2011, 12(3):339-345. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2011.03.002
Abstract:In order to strengthen the germplasm collection and conservation of special oil crops, and offer the service for breeding research and utilization expediently, the status of germplasm conservation for special oil crops in China and some important countries was illuminated in this study. Thirteen countries such as America, India, Europe and China et al, hold ninety thousand germplasm accessions of special oil crops including more than 30,000 flax accessions, over 21,800 sunflower accessions, more 15,000 safflower accessions, about 5,000 castor bean accessions and approximately 900 perilla accessions. Most flax resources are conserved in America, Russia, Canada and Europe; sunflower germplasm accessions are mainly collected in America, Europe and China; large numbers of safflower accessions are distributed in India, America, China and Russia; and most castor bean resources are kept in China, America and India. As for the accession numbers of special oil crops among those countries, America ranks first which possesses more than 22,000 accessions, India ranks second, and Europe, China and Russia are in the middle place. Eight thousand four hundred accessions of special oil crops (castor bean, sunflower, safflower and Perilla) are conserved in China, twenty-one percent of which are foreign germplasms, and most of native germplasms come from Hubei Province, North China, Northeast, Northwest and Southwest. This study is valuable for China germplasm introduction, collection and preservation of special oil crops, not only point out the direction, but also provide the reference.
2011, 12(3):346-351. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2011.03.003
Abstract:China is the origin country of ramie (B. nivea), there are a lot of germplasm resources of Boehmeria in China. Studies on the germplasm are very important for the taxology and evolution research in genus Boehmeria as well as for the variety improving of ramie. In this paper, the origin,taxology and genetic relationships of Boehmeria were reviewed objectively and in detail. The progress in cytological and microbiological studies on Boehmeria were summaried. Suggestions are put forward for the future research on germplasm in Boehmeria .
2011, 12(3):352-361. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2011.03.004
Abstract:The evaluation of nitrogen use efficiency on low-nitrogen level and correlation coefficients among characters related to grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency were conducted by using 180 accessions of core collection of rice (Oryza sativa L．) in China．The results showed that the range of variance of straw nitrogen contain rate (SNR) and straw nitrogen absorption per plant were 0.56-1.85% and 0.04-0.61g, respectively. The range of variance of grain nitrogen contain rate (GNR) and grain nitrogen absorption per plant were 1.28-3.23% and 0.02-1.04g, respectively. The range of variance of nitrogen absorption per plant was 0.10-1.30g. The range of variance of nitrogen grain production efficiency (NGPE) was 3.85-57.52g/g. The range of variance of nitrogen plant biology production efficiency (NPBPE) was 17.56-104.02g/g. The range of variance of nitrogen harvest index (NHI) was 7.05-88.58%. There were obvious different among rice germplasms. There were no obvious different on SNR, straw nitrogen absorption (SNA), GNR, grain nitrogen absorption (GNA) and plant nitrogen absorption (PNA) between Japonica rice and Indica rice. There was no obvious different on NPBPE, even the value of indica rice were a little big than Japonica rice. There were obvious different on NGPE and NHI between Japonica rice and Indica rice. NGPE and NHI were significantly positively associated with seed setting rate, grain weight per plant and effect panicle per plant. Directly to select seed setting rate, grain weight per plant and effect panicle per plant were more effective selected higher resistance to low-nitrogen and higher nitrogen use efficiency under low-nitrogen condition.
2011, 12(3):362-367. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2011.03.005
Abstract:To provide biological foundation for the utilization and breeding of Sinensis germplasm, ISSR and RAPD were applied to detect genetic diversity of 23 accessions of Sinensis germplasm. 79 bands were applied with 13 ISSR primers, of which 57（63.29%）were polymorphic, 57 bands were applied with 10 RAPD primers, of which 33（57.89%）were polymorphic. Effective number of alleles Ne, Nei’S index H, the Shannon information index were 1.4306 and 1.3601, 0.2305 and 0.2215, 0.3405 and 0.3145. The two molecular markers demonstrate that both ISSR and RAPD are efficient approaches for genetic diversity analysis of Sinensis germplasm and ISSR is more suitable comparatively in terms of reproducibility and ability of detecting genetic polymorphism. The influence of human activity and forest fragmentation may play a main role in creating this species’s current endangered status.
2011, 12(3):368-373. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2011.03.006
Abstract:Germination percentage of 89 accessions wheat germplasm stored-4～0℃ packed in vacuum aluminum foil bag and non-vacuum aluminum box were tested.Disussed the effect of storage method form three levels：the difference of germination percentage of two package methods for seeds stored at low temperature and initial germination percentage before stores, the difference of germination percentage of two package methods for seeds between storage years and the difference of germination percentage between two package methods in the same year. The result showed：the viability of wheat germplasm stored at low temperature were tested, the 82 percent of materials of mean germination percentage was higher than initial germination percentage,but ten years later, germination percentages were obviously decreased than initial germination percentage,and the germination percentage of aluminum foil bag were reduced of less than aluminum box and the difference was significant, the method of sealing up in aluminum foil bag showed best effect.
2011, 12(3):374-380. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2011.03.007
Abstract:Absract: SSR (simple sequence repeat) and SRAP (sequence-related amplified polymorphism) were employed to study their genetic diversity and genetic relationship. Three conclusions can be drawn from this study: (1)29 SSR primer pairs generated a total of 121 apparent DNA fragments. The polymorphic bands took 97.5% of total amplified bands.27 SRAP primer pairs generated a total of 175 apparent DNA fragments. The ratio of polymorphism is 70.3%. (2)The result of two labels mixing analysis indicated that all tested-cultivars can be classified two groups at 0.566 similarity index level. And B group can be classified six sub-groups at 0.62 similarity index level. The first group contained 10 natural double low B. napus L strains with extreme early maturity, 2 parents of B. napus L and four new B. napus L strains which were created by four D9946 and HAOYOU11 . The other 51 new B. napus L strains were classified into 5 different sub-groups. (3)The genetic element of 55 new strains was analyzed, which indicated that the ratio of different bands in different strains that accounted for all bands was different. The correlation analysis between the ratio of special bands of parents of B. campestris L in new strains and the genetic distance between new strains and their parents, respectively. It showed that it was negative correlation (-0.52) and positive correlation (0.31) between special bands of parents of B. campestris L in new strains and the genetic distance between new strains and their parents of B. campestris L and B. napus L, respectively. （4）The genetic distance and origin of all the materials except two parents of B. campestris L were analysized that genetic distance that ranked top 20 were among that of new B. napus L strains of extreme early maturity or that between new B. napus L strains and natural B. napus L strains of extreme early maturity. The largest genetic distance was up to 0.544.
2011, 12(3):389-395. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2011.03.009
Abstract:Genetic stability of 24 sweetpotato germplasms maintained in vitro more than 5 years in the National Sweetpotato in vitro Genebank in Xuzhou, was analyzed using Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) molecular markers. 20 pairs SSR primers were used. The results showed that all sweetpotato germplasms stored in vitro had the same amplified products as the controls preserved in field nursery, indicating that the two different methods have the same effect on preserving sweetpotato germplasm stability. Meanwhile, we analyzed the genetic diversity of 24 sweetpotato germplasms. The dendrogram generated by UPMGA showed the genetic relationship among 24 accessions. The genetic similarity among 24 accessions varied from 0.57 to 0.93. The numbers of total bands and polymorphic bands generated by the 20 primer combinations were 30 and 21 respectively. The 24 accessions were divided into 3 groups by cluster analysis. These results may provide a theoretical basis for sweetpotato germplasms maintained in vitro and the breeding of sweetpotato.
2011, 12(3):402-407. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2011.03.011
Abstract:Chinese plum (Prunus Salicina Lindl.) germplasm was an important base on breeding and production. In this paper, 405 accessions of Chinese plum germplasm resources were collected from Xiongyue Plum and Apricot Repository among National Fruit-tree Germplasm Resources, and 32 morphological and agronomic traits of them were used genetic diversity, correlation and principal component analyses. The results showed that Chinese plum resources were rich in genetic diversity; The leaf shape, fruit shape, skin color, flesh color, and so on, have high diversity. For quantitative traits, the coefficient of variation was from 47.09% ~ 14.85%, the largest fruit weight coefficient of variation was 47.09% and of range was 4.50 ~ 107.90; vitamin C content coefficient of variation was 40.44%, and ranged from 0.80 to 14.70. The correlation analysis showed internode length with annual shoot length, soluble Sugar was a positive correlation，and fruit development with soluble solids content, soluble sugar content showed a positive correlation, but with titratable acid content and vitamin C content showed the negative correlation.
2011, 12(3):413-418. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2011.03.013
Abstract:Abstract：The investigation of horticultural crops Resources related to work and life of the Yi, Pai, Wa, etc. national minorities was carried out in Yongde county, Yunnan Province . The survey investigated and collected totally 78 types of horticultural crops Resources and identified their families, genera and species respectively. Some of their biological characters, distribution and national usage were briefly introduced. This paper can be used as reference to further research, development, utilization and protection of these horticultural crops Resources in the future.
2011, 12(3):425-430. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2011.03.015
Abstract:DNA Methylation，most occurs in CpG dinucleotides， is a kind of epigenetic modification,most occurs in CpG dinucleotides。 The most striking feature of DNA methylation patterns is that the addition of a methyl group at the 5-position of cytosine in CpG dinucleotides by DNA methytransferase. It take for S-adenosylmethionine as methyl donor. DNA methylation has essential roles in many plant life processes. The characteristics of plant methylation，its regulating mechanisms, the effects on plants and the application of DNA methylation will be reviewed in this paper, providing a theoretical references to DNA methylation research on plant genetics.
2011, 12(3):431-436. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2011.03.016
Abstract:Abstract 【Objective】 In this study, resistance gene cDNA homology sequence from wheat was isolated by using homology-based method. 【Method】The primers were designed according to the conserved sequence of resistance gene analogs and a 703 bp fragment was isolated from TcLr24. A few homologous sequences were captured when processing similarity search in GeneBank database. We designed primers based on highly conserved region among the above sequences and the rapid amplification cDNA ends (RACE) was used to obtain the full length sequence of the disease resistance homology gene in the near isogenetic lines TcLr24. 【Result】Three full length cDNA sequences were obtained . BLASTp analysis showed that the deduced amino acids of protein consisted of a NBS conserved domain and many leucine-rich repeats (LRR) domains, which were identical to the conserved domains of many plant resistance genes. These sequences appeared not to be induced by Puccinia triticina and were constitutive genes in the wheat leaf tissue by real time PCR. 【Conclusion】In this study, we obtained three resistance homology sequences which provide the short cut for researching of wheat resistance gene.
2011, 12(3):437-441. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2011.03.017
Abstract:A set of materials with Triticum aestivum- Haynaldia villosa translocation chromosomes were created using cv. ‘Chinese Spring’ as female and Triticum durum-Haynaldia villosa amphiploid as male whose pollen treated with 60Co-γ-ray in different dose. Then the set of materials were backcrossed with cv. ‘Chinese Spring’ or self-crossed , H. villosa chromosome segments were reserved in M1 or BC1 so that alien genes were transferred into wheat. The results showed that frequency of induced translocation chromosomes were significant different using different irradiation doses of 60Co-γ-ray. The plants with T. aestivum-H. villosa translocations induced by 1200rad and 800rad hold 76.7% and 50.0% in M1 generation, respectively, and better translocations types were induced by 60Co-γ-ray with 1200rad dose. 67.6% of these translocations were passed from M1 to BC1, and 96.4% from BC1 to BC2. Alien whole chromosomes were rapidly lost, some pure translocations were obtained in BC2F2.
2011, 12(3):442-447. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2011.03.018
Abstract:Abstract: Five wild rice species in the O. officinalis complex and two cultivated rice varieties were phylogenetic analyzed based on the ribosome ITS1 and ITS2 sequences. Their complete ITS and the 5.8S sequences on the ribosome region were amplified by polymerase chain reaction technique and were analyzed by online software CLUSTAL W (2.0.12) Multiple Sequence Alignments and Neighbor Joining. The results showed the ITS sequences all had high G/C contents. By comparison, the ITS1 had relatively high sequence length polymorphism and the ITS2 had more base mutations. The O. officinalis and O. alta were clustered together in the phylogenetic tree and they were far from the cultivated rice species. The O. australiensis, O. punctata and O. brachyantha were located between these two clusters and they were on the interim phase of rice evolution.
2011, 12(3):448-454. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2011.03.019
Abstract:OsGW2 (RING type E3 ubiquitin ligase) plays important roles in regulating rice yielding traits. According to the OsGW2 cDNA sequences, the homolog of OsGW2 was isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana by RT-PCR and designated as AtGW2. The predicted AtGW2 protein has 401 amino acids, and has a RING-type domain. The grain size and kilo kernels weight of wild-type Arabidopsis plants were lower than those of AtGW2 RNA interference transgenic plants. These results suggested that AtGW2 negatively regulates the grain size and weight in Arabidopsis.
2011, 12(3):460-463. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2011.03.021
Abstract:Ammopiptanthus mongolicus (Maxim.) is an evergreen broad-leaf shrub in the northwest desert of China. Because of the high content in polysaccharides, polyphenols and other secondary metabolites, it is difficult to extract high-quality total RNA from the plant with conventional methods. In this research, by adding high concentration of potassium acetate and β-mercaptoethanol into the extraction buffer of Hot Phenol Method, we successfully extracted high-quality total RNA from different samples of the plant. We also obtained high-purity mRNA with suitable mRNA isolation kit. Both the total RNA and mRNA have been successfully applied to gene cloning and SMART (Switching Mechanism At 5’end of RNA Transcript) cDNA library construction.
2011, 12(3):464-467. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2011.03.022
Abstract:Sequential genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and double color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques were used to map physically 45S rDNA and 5S rDNA genes in a wheat-H. villosa 6V/6A substitution line. The results indicated that eight pairs of 45S rDNA loci were detected on seven pairs of wheat chromosomes, and six pairs of 5S rDNA loci were detected on six pairs of wheat chromosomes, respectively. Both 45S and 5S rDNA signals were collocated closely on the terminal region of the short arm of chromosomes 1A, 1B and 5D. At the same time, we discussed the possible factors of variation of the two types of rDNA in locus number and location in wheat-H. villosa 6V/6A substitution line.
2011, 12(3):468-472. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2011.03.023
Abstract:SSR marker is usually the first choice of molecular markers in maize seed identification, but there stills exist some problems for SSR marker, especially in hybrids purity identification. It is still necessary to explore supplementary markers to facilitate varieties identification besides SSR marker. In this paper, SSR and SRAP were performed in 19 maize varieties and 9 samples of Lainong 15 about 1100 individuals. The discriminative power of the markers, genetic relationship and hybrids purity revealed by SSR and SRAP markers were compared and analyzed. Comparing to SSR markers, SRAP markers displayed more amplified alleles per primer-pair, higher PIC value, and higher discriminative power. For the 19 maize varieties, similar clustering results were achieved. Genetic Distance estimated based on SSR and SRAP data were significantly correlated with each other. Specific primers of SSR and SRAP with complementary pattern were used to detect hybrid purity of Lainong 15. The hybrid purity identified by SRAP marker was more vicinal to field test than that by SSR marker. SRAP markers could be applied in maize identification as a useful supplement of SSR, especially in hybrid purity identification.
2011, 12(3):473-476. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2011.03.024
Abstract:The paper has researched on the morphological characteristics and analysis and comparison of different regions of different parts of walnut in Tibet. The results showed that three mean maximum diameter is 4.04cm and minimum is 3.11cm. Shell thickness is between 3.1 ~ 3.9mm. The highest protein content of Madaga is 21.85%. The protein content varied is from 15.1% to 21.85%. The highest fat of Basu 2 is 69.6%. The fat content varied between 61.7% ~ 69.6%. Basic on these researches, we selected eight priority systems.
2011, 12(3):477-480. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2011.03.025
Abstract:Genetic and difference of total flavonoids and alkaloids content are studied, based on germinated brown rice and brown rice of 222 RILs as well as their parents. The results show that total flavonoids and alkaloids present a wide range of genetic variation in germinated brown rice and brown rice of RILs, the total flavonoids content in brown rice is slightly higher than germinated brown rice, but all appear the normal distribution and similar to the qualitative traits the distribution. Total alkaloids content in germinated brown rice is 1.5 times as much as the brown rice, but all appear the skewed distribution. This study can be a theoretical basis for genetic and breeding of the functional rice..
2011, 12(3):481-485. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2011.03.026
Abstract:Abstract: Based on the selected eggplant inbred lines with different nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), the combination ability was analyzed with 7 inbred lines under high Nitrogen(450 kg/hm2 )and low Nitrogen(no N)by Griffing-II design. The results showed that, at two N levels, NUE was controlled by additative and non-additative effect, and total N and N utilization efficiency (NUtE)were controlled mostly by additative effect.609 and 749 inbred lines had higher general combining ability of nitrogen use effieiency at two N levels. Under low N stress, the heritability in the broad-sense of NUE characters increased while heritability in the narrow-sense of NUE characters decreased.
2011, 12(3):486-488. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2011.03.027
Abstract:Two species of tropical fruit in Sapotaceae, sapodilla (Manilkara zapota (Linnaeus) P. van Royen) and egg-fruit-tree (Pouteria campechiana (Kunth) Baehni), were used as materials, the chromosome number and karyotype were studied. Results showed that：Chromosome number of sapodilla is 26, that of egg-fruit-tree is 28. The karyotype type of the two species are “2B” and “1A” respectively, karyotype formula are“18m＋8sm”and“26m＋2sm”. The asymmetry index and the constitution of relative length of the two species are very different.
2011, 12(3):489-492. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2011.03.028
Abstract:Common smut in maize reduces grain yield greatly. lines play an importment role to minimize the losses caused by common smut. At the elongation stage, Ustilago maydis fungus was injected into 8 maize chromosome segment introgress lines(CSILs). Eight CSILs have different chromosome segments of donor maize HB522 respectively.There are four kinds of varieties in eight CSILs. is highly resist to common smut. Chr3-7’s grain yield is highest among other seven CSILs and two parents. chr3-7 is good SSILs for Resistance to common smut study and resistance breeding.