Abstract:Association analysis is an approach to identify the relationship of molecular markers or candidate genes with morphological traits in a given population based on linkage disequilibrium. Fifty-nine polymorphic SSR markers were applied for genotyping on 192 core collections of pea (Pisum sativum L.) to identify their genetic diversity,and to detect linkage disequilibrium of pair wise loci in the targeted population composed of the 192 core collections. The association analysis between 59 SSR loci and 19 morphological traits was performed by using TASSEL GLM(General Linear Model) program. High polymorphism and various degree of linkage disequilibrium (LD) were detected among SSR loci. Associations between 32 SSR loci and 14 morphological traits were detected, some loci were found associated with two or more morphological traits.
Abstract:Abstract: Drought is a serious, worldwide problem for crop production and also affects yields of cotton. This paper conducted on different drought resistance of 41 cotton germplasm at germination stage by the experiment of 15%PEG6000 vertically rolled paper tests.We determined 8 indentification indices such as germination energy, germination rate, seedling length of 3 days, total seedling fresh biomass of 3 days, hypocotyl length of 7 days, radicle length of 7 days, radicle length of 7 days/Hypocotyl length of 7 days, growth rate of sprout length. The results showed that the 8 indices were lower under 15%PEG6000 than water controlled condition and the coefficients of variation became bigger except for total seedling fresh biomass of 3 days indicating that cotton germination was inhibited by 15%PEG6000 and the different varieties(lines) were evidently different. At the same time the relative values of T/CK were calculated. We screened 7 indentification indices such as relative germination energy, relative germination rate, relative seedling length of 3 days, relative hypocotyl length of 7 days, relative radicle length of 7 days, relative radicle length of 7 days/Hypocotyl length of 7 days, relative growth rate of seedling length by the way of variance analysis and principal component analysis. The results showed that this 7 indices had some connection with germination drought resistance. The subordinate function values of cotton germplasm under PEG6000 drought treatment and the correlation coefficient were analyzed by the 7 indices. The average subordinate function values stood for ability of germination drought resistance. With the increase of the average subordinate function values the cotton germination drought resistance ability was increasing. The results showed that relative radicle length of 7 days was significantly related to the average subordinate function values(r=0.839**). There were 7 accessions of cotton germplasm with high drought resistance ability at germination stage such as Ji668,Lumianyan21, 9409xuanxi,DP99B,Chuangmina22, sGKZhong980,Han177 and 10 accessions of cotton germplasm with medium drought resistance ability such as Zhong23A-12,Zhong23AkanmianF12,CRI35,Ji1286, GKZ19F6,Shuangyu97-2067,Guangzi2,Naigaowen-2,ZhongS9612, Guangzi1.
Abstract:Based on Descriptors and Data Standard for Grape (Vitis L.), eighteen descriptors were selected to make cluster analysis for 38 Chinese wild grape species and Vitis vinifera from Chinese Ampelography. The results showed that 39 species had been clustered into 8 sections and 5 subsections according to the similarity of morphology. The first section had 5 species, which included V.heyneana, V.adenoclada, V.longquanensis, V.bellula and V.hui, the second section had V.bashanica and V.sinocinerea, the third section had 21 species and consisted of 5 subsections, the first subsection contained V.amurensis, V.shenxiensis, V.zhejiang-adstricta, V.bryoniaefolia and V.silvestrii, the second subsection had V.retordii and V.menghaiensis, the third subsection had V.balanseana, V.yunnanensis and V.flexuosa, the fourth subsection had V.piloso-nerva, V.pseudoreticulata, V.wuhanensis and V.jinggangensis, the fifth subsection contained 7 species, such as V.davidii, V.romaneti, V.betulifolia, V.wilsonae, V.mengziensis, V.fengqinensis and V.hekouensis, the fourth section had only V.vinifera, the fifth section had V.wenchouensis, V.erythrophylla, V.piasezkii, V.ruyuanensis and V.tsoii, the sixth section had V.chunganensis, V.luochengensis and V.chungii, the seventh section had only V.hancockii, the eighth section had only V.lanceolatifoliosa.
Abstract:In order to evaluate the diversity of morphological characteristics and to provide a criterion for choosing example varieties in rice DUS testing. Diversity analysis, including observed number of alleles, effective number of alleles and Shannon's information index, were conducted with 49 rice varieties which listed as example varieties in the DUS testing guidelines as material, combining with the 59 morphological characteristics investigated at Hanzhou in 2008. The clustering analysis for the example varieties was also conducted according to their species diversity parameters. The results showed that total of 201 and 262 alleles for 59 morphological characteristics were observed in the indica and japonica rice group, respectively, with an average of 3.4068 and 4.4407 alleles for each characteristic in the two subspecies. The Shannon's diversity index averaged from 59 morphological characteristics were 0.8318 with a range of 0~1.7674 and 0.9828 with a range of 0~1.8547 in the indica and japonica rice group, respectively. Several groups, with each includes 2-3 rice varieties with similarity over 0.7, were found in both indica and japonica rice group, based on the clustering results. The results indicated that the 49 example varieties, which with rich diversity in morphological characteristics, could be used for demonstration and adjusting for characteristics' describing in DUS testing. The 49 rice example varieties could be reduced to 43 according the threshold with similarity of 0.7. The result could provide a criterion for selection and optimization of example varieties in rice DUS testing system and could also give a reference for developing DUS testing guidelines for other plant species.
Abstract:Abstract: Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) molecular markers were used to detect the genetic diversity among 13 Cucurbita ficifolia resources from 6 prefecture of Yunnan．The results showed that 43 and 41 bands were obtained by RAPD and ISSR markers amplified through 6 selected primers respectively．The PPB (percentage of polymorphic bands) in RAPD detection (90.70％ ) was higher than that in ISSR (51.21％)．The similarity coeficient ranging from 0.340 to 0.895 and from 0.162 to 0.941 respectively, and the ISSR (mean value of GS was 0.481) was more efficient than RAPD (mean value of GS was 0.698)．The germplasms were divided into three main cluster groups and five inferior groups by RAPD, and it also could be divided into four main cluster groups and six inferior groups by ISSR．The significant correlation between RAPD and ISSR markers was observed(r=0.536)．The dendrogram was constructed by UPGMA method could provide theoretical basis for Cucurbita ficifolia introduction culture or cross breeding in future.
Abstract:Fushiguang, Tengxi138, Shangyu397 and Wuyoudao1 are the founder parents of rice breeding at cold region from the 1990s. 50 SSR markers were used to cluster and PCO analyze the the founder parents and their derivatives. The results showed that 150 alleles were detected and allelic variation of single SSR loci ranged from 2-6, mean allelic variation was 3; PIC ranged from 0.0725-0.6845, mean 0.3655; 51 experiment varieties were separated into four classes and four founder parents were in four classes separately; four founder parents were far from each other and their derivatives distributed around them through PCO analysis. Only 3 in 39 rare alleles detected existed in founder parents. This showed that genetic improvement of cold rice has progressed to surround a few founder parents in recent years. Founder parents has transmitted their most fine genes to derivatives and pedigree analysis has the same result with SSR and PCO analysis.
Abstract:It is very important for inheritance and plant breeding to definite the changes of agronomic traits and the relationship with production. Agronomic traits and production of 249 soybean germplasms were investigated under field condition for 2 years, and multi-statistics analysis was then applied to analysis the results. The results showed that the coefficient of variation (CV) of germplasm of soybean based on agronomic characters and production were 6.2%-78.0% and 6.3%-48.5%, respectively. CV for growth period was small because of the similar ecotype of the germplasm resources in the area of Huang-Huai-Hai plain. CV for stem nodes number was also small. CVs for plant height, effective branch number, bottom pods height, the pods number per plant, grain number of single plant, number of seeds per pod, grain weight per plant, 100-seed weight and yield per unit area were large. Agronomic traits and production were significant different between cultivars. Effects of ecological factors (including temperature, precipitation and sunshine hours) of different years on agronomic characters and production of soybean were large. Agronomic traits between different years were also significantly different. Agronomic traits could be simplified for 4 independent indexes correlating with production by using principal component analysis in 2 years. Furthermore, it could be quantified the relationship between agronomic characters and production according to establish set of equation Y=17.5-1.76x1+1.32x2+0.30x3+2.50x4 and Y=198.8-3.12x1+7.71x2+0.08x3+2.71x4 in 2 years between them. The characters of all type cultivars in 2 years were analyzed by using the method of cluster analysis for 5 types, respectively, to provide theoretical basis for breeding new soybean cultivars of high and stable yield.
Abstract:The present research was focused to analysis phenotypic genetic diversity among 200 accessions of geographically different cultivars of G. arboreum in National Medium-term Gene Bank of Cotton in China. The result indicated that, the phenotypic genetic diversity was abundant in G. arboreum L. cultivars. There was significant or highly significant variation among 200 accessions based on each phenotype trait. Shannon-Wiener index（H`）of the 19 phenotypic traits ranged from 0.34 to 2.15, the orders as below: lint percentage>plant height>growth period>boll weight>sympodial branch node=seed index>monopodial branch number>seed fuzz color>Verticillium wilt resistance>stem color>stem pubesence amount>leaf color>petal base spot color>leaf shape=leaf base spot color>corolla color>seed fuzz>leaf nectary>fiber color. The phenotypic diversity of the four cotton-growing areas from higher to lower was Yangtze River region, Yellow River region, South China region and foreign countries. Software NYSTS-pc2.20 and UPGMA were used for the cluster analysis on genetic distance matrix. The result showed that, the Euclidean distance among all the 200 G. arboreum accessions ranged from 0.85 to 11.72(average 5.92). The 200 accessions were clustered into 16 phenotypic types when the value was 5.48, such as types of green broad leaf, red leaf, okra leaf, brown fiber, early maturity, late maturity, big boll, high lint percentage and so on, and 8 accessions with specific phenotypic traits were selected. No apodictic relationships were observed between genetic distance and geographic distance.
Abstract:A total of 416 varieties being grown during 2007-2008 in 56 counties in Yunnan province were evaluated using 20 pairs of SSR markers. Total of 116 alleles were detected and the number of alleles per marker ranged from 3 to13, with an average of 5.8. The mean of polymorphism information content (PIC) of SSR markers was 0.681, with a range from 0.349 at RM18 to 0.891 at RM6748. PIC varied from 0.025 to 0.679 among the 56 counties, with an average of 0.381, that of Menghai was the highest while that of eight counties in each only one accession being collected was the lowest. Cluster analysis with UPGMA method based on genetic identity (GI) indicated that 56 counties were classified into 3 groups at GI of 0.362, GI was 0.943, the highest between Mouding and Yao’an counties while that was the lowest between Simao and Ninglang counties, with GI of 0.033. GI was related to geographical regions among 56 counties. Rich genetic diversity exists in Yunnan rice landraces in present production. Genetic diversity of landrace rice distribute uniformly between prefectures in Yunnan province and rich genetic diversity mainly concentrate in five prefectures including Xishuangbanna, Dehong, Puer, Lincang and Honghe.
Abstract:Using five wild lily and two lily cultivars as parents. Designing six cross-combination for wide cross breeding. Distant hybrids was obtained successfully by field planting way and ovary culture finally. They were identified by morphology and RAPD molecular identification.The results showed that crossing combination Lilium longiflorum譒ilium callosum obtaining three hybrid seedlings by ovary culture,Lilium callosum譒ilium regale,Lilium callosum?‘Snow Queen’, Lilium pumilum (Provenance of Hei Long-jiang)?‘Snow Queen’, Lilium pumilum(provenance of HeiLong-jiang)?‘Siberia’, Lilium pumilum(provenance of ChengDe)?‘Siberia’ obtaining hybrid seeds.The seed set ratio were 27.0 %, 1.4 %, 31.4 %, 0.04 % and 0.08 % respectively. Plant type of hybrid seedlings are matroclinous plants and intermediate plants. The other indexs of morphology lies between parents orbetter than parents. RAPD molecular identification showed that the hybrids has not only additive banding, solo-parent banding, but also extraordinary banding which is the fusion of its parents, and new bandings appearing in the patterns. The hybrids are true hybrid and can be used to quality breeding of Lily.
Abstract:In this paper, we selected 7 rapeseed germplasms with super-high oil content and 16 main rapeseed cultivars from the different planted regions to construct their fingerprinting by SSR molecular markers. Using 28 SSR primer pairs from the different linkage groups, we totally got 302 SSR bands for the all materials, 279 of which are polymorphism bands, each primer amplified 6-16 bands with 10.79 bands on average, the average of polymorphism rate reach 92.38%. By this way, we could distinguish all the materials better. UPGAM analyzing revealed that there were the large difference among the high oil content germplasms and between the high oil content germplasms and the main cultivars. At genetic distance of 0.171, the 23 B. napus could be divided into nine groups, in which the super- high oil content germplasms were divided into four groups, and 8 main cultivars were divided into five groups. These results showed that all materials had the most abundant genetic diversity, especially there were large genetic differences between the super-high oil germplasms and the main rapeseed cultivars.
Abstract:Remarkable success of plant introduction in China were achieved. In this paper, introducted 254 crops in China were compileted in accordance with food crop, economic crop ,vegetable crop, fruit crop, forage and manune crop, medicine crop and forest crop. In the meantime, 305 cultivated species in the 254 crops were compileted.
Abstract:Eleven grain quality traits of 76 cultivars (lines) from Yunnan Provincial were analysed using the method of phenotypic principal component and cluster analysis. The results indicated that: (1) The mean of amylose content and milled rice rate met 1 and 3 level of edible rice grain quality standard, respectively. And those of brown rice rate, transparency, alkali digested value and gel consistency fit 2 level of that standard.Whereas those of other traits were below 3 level. Among variation coefficients of the grain quality traits, those of brown rice rate and alkali digested value were lowest,,while that of chalky area was highest, and the follow was chalky rice rate . (2) There existed complex relationship among rice grain quality traits. (3) The cumulative contribution rate of milled rice rate, chalky rice rate and chalky area to grain quality was 49.6% among six principal component factors affecting grain quality traits. (4) 76 cultivars (lines) could be classified into four groups according to genetic distance. There were 52 cultivars in No.1 groups, indicating near genetic distance and narrow genetic basis among most of the cultivars. In order to improve the grain quality of Yunnan japonica cultivars, chalky rice rate and chalky area should be reduced while milled rice rate and head rice rate are necessary increased .At the same time, it is also important to broaden the genetic basis in japonica rice breeding.
Abstract:Isoflavone contents were analyzed by HPLC methods in 100 representative soybean cultivars from different regions in this study. The results showed that all of 100 cultivars contained six of major isoflavone components in soybean seeds, including daidzin (D), glycitin (GL), genistin (G), malonyldaidzin (MD), malonylglycitin (MGL) and malonylgenistin (MG), and there were significant difference on the isoflavone content among ecological regions and varieties, which explained the abundant genetic variation of isoflavone content in the soybean germplasm. The average of total isoflavone content (2465.48 ug/g) in soybean cultivars from south region was the highest, and that from north region was the lowest (1705.89 ug/g). Coefficient of variation (CV) for the six major isoflavone components was ranged from 33.44% to 52.03%. Correlation analysis showed that there was significantly positive correlation among the isoflavone components, in which correlation coefficient between total isoflavone content and malonylgenistin was the maximum (r = 0.958 **); A significantly negative correlation was presented between total isoflavone content and oil content (r = -0.323 **). Two soybean cultivars with high isoflavone content (cv. Pingdingheidou, 4459.91ug/g and cv. PI-567479, 4073.95 ug/g), and two cultivars with low isoflavone content (cv. Chasedou, 857.74 ug/g and cv. Mufeng1, 922.82 ug/g) were selected for soybean breeding and genetic study on the isoflavone.
Abstract:Using 80 SSR markers, 192 wild soybean genotypes from Jiangxi province in China, were analyzed for genetic diversity. The results showed that total 343 alleles were identified, with 7.2 of the average of alleles per locus; the average genetic diversity index was 0.7369; the average polymorphism information content (PIC) was 0.7060. All these results indicated the abundance of genetic diversity among these genotypes. At the same time, genetic diversity were analyzed for genotypes from different latitude and altitude, which of circumpolar latitude and low altitude were higher. All the 192 wild soybean genotypes for molecular clustering could be clustered into 3 categories. It was found that the genetic distance was approximately consistent with the origin of the wild soybean genotypes.
Abstract:In the present study, the viability of 14 thousands seed accessions, belonging to 34 crops, were detected after being stored at the National Genebank of China for 20 to 23 years. Results showed that the viability of 92.9% of the accessions were higher than 85%. Significant viability decline was detected in 155 accessions from broad bean, red adzuki bean, jute, castor, sugar beet, watermelon, tobacco and forage. A total of 2078 seed accessions from 8 crops, including wheat, soybean, sorghum, millet, cotton, peanut, common bean and watermelon, were uesd for seedling emergence survey. The results showed that each surveyed accession succeeded in seedling emergence, but the emergence percentage of 8 accessions was lower than 10%. The seedling emergence percentage was lower than the mean initial germination percentage. Among the 8 crops, the seedling emergence percentage of common bean was the highest, with a mean value of 86.2% of 126 accessions, which was only 9.3% lower than the initial germination percentage. The lowest seedling emergence percentage was found in millet seeds, with a mean value of only 39.2%, which was 51.3% lower than the initial germination percentage. To sum up, most of the collections in the National Genenbank of China can be safely conserved for more than 20 years, especially the cereal seeds, but as for the seed accessions that had showed significant reduction in the mean monitored germination percentage, for example, broad bean, red adzuki bean, etc, the viability should be monitored more frequently in order to assure the long-term safe conservation of these germplasm.
Abstract:Common bean is one of the most important food legume, and is grown in all parts of the world. In recent years, it has made great achievements in genetic map construction, development and utilization of new markers, resistance gene mapping and comparative genomics of common bean. Molecular linkage maps are an important tool for gene discovery and cloning. Detecting resistance gene by linkage maps can be used in maker-assistant-selected and improvement of common bean. Legume comparative genomics research provided a new way of developping genetic linkage map. This paper gives an overview of progress of common bean genetic linkage maps, synteny mapping between common bean and soybean and gene mapping for anthracnose resistance as to provide some new reference for genome research and molecular breeding in common bean.
Abstract:Mungbean breeding objective traits are mostly controlled by multiple quantitative genes. The phenotypes of mungbean are affected by environment greatly. In order to analysis the genetic of the yield-associated traits in mungbean, RIL populations (F10) derived from the cross between an economical parent Berken and a wild parent ACC41 were planted in Beijing and Nanjing for their yield-associated agronomic traits evaluation. The results showed that in total of 63 QTLs were investigated in Beijing and Guangxi (25 in Beijing and 38 in Guangxi), located on twelve linkage groups except the 13th group. Most of the QTLs were detected in single environment, indicating the significant interactions between QTL and environments. Only 6 QTLs controlling pod length, 100-seed weight and day to mature were detected in both Beijing and Guangxi environment. Those QTLs will be of special significance for mungbean’s molecular-marker-assisted-breeding. Two regions on linkage group 5 and 9 with clustered QTLs relevant to multiple yield-associated agronomic traits and five linkage group with bundled QTLs relevant to a single agronomic traits identified in the study may provide the genetic loci of the universal yield QTL.
Abstract:The rice DEP1 (DENSE AND ERECT PANICLE1) gene is an important regulator that can enhance meristematic activity, reduce internode distance, increase per spike grain number, and eventually increase the rice yield. We report here the cloning of the genomic sequence of the wheat orthologous gene TaDEP1 which contains five exons and 4 introns. Genomic sequence comparison revealed a region that can be used as molecular marker (Ta956) to distinguish homoeoalleles of hexaploid wheat. Ta956 was used to map TaDEP1 to wheat chromosomes 5A, 5B, and 5D by using Chinese Spring nulli-tetrasomic lines. Sequences corresponding to Ta956 were then isolated and sequenced from hexaploid wheat, its putative donor species and tetraploid wheat. Sequence comparison showed that most variations were present at introns, particularly between the B and D homoeoalleles. Domain analysis showed that proteins from the D genome of hexaploid wheat was more different to those on the A and D genomes, suggesting functional divergence among TaDEP1 proteins from the A, B, and D genomes. The potential of using Ta956 as a marker for variety identification is discussed.
Abstract:In this study, 5 introgression lines (ILs) and Zong3 were selected to develop segregated populations by Griffing Ⅳ diallel crossing for identifying of QTL for row number per ear and assay of QTL interaction. The SSR markers were used to screen genotype of ILs and F2 individual. In the IL ×Zong3 F2 population, only one QTL for row number per ear was detected in population derived from ILs, with 10.68% phenotypic variation. In populations derived from crossing among ILs, total of 9 QTLs were detected, on chromosome 1, 3 and 8, with 4.53% to 6.52% phenotypic variation. In addition, 2 pairs interactions among QTL, 10 pairs interactions between QTL and introgressed fragment in which QTL did not was detected were found. The sum of phenotypic variation explained by all of interaction pairs was significantly higher than that explained by QTL in each of F2 population. These results indicated that epitasis plays an important role in genetic controlling of row number per ear in maize.
Abstract:The different color rice were evaluated based on four mineral concentrations of brown rice from 61 accessions harvested from Mile experiment farm under the uniform ecological conditions by AAS method. The results showed that the Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn concentration of the color rice was higher than that of the write rice, and the four mineral concentrations in brown rice was Zn > Fe > Cu > Mn. In addition, Fe and Zn concentration of color rice were affected by pigment content in pericarp of it, Cu and Mn of color rice were not influenced by pigment content in pericarp of it. Fe concentration of the color rice was in turn black rice>green rice>brown rice>red rice>yellow rice, Zn concentration of the color rice was in turn green rice > red rice > black rice >brown rice >yellow rice, Cu concentration of the color rice was in turn black rice>brown rice >red rice>yellow rice >green rice, Mn concentration of the color rice was in turn brown rice >black rice> red rice>yellow rice >green rice. There were some differences among Fe, Zu, Cu and Mn average concentrations in brown rice of the different color rice, black rice and brown rice rich on Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn, green rice rich on Fe and Zn, red rice rich on Zn and Cu. Four concentration of yellow rice were lower than that of the other color rice.
Abstract:To optimize the concentrations of CuSO4 and iron source used in wheat embryo culture, investigation on the influence of Fe and Cu ions in culture media on wheat regeneration was performed using CB037, Xinchun9, and Bobwhite as materials. The results showed that the the efficiencies of embryogenic callus induction and green shoot induction has not difference when the concentration of CuSO4 was from 0.1 to 4.1 祄ol L-1, and 6.1 祄ol L-1 was toxic for mature embryos of wheat. Regeneration efficiency from the mature embryos of CB037 was obviously improved on the media containing 40 祄ol L-1 iron source. The optimal concentration of iron source were 40 to 50 祄ol L-1 when the immature embryos of CB037 were used as explants, both of callus differentiation and green shoots induction in this level were higher than them in the level of 20 祄ol L-1(at random). For the immature embryo culture of Xinchun9 and Bobwhite, the ideal concentration of iron source was 20 祄ol L-1. The sensibility of different genotypes to iron source is discrepant. In average, the order for regeneration potential of immature embryos among the three wheat genotypes used in this study is CB037, Xinchun 9 and Bobwhite.
Abstract:Pinus yunnanensis Franch. was a worldwide-cultivated species. The morphological, chromosomal, physiological, biochemical and DNA molecular genetic diversities of Pinus yunnanensis Franch. were summarized in order to afford information for use. It can be predicted that systematical studies on genetic variation should be very important to reasonable conservation, utilization and breeding of Pinus yunnanensis Franch..
Abstract:21 mung bean varieties were used to analyse seed physical characteristics such as seed coat color, seed coat proportion,100-grain weight and seed physiological characteristics such as biological yield variation during germination, water absorption rate ,as well as the sprout traits such as mung-bean sprouts yield, morphological characteristics of sprouts and sensory quality of sprouts, This study also analysed the correlation among physical, physiological characteristics and the characteristics of sprouts. The results showed that the range of the indexes (Sprouts yield, hypocotyl diameter and hypocotyl length) of 21 mung bean materials 111.7-143.2,7.21-11.79 and 0.245-0.353,respectively. There was no significant correlation between seed coat color and biological yield, hypocotyl rough , hypocotyl length.There was significantly correlation between seed coat color and thousand-grain weight（P<0.05）. 100-grain weight and biological yield had significant negative correlate. Hypocotyl diameter and biological yield had significantl negative correlate（P<0.05）. Based on the study, the indexes which were suitable for evaluating mung bean sprout traits were selected，they were sprouts yield, hypocotyl diameter and hypocotyl length. MB01,MB07,MB19 and MB45 were selected which had good sprouts traits .
Abstract:In the present study, four medium (CIM, W4, SD2 and MSD2) were used for callus induction from mature embryos of Yangmai 158 and Bobwhite, model varieties with high capacity in callus regeneration. Two medium (MRM, 1/2MS+5mg/L Zeatin) were used for the following callus regeneration. Both varieties had the highest regeneration frequency on callus induction medium CIM followed with the regeneration medium 1/2MS+5mg/L Zeatin. Tissue culture capacities of mature embryos from 40 Shandong elite varieties or advanced lines were evaluated. The results showed that the callus induction had no significant differences in these cultivars and lines, but the callus status and the growth speed and the following regeneration capacity were quite different. Among the 40 lines, only 08H05 had the higher regeneration frequency (23.3%) than that of the Bobwhite (21.3%), eight lines (08H02, 08H05, 08B08, Taimai20-2, Taishan5024, Liao9514, Hemai9803, Bobwhite) with more than 10% regeneration percentage, account for 20% in the survey lines, seven lines can not obtain any regenerated plantlet, accounting for 12.5%, and 25 lines account for 62.5% with the regeneration frequency no more than 10%.
Abstract:Surveyed and collected to agro-bio-resources and its traditional knowledges in 6 Dulong villages at Dulongjiang town of Gongshan county of Yunnan province two times in 2008 and 2009 year. It were found that agro-bio-resources are considerably rich by Dulong people planted , managed and utilized, in sum of 181accessions collected, mainly included 30.4% of food crops，49.7% of vegetables and 17.7% of fruit trees germplasm resources; abundant of traditional knowledge have also been accumulated by agro-bio-resources，such as their methods they processed and cooked traditional food on Caryota urans L. farina, Qiyou chichen, Qiyou ghee tea and Fructus chaenomelis speciosae Doufu etc.
Abstract:Pre-harvest sprouting is the devastating disaster of wheat, but varieties resistant to the disaster is rare in common wheat. Germination rate of 35 Ae. tauschii accessions from the middle reaches of the Yellow River, 14 Ae. tauschii accessions from abroad, and 2 wheat cultivars were tested. Meanwhile，diversification analysis classfied the materials into several categories. The results indicated that all Ae. tauschii accessions have stronger pre-harvest sprouting resistance than common wheat, and those from the middle reaches of the Yellow River have stronger pre-harvest sprouting resistance than those from abroad. Among those from the middle reaches of the Yellow River, T005, T007, T008, T016, T030, T062, T065, T068, T069, T072 and T085 were identfied to have strongest resistance to pre-harvest sprouting, and could be applied in wheat breeding.
Abstract:The drought resistance of 21 mung bean landraces was evaluated with 15% PEG6000 solution culture.The results showed that the landraces with higher water absorbing speed , shorter germination time, lower water absorbing rate , and higher relative germination speed and percentage had better drought resistance. Four accessions with drought resistance were screened out.
Abstract:Diversity of cytoplasmic male sterility is key measure for solving grain quality, resistance and yield of three line hybrids. Sterile plants H236A was found in offspring from Miyang 46 as female parent. Its sterile type and abortion degree were determined by hybridization and selfing; Its pollen grain fertility, abortion shape, and abortion stage were studied by 1％I2-KI staining and observation of Leica fluorescence microscope DM 2500 on mature pollens. Results showed that H236A was cytoplasmic male sterility, which abortive degree was above 99.8%. Pollen grains belong to typical abortive was 83.17% and round abortive was 16.83%, no stained abortive pollen grains. Abortive stage of H236A was in single nuclear development period. Abortive shapes of pollen grains were in varied forms, such as irregular, round and spindle etc. Phenomenon that cytoplasm of late microspore moved directionally and formed cytoplasm bridge was observed clearly. Division of mature pollens abortive stage and shape were also discussed in this paper.