of 281 alleles were found at the 60 SSR loci, with a range of 2 to 9 alleles per marker. The average alleles per marker across genotypes were 4.68. The PIC values ranged from 0.332 to 0.860, with an average of 0.690. UPGMA analysis grouped the 165 inbred lines into three groups, which was generally consistent with their known pedigree information and breeder’s experience. The results indicated that most of the modern waxy inbred lines have little relationship with the Southwest Chinese waxy maize landraces, which were regarded as the origin of Chinese waxy maize. It would be very helpful to choose the most genetically distant lines for waxy maize genetic study and hybridization breeding based on grouping of waxy maize germplasm.

    • Research Progress of Forage Germplasm Resources Innovation in China

      2013, 14(5):809-815.

      Abstract (1970) HTML (0) PDF 1.21 M (3092) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:The research methods and achievements in recently decades for forage germplasm resources innovation of China has been summarized in this paper. The methods of intraspecific hybridization,distant hybridization,radiation,ion beam implantation,spaceship-carried,chemical mutation and gene transformation were stated detailedly and the application prospect was also discussed for forage germplasm resources innovation. On the above mentioned will promote the further developments and provide reference on the studies of forage breeding and innovation

    • Investigation and Collection of Wild Erianthus arundinaceum Germplasm Resources

      2013, 14(5):816-820.

      Abstract (2002) HTML (0) PDF 1.19 M (2349) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:The wild Erianthus arundinaceum germplasm resources in Yunnan, Guizhou, Sichuan, Shanxi, Gansu, Guangxi, Guangdong and Hainan were investigated and collected from October 2011 to April 2012. The results showed that a total of 420 germplasm resources were collected in seven provinces. At the same time, it was analysised in geographical distribution, morphological characters and ecological adaptation. At last, the utilization direction in near future was discussed.

    • Investigation and Identification of Resistance to Rice Blast in Oryza rufipogon Griff. Indigenous to Hainan

      2013, 14(5):821-825.

      Abstract (1960) HTML (0) PDF 1.29 M (2121) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:To excavate blast-resistant germplasms of Oryza rufipogon Griff. indigenous to Hainan , 410 accessions from 41 natural populations were identified for the resistance to leaf blast at the seedling stage, by naturally infected with the pathogen in 2010. In 2011, 121 accessions of 37 natural populations were identified for the resistance to neck blast at the heading stage by artificial spray inoculation with blast isolates (YC25). In 2012, 2461 accessions of 80 natural populations were investigated under field conditions for the resistance to leaf blast. The results showed that 22 and 117 accessions were highly resisitant (HR) and resisitant (R) to leaf blast at the seedling stage, respectively. Among the 138 accessions, 4 and 3 were respectively HR and R to neck blast, and 14 showed resistance under field conditions. In addition, 4 accessions which were susceptible or unidentified at the seedling stage, showed resistance both to neck blast and to leaf blast under field conditions. These resistant accessions come from Haikou, Wenchang, Wanning, Sanya, Chengmai, and Dongfang. The findings may provide reference for further study and utilization of Oryza rufipogon Griff.

    • Analysis of Genetic Diversity with population of Japonica Rice from Ningxia using Microsatellite Markers

      2013, 14(5):826-832.

      Abstract (2024) HTML (0) PDF 1.33 M (2154) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:A total of 82 SSR markers Distributed in 12 chromosomes were used to analyze genetic diversity and genetic similarity in 59 rice varieties of Ningxia after 1980s. 339 alleles were revealed, and 2 to 19 alleles were identified among different loci. The mean number of alleles per locus was 4.13. Total genetic diversity index of Nei varied greatly among loci from 0.0333 to 0.8164, with an average of 0.4394. The 55 rice varieties were divided into 3 groups according to their released years. With the increase of the year, both the number of alleles and genetic diversity showed an increasing trend significantly (P <0.001). UPGMA cluster analysis showed that the 59 rice varieties were cluster into five categories at the level with genetic similarity coefficient of 0.75. The category Ⅰ has only one aromatic rice, Ⅱ and Ⅳ both have three varieties, and category Ⅲ contains five varieties similar to Jilin rice. The most rice varieties were clustered into category Ⅴ, which accout for 79.7% of the tested varieties. Compared the pedigree of rice varieties, the vast major varieties have kinship of Ningxia core parental such as Hongqi 12, Jingyin 39, Dongfanghong 2, Jingyin 59, etc, which showed close relationship among varieties. Although the genetic diversity of Ningxia rice has increased in recent years, the genetic basis is still narrow. The similarity coefficient of the tested varieties is above 0.75, even as high as 0.94. Breeders must introduce and innovate in more rice parental materials in order to expand the genetic foundation of Ningxia rice in the future.

    • The development of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) prediction model for the quality components of flour and intact seed in mungbean

      2013, 14(5):833-838.

      Abstract (1956) HTML (0) PDF 1.29 M (2226) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy was applied to determine the content of protein, starch and amylase in the mungbean grown in China. One hundred and two samples which both in flour and intact seeds were scanned in NIR Systems (MPA, Bruker, Germany) with Infra soft software OPUS 6.5 version. The partial least-squares regression method was developed with cross validation after processing data. The best calibration statistics were obtained by optimization. In flour the largest R2 value and the lowest SECV were for protein (0.95 and 0.329) for starch (0.90 and 0.576) and for amylase (0.89 and 0.307) and the residual prediction deviation (RPD) value were from 3.08 to 4.61, respectively. In intact seeds largest R2 value and the lowest SECV were for protein (0.90 and 0.404), for starch (0.88 and 0.643) and for amylose (0.85 and 0.426) and RPD value were from 2.51 to 3.23, respectively. The robustness of the model was evaluated for external validation. The mean differences, which were found 1.0% to 1.8% in flour, were slightly lower than the differences in intact seeds. NIRS prediction of the three compositions in the flour was applicable as a rapid and simple method. For intact seeds this method was non-destructive and could preserve its vigorous vitality and could be used in seeds conservation and germplasm resources innovation. But further work need to be done to improve the accuracy in the intact seeds.

    • >GENE MINING
    • Expression analysis and subcellular localization of wheat aluminum-induced gene TaAIP

      2013, 14(5):839-843.

      Abstract (2243) HTML (0) PDF 1.34 M (2397) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:TaAIP was obtained as the interaction protein of wheat stress-related TaMAPK2, which was used as bait protein to screen the wheat cDNA library by yeast-two-hybrid system. TaAIP, containing a wali domain, was similar to some aluminum-induced proteins. Real-time PCR showed that the expression of TaAIP was up-regulated by the imposition of aluminum, high-salt and drought stress. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated TaAIP was a stem-specific gene, not expressed in root, leaves and flower. The subcellular localization assay indicated that TaAIP located on plasma membrane. These results provided the foundation for further analysis of TaAIP resistance mechanisms.

    • Genetic Analysis and Fine-Mapping of a Novel Mutant in Rice

      2013, 14(5):844-848.

      Abstract (2129) HTML (0) PDF 1.43 M (2699) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Screening of dwarf mutants plays an important role in understanding of the molecular mechanism in rice plant architecture. We report here the identification and characterization of a novel rice dwarf mutant from tissue culture progeny of a Japonica variety Kitaake, dm. The mutant shows a pleiotropic phenotype, including dwarf, fragile stem, low fertility and decreased 1000-grain weight. By using F2 and its following segregated populations, we narrowed down dm gene into a 168 Kb region on the long arm of chromosome 4. Our results indicate that DM represents a new locus responsible for rice plant architecture.

    • Genetic Composition of Amylopectin and its Influence on Rice Qualities in Japonica varieties

      2013, 14(5):849-856.

      Abstract (2430) HTML (0) PDF 1.36 M (2542) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Abstract:The composition and structure of rice grain starch are two major factors which influence the grain quality. In this study, we used 17 molecular markers based on sequence diversities between two rice subspecies, indica and japonica, to investigate the genotypes of 67 japonica cultivars. The results showed: all 67 japonica varieties carried the japonica allele Wxj. , and among 16 locus of amylopectin synethesis-related genes(ASRG),13 locus had introgression of indica while the other 3 locus, GBSSⅡ, SSⅡ-2 and SSⅣ-1 , had no recombination. the frequency of indica allele introgression was from 1.9% to 46.27%, and SSⅠgene had the highest introgression frequency. Stepwise regression analysis demonstrated that 7 genes had effects on the 10 physico-chemical properties, including amylose content(AC), gel consistency(GC), starch RVA characteristics(RVA).And Isa gene had effects on peak viscosity( PKV), break down value(BDV), consistency value(CSV), setback value(SBV) and peak time(PeT),while the other 6 genes only had obvious genetic effects on 1-4 characteristics. The results indicated that the functional differentiation had been occured on the ASRG locus. These results provided useful information for rice quality improvement.

    • Cloning of a DREB-like Gene RcDREB1 in Roegneria ciliar and Functional Identification of Its Protein Binding Specificity to the Dehydration-responsive Element (DRE)

      2013, 14(5):857-863.

      Abstract (2258) HTML (0) PDF 1.60 M (2290) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:In this paper, a full-length cDNA of a DREB-like gene was cloned firstly from Roegneria ciliaris through RT-PCR and RACE technologies, and named as RcDREB1. RcDREB1 contains a conserved AP2 domain, suggesting that this gene is a new transcription factor member in the AP2 superfamily. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that RcDREB1 shares a high similarity with the DREB-like genes in Triticum aestivum. Through yeast one-hybrid experiment, RcDREB1 was verified to possess an ability to specifically bind the drought-responsive DRE element; Using Real-time quantitative PCR, we found that all of the stresses of high salt, drought, heavy metal (CdCl2) and low temperature could up-regulate RcDREB1 expression, but only high salt showed more strong induction of RcDREB1. These results suggested that RcDREB1 is a novel DREB type transcription factor gene and may play important roles in mediating the transduction of distinct signaling cues initiated by those of adverse environmental factors. This DREB-like gene could be useful in elucidating the evolution pathway of Triticeae and in the application in transgenic wheat breeding.

    • Cloning and functional analysis of promoter of peanut β-1,3-glucanase gene

      2013, 14(5):864-870.

      Abstract (2234) HTML (0) PDF 1.40 M (2286) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:The plant β-1,3-glucanase belongs to one of the important pathogenesis-related proteins (PR-proteins), which could be accumulated when induced by elicitors. The seedlings of peanut cultivar Huayu20 were sprayed with 1.5 mmol/L Salicylic Acid (SA), then the total RNAs were extracted and the mRNA expression amount of β-1,3-glucanase gene were inspected by Real-time PCR. The expression amount of β-1,3-glucanase gene reached the highest after 24h induced by SA, which was 1.8 times higher than that of control not induced by SA. Three specific 5’ upstream primers were designed and synthesized according to peanut β-1,3-glucanase gene cDNA sequences (GenBank JQ801335), and the PCR amplification were conducted using the genomic DNA of Huayu20 as the template by TAIL-PCR method. A 973bp upstream promoter fragment was obtained and submitted in NCBI (GenBank KC290400), named by Ah-Glu-Pro. Promoter sequence analysis by PLACE and PlantCARE showed that the 973bp sequence contained some typical cis-elements, such as TATA box, CAAT box, pathogen and SA cis-acting regulatory element. A 931bp fragment was obtained and named Ah-Glu-P, using a pair of primers designed according to Ah-Glu-Pro. Ah-Glu-P then was inserted into pCAMBIA1301, replacing its CaMV35S promoter. The recombinant plasmid was named pCAMBIA1301-Ah-Glu-P and then transferred into onion epidermal cells by Agrobacterium EHA105-mediated transformation. GUS staining on the onion epidermal cells was conducted after 48h induced by 5.0 mmol/L SA. The transformed onion epidermal cells appeared blue when induced by SA, while the control cells not induced by SA didn’t appear blue, which indicated that the Ah-Glu-P could be an inducible promoter and might contain responsive element relative to SA.

    • Construction of Millet Genetic Map and QTL Analysis

      2013, 14(5):871-878.

      Abstract (2333) HTML (0) PDF 1.56 M (2645) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Objective of the study is about to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for such as plant height and panicle length of millet. F2 population derived from crosses of the millet cultivars Shen3譐ingu20 respectively was used for QTL analysis. Data of trait about plant height, panicle length and others was collected and recorded. By analysis,it said the traits recorded are all quantitative traits. Using SSR as molecular markers,54 markers were divided into 10 linkage group.The presence of two main-effect QTLs which are related with plant height was declared by Conplete interval mapping(BASTEN C J) using QTL IciMapping 3.0.1.21,and the total effect was 45.9637%.One main-effect QTL which is related with panicle height was detected,and its individual effect is 14.9647%.It said that the main-effect QTL about panicle weight and the one about grain weigh was the same locus,and the effects of them were 11.9601% and 10.1879%.Gene-interaction analysis indicated that there were gene-interactions between 6 QTL pairs with additive effects ranging from -0.4986 to 16.6407 and individual effects from 2.2716% to 6.7478%.Detection of QTLs for traits of millet is sensitive to environment. QTLs of all traits spread around chromosomes, and gene-interaction occurs frequently.

    • Molecular Cloning and Expression Analysis of Homological Gene APX from Ramie(Boehmeria nivea L.)

      2013, 14(5):879-884.

      Abstract (1898) HTML (0) PDF 1.51 M (2495) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:The full-length cDNA of APX gene was cloned from ramie(Boehmeria nivea L.)through RT-PCR and RACE methods according to the APX gene sequence of ramie transcriptome, named as BnAPX1. The full length cDNA of BnAPX1 was 1 201 bp, which has an open read frame of 870 bp, encoding a protein of 289 amino acids. Bioinformatic analysis showed that BnAPX1 protein shares the characters of plant peroxidase family. Amino acids sequence analysis suggested that BnAPX1 protein is highly similar to other APX proteins and is possessed of a transmembrance domain at its C-terminal. Real-time PCR analysis showed that BnAPX1 mRNA is expressed in the organs in ramie root, middle stem, shoot tip, stem bark, and young leaf. And the expression of BnAPX1 was the highest in youn leaf. BnAPX1 was also found to be up-regulated by Cd, which suggested that it might play a role on Cd stress.

    • Characterization of SNP associated with mybA transcription factor in Chinese wild grape.

      2013, 14(5):885-891.

      Abstract (2386) HTML (0) PDF 1.31 M (2285) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:The transcription factor corresponding to the mybA that regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis were cloned and analysised on a sample of 14 Chinese wild grapes species. Two complete mybA-related gene sequences, VvmybA1 and VlmybA2 were obtained, and a total of 121 SNPs were detected in the sequenced fragments which giving a high level of polymorphism. Three neutrality tests had been used to compare the patterns of sequence variations, the result indicates a non departure from neutrality expectations for gene VvmybA1 and VlmybA2 of Chinese wild grape which reflected equilibrium between genetic drift and selectively neutral mutation. The mybA gene acquired form different wild accessions represented a highly homology. Yet extensive base deletion, insertion and substitution existed in promotor region, intron region and the third coding exon, which exhibited rich genetic diversity between species of Chinese wild grapes. Furthermore,there were several unique bases or mutations in the mybA gene of wild grapes that might be selected to be the molecular marker to distinguish themselves from others well. Comparing and analysising the gene structure and phylogenetic tree of the gene sequence, the studied Chinese wild grape species could be divided into five groups. Moreover, V.betulifolia and V.hancockii were initially predicted to be primitive in the evolution.

    • Construction and application of SSR fingerprint database of the example varieties in watermelon DUS testing

      2013, 14(5):892-899.

      Abstract (2152) HTML (0) PDF 1.47 M (2455) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:A core set of SSR markers which represent the maximize watermelon genetic diversity was used to analyze the genetic diversity of 24 example varieties in watermelon DUS testing, then the SSR fingerprint database of these varieties was constructed. Based on the SNP-based dendrogram for the 17 resequencing lines, we evaluated the genetic relationship among these varieties, and they were classified into 3 groups with the similarity coefficient of 0.80, this marker-based clustering showed more accurate than the traditional morphological clustering. Using two-dimensional (QR) code, the SSR fingerprint database of 24 example varieties was constructed. The utility of this detection system in DUS molecular test was analyzed using a PVP varieties "Jingxin No. 2" and its control "Jingxin No. 1", there were 4 polymorphic alleles among 32 alleles and their similarity coefficient was 0.89. It showed more polymorphic alleles and more accurate than morphological identification. The SSR fingerprint database of example varieties and molecular detection system used in this study can be applied in DUS molecular test of watermelon. Moreover, they will provide a basis for genetic purity, genetic background screening and authenticity fast evaluation of watermelon.

    • Molecular Identification of the Polyphenol Oxidase Genes in Bread Wheat Cultivars from Huanghuai Wheat Region

      2013, 14(5):900-907.

      Abstract (1948) HTML (0) PDF 1.29 M (2211) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Abstract: Grain Polyphenol Oxidase (Polyphenol oxidase, PPO) activity is the main factor causing flour and flour products browning. Understanding of allelic variation of PPO gene in bread wheat contributes to improvement of the appearance qualities of the flour products. A total of 118 wheat cultivars from Huanghuai wheat region were used to identify Ppo-A1 alleles with functional marker PPO18 and Ppo-D1 alleles with functional markers PPO16 and PPO29, respectively. The results showed that in the Ppo-A1 locus 48.3% and 51.7% of the wheat varieties possess Ppo-A1a allele (high PPO activity) and Ppo-A1b allele (low PPO activity), respectively, and PPO activities of the Ppo-A1a is significantly higher than that of Ppo-A1b (P<0.05).In the Ppo-D1 locus, 55.1% and 44.9% of the wheat varieties possess Ppo-D1a (low PPO activity) and Ppo-D1b (high PPO activity) allele, and PPO activity of the Ppo-D1b is significantly higher than that of Ppo-D1a allele (P<0.05).Four types of allelic combinations of Ppo-A1a/Ppo-D1a (intermediate PPO activity), Ppo-A1a/Ppo-D1b (high PPO activity), Ppo-A1b/Ppo-D1a (low PPO activity), Ppo-A1b/Ppo-D1b (intermediate PPO activity) were detected in wheat cultivars surveyed, and their distribution frequencies were 28.8%, 19.5%, 26.3% and 25.4%, respectively, and the differences among PPO activities of above four genotypes are significant (P<0.05).Therefore, the three gene-specific markers are rapid, accurate and convenient to identify allelic variations of PPO gene. This study found some wheat cultivars with low PPO activity, and could provide useful information for improvement of wheat quality.

    • Isolation and structural analysis of safflower ω3 fatty acid desaturase

      2013, 14(5):908-916.

      Abstract (2011) HTML (0) PDF 2.38 M (2020) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:One microsomal ω3 fatty acid desaturase gene fragment and two plastidial ω3 fatty acid desaturases cDNA and genomic sequences, designated CtFAD3, CtFAD7 and CtFAD8 have been isolated from safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) and submitted to GenBank. Our Blast searches of the deduced amino acid sequences revealed that the similarities of CtFAD7 and CtFAD8 with other plant plastidial ω3 fatty acid desaturases were 61-79 % and 63-78 %, respectively, while CtFAD3 showed higher similarities to other plant microsomal ω3 fatty acid desaturases, 60-93 %. The deduced amino acid sequences of these genes showed three histidine boxes (HDCGH,HXXXXXHRTHH and HVIHH) characteristic of all membrane-bound desaturases, and CtFAD7 and CtFAD8 possess a putative N-termianl signal peptide, 56 and 27 aa respectively. In hydropathy and transmembrane analysis showed that the encoded polypeptides contain four putative hydropathy regions and transmenmbrane one to three times. Protein second-structure indicated that safflower ω3 fatty acid desaturase were composed by α-helix and β-sheet. Compared with the genome structures of safflower CtgFAD7 and CtgFAD8 and other plant plastidial ω3 desaturase genes, all the sequences contained 8 extons and 7 introns. The sequence and size of introns in all plant plastidial ω3 desaturase genes exhibited a wealth polymorphism between species, while the sizes of the internal 6 exons (from 2nd to 7th) were conservative. Comparing the location of the introns revealed that the intron occurs were the conserved regions of the enzyme. We speculated that these introns play an important role in assuring the gene function in the species evolutionary process.

    • >GERMPLASM INNOVATION
    • Breeding of Elite Rice Lines R7606 and 229A

      2013, 14(5):917-923.

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      Abstract:Crop germplasm resources are the material basis of cultivar improvement. Along with the development of molecular biology technology, rice breeding has developed to a senior stage, which combines molecular marker assisted selection with agronomic traits selection. It is necessary that evaluation of germplasm resources met the needs of molecular assistant breeding and assisted by molecular method. 24 SSR markers recommended by China National Rice Research Institute was adopted to analyze the polymorphisms of 45 rice germplasm resources(32 restorer lines and 12 maintainer lines). Enhancement of germplasm was realized according to the differences in genetic similarity coefficient and agronomic traits. Molecular marker PCR-AccI which could detect the content of amylose in middle generation of the breeding was utilized for assisted selection; and germplasm lines with high quality was created. The results showed the genetic similarity coefficient of the 32 restorer lines and 12 maintainer lines was 0.5244~0.8415(averaged at 0.6965) and 0.4783~1(averaged at 0.6542), respectively. Using R3076, Zhonghui 8006, 229 and Jufeng A/B as parent, new restorer line R7606 and cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) line 229A were obtained. Based on the detection results of rice quality, 11 varieties of R7606 line and 1 of 229A line achieved grade Ⅱ of national rice quality standard(GB/T 17891-1999); and 3 varieties of 229A achieved grade Ⅰ of national rice quality standard. The result of field observation and hybrid testing experiments revealed that R7606 and 229A lines had elite agronomic traits and good general combining abilities, and could be utilized as parents in hybrid-rice breeding. It had also been discussed how to evaluate and apply excellent resources in rice genetic improvement and germplasm enhancement to expand the genetic background and diversity of germplasm resources and promote sustainable development of rice breeding and production.

    • evelopment and detection of wheat germplasms with resistance to both powdery mildew and barley yellow dwarf virus

      2013, 14(5):924-928.

      Abstract (2171) HTML (0) PDF 1.21 M (2361) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Powdery mildew and barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) are important diseases, which affect wheat production worldwide. Resent years, both diseases are simultaneously found in some areas of China. To solve this problem, a wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium translocation YW642, containing BYDV resistance gene Bdv2, and a wheat line CB037, containing powdery mildew resistance gene Pm21, had been used to cross and backcross in this study. Through the disease resistance tests and molecular marker-assisted selection, 22 BC1 plants and 51 F2 plants which contain both Bdv2 and Pm21 genes were obtained. These wheat materials showed highly resistant to both powdery mildew and BYDV. Agronomic trait assays displayed that those resistant plants possessing both Pm21 and Bdv2 genes were better than susceptible plants and the parents plants following inoculation with the pathogens. Thus, these resistant plants developed in the study can be used as good germplasm resources for wheat breeding with resistance to powdery mildew and BYDV.

    • The resistance evaluation and their utilization of the germplasm resources from International Rice Bacterial Blight Nursery (IRBBN) in South China

      2013, 14(5):929-934.

      Abstract (2037) HTML (0) PDF 1.22 M (2225) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:The 2270 of rice germplasm resources from International Rice Bacterial Blight Nursery (IRBBN) were evaluated against rice bacterial blight disease in South China. The identified results against the pathotype Ⅳ which was the most predominant indicated that 500 varieties (22.03%) were highly resistant (scale 1), 617 varieties (27.18%) resistant (scale 3), 355 varieties (15.64%) moderately susceptible (scale 5),373 varieties (16.43%) susceptible (scale 7) and 425 varieties (18.72%) highly susceptible (scale 9) among the 2270 of rice germplasm resources. Against the pathotype Ⅴ which was the most highly virulent in South China, 131 varieties (8.23%) were highly resistant, 322 varieties (20.23%) resistant, 292 varieties (18.34%) moderately susceptible, 422 varieties (26.50%) susceptible and 425 varieties (26.70%) highly susceptible, respectively. Among which, 411 varieties (25.82%) showed resistance to both of the pathotype Ⅳ and Ⅴ. Some germplasm resources, such as BG1222, IRBB5, IRBB7 and IRBB203 with excellent agronomic characters and high resistance were screened out. A new bacterial blight resistance gene from BG1222 was identified according to genetic analysis, and the resistance gene was mapped on chromosome 1. Some resistant germplasm resources were selected for rice resistance breeding program, and numbers of varieties with high yield and good quality were bred successfully. Thereinto, the cultivar Baixiangzhan originated from IRBB5 (xa5) was the first released rice variety against virulent pathotype Ⅴ in South China.

    • Screening of New Resistance Sources of Wheat Leaf Rust

      2013, 14(5):935-943.

      Abstract (2596) HTML (0) PDF 1.73 M (2338) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Wheat leaf rust, one of the most major diseases of wheat, greatly reduce wheat yield when wheat cultivars are infected. It is important to continuously screen and obtain new resistance sources for wheat breeding due to the resistance losses caused by mutant of leaf rust races. Wheat-alien species harbor resistance gene(s) which could be transferred to wheat for wheat breeding purpose. In this research, we screened and characterized new leaf rust resistance sources from wheat-alien species amphiploids, additions, substitutions and translocations for further using these germplasm. Leaf rust complex isolates (Lrcomp)(from Kansas State) and 09-9-1441-1 etc. five leaf rust isolates (from China), were inoculated to germplasm at seedling stage, and were scored for infection types. Total 31 from 116 germplasm are immune or highly resistant to Lrcomp. Part of germplasm included Aegilops searsii, Ae. caudate, Ae. speltoide, Ae. biuncialis, Ae. geniculata, Ae. sharonensis, Ae. peregrina, Ae. comosa, Ae. umbellulata, Ae. ventricosa, Thinopyrum intermedium, Th. intermedium ssp. trichophoru, Th. elongatum, Elymus trachycaulus, Secale cereale, S. africanum or Triticum timopheevi chromatin are immune or highly resistant to Lrcomp, while germplasm which contain Ae. bicornis, Ae. mutica, Agropyron scirpeum, Dasypyrum breviaristatum or D. villosum chromatin are susceptible to Lrcomp. Aegilops searsii 4Ss chromosome, Ae. caudate C#1 and D#1 chromosmes, and Ae. biuncialis, Ae. comosa may harbor new wheat leaf rust resistance gene which need further research. Wheat-E. trachycaulus Robertsonian translocation line 1HtS.1BL, nearly immune to Lrcomp and other five leaf rust isolates indicating that it is worth to make small chromosome translocation by chromosome engineering for wheat breeding purpose.

    • Study on selecting the excellent strains of Alfalfa hybrid offspring

      2013, 14(5):944-952.

      Abstract (2127) HTML (0) PDF 1.26 M (2137) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Through measured the indexes related to growth, yield and quality of Gannong No.3, Gannong No.5 , tourists alfalfa and their hybrid offspring, using gray relevancy analysis method of the gray systematic theory, structured the comprehensive evaluation model for all materials , selected fast-growing 12 # and fast-growing 11 # of the hybrid offspring as the best strains, including growth height were 105.44 cm, 105.42 cm; Growth rate were 1.74 cm/d, 1.68 cm/d; stem-leaf ratio were 0.30 and 0.35; Branch number were 23, 17; fresh yield were 39.99 t/hm2, 35.13 t/hm2; Crude protein content were 19.95% and 23.89%, Relative feeding value for 153.15%, 157.02%. Relatively good strains were Many leaf 2 #, fast-growing # 5, fast-growing 20 #, fast-growing 21 #.

    • >研究简报
    • Analysis of SSR Information in EST Resource of Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.Ipomoea and Ipomoea nil (L.) Roth

      2013, 14(5):953-958.

      Abstract (1966) HTML (0) PDF 1.37 M (2455) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:To excavate the EST-SSR resourses of Ipomoea, 12812 non-redundant ESTs with the total length about 6.70 Mb were obtained by assembling 23406 ESTs from Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.Ipomoea batatas in NCBI. With the same way, 28422 unique sequences covering 17.19 Mb were generated from Ipomoea nil (L.) RothIpomoea nil. A total of 328 SSR loci for Ipomoea batatas with the the frequency of 2.56% and 962 SSR loci for Ipomoea nil with the frequency of 3.38% were identified by MISA. The EST-SSRs from Ipomoea batatas and Ipomoea nil had many common features. Among all the identified SSRs, dinucleotide repeats were dominant motifs and then were trinucleotide repeats. For dinucleotide repeats, AG/CT was the major motif, followed by AT/AT. And AAG/CCT was the most frequent motif among the trinucleotide repeats. The length of EST-SSRs was mainly distributed betweenn 20 bp to 22 bp. The result in the paper indicated that these EST-SSRs with abundant repeat motif types and high potential polymorphism have high value for exploitation and utilization.

    • Screening Of SSR Core Primer Pairs for Identification Tobacco

      2013, 14(5):959-964.

      Abstract (2291) HTML (0) PDF 1.38 M (2491) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Core primers are important for genetic diversity analysis, germplasm identification, purity and genuineness test, and fingerprint establishment. Currently, we have screened 20 tobacco germplasm stocks with distant relationships by using of 278 SSR primer pairs, which evenly distribute on 24 chromosomes, through the strategy of distant relationships, and among which 32 primer pairs were selected out. And then, another 10 germplasm stocks with similar relationship were used to screen the 32 primer pairs, and 14 SSR core primer pairs were obtained. These 14 SSR core primer pairs were conducted on pedigree research, genetic diversity analysis and agronomic traits clustering study for 39 germplasm stocks. The result showed these core primer pairs could be applied to germplasm identification and genetic diversity study in tobacco.

    • Application of Gametocidal Chromosome on Deletion Mapping of Triticeae

      2013, 14(5):965-969.

      Abstract (2027) HTML (0) PDF 1.15 M (2162) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Some chromosomes derived from genus Aegilops have complete or incomplete gametocidal effects whenever the chromosomes are attached to common wheat in different genetic background with monosomic form, which might cause chromosome structural aberrations, such as translation, deletion or other effects, to facilitate alien genes of interest introgressing into wheat genome. Moreover, it is also informative and helpful to construct deletion maps as well as physical maps[1]. This paper reviewed the progress of studies on constructing deletion maps of wheat, rye and barley by means of the strategy of gametocidal chromosome

    • Inheritance for resistance to TMV in three tobacco strains

      2013, 14(5):970-973.

      Abstract (2078) HTML (0) PDF 1.14 M (2295) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:For effective use of tobacco germplasm resources resistant to TMV, and improve resistance breeding efficiency against TMV, the inheritance for TMV resistance and resistance gene in three flue-cured tobacco lines, CV87, FC8 and Kang88, were studied. CV87, FC8 and Kang88 were crossed with YunYan87 or ZhongYan100, respectively, and F1 plants were self-pollinated to produce F2 populations, then the TMV resistance of CV87, FC8, Kang88 and there F1, F2 populations were identified by inoculating TMV-C strain; In addition, N gene primers were used to detect N gene sequence in genomic DNA of CV87, FC8, Kang88, YunYan87 and ZhongYan100. Resistance identification showed that CV87, FC8, Kang88 and F1 group were immune to TMV, YunYan87 and ZhongYan100 were susceptible to TMV, and Chi-square (χ2) tests proved that the separation ratio of F2 groups were 3:1, in accordance with the dominant single gene inheritance; PCR results found that N gene was present in resistant lines, CV87, FC8, Kang88, did not exist in susceptible materials, YunYan87 and ZhongYan100. The results indicated that the TMV resistance of CV87, FC8 and Kang 88 were controlled by single dominant gene N.

    • Genetic Analysis and Mapping QTLs for Amylose Content of Soft Rice Variety from Yunnan

      2013, 14(5):974-977.

      Abstract (2168) HTML (0) PDF 1.18 M (2759) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Genetic analysis and mapping QTLs of amylose content were conducted using a F2 segregation population of Haomuxi/Guichao 2.The results showed that the amylose content of Haomuxi was controlled by a recessive major QTL, and it was not allelic to the wx locus. Besides the major QTL there were several minor QTLs. The major QTL was detected on chromosome 11 with LOD scores 15.4 with SSR markers, which is linked to RM224. This major QTL can explain 32% of phenotypic variation.

    • Analysis on tobacco Genetic Integrity of different populations by SSR Markers

      2013, 14(5):978-984.

      Abstract (2123) HTML (0) PDF 1.34 M (2194) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:N.tabacum germplasm Honghuadajinyuan, Wankouhongtuyan, Baihuaheiyan, Yunyan 87 and wild tabacco germplasm N.alata were used as materials in this study. The genetic integrity of different populations was investigated by SSR with constructing mixed DNA pool. The results showed that, with the scanning of whole-genome, none of polymorphic SSR primers were screened from 960 SSR primer pairs of Honghua dajinyuan,Wankouhongtuyan and Baihuaheiyan,but 3 polymorphic SSR primers of Yunyan 87 were detected. 6 polymorphic alleles were amplified from 80 plants, and.they could still be achieved when the population was reduced to 10 plants..So the population greater than or equal to10 plants can represent the genetic integrity of N.tabacum germplasm.11 pairs of primers were selected from the 608 pairs to analyze N.alata, 44 alleles were amplified from the 80 plants, and the polymorphic alleles were 19, according to the comparison of genetic diversity parameters, a sample of no less than 20 plants should be represent the genetic integrity of the population.

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