Abstract:About 4000 items of Oat germplasm in China were collected. In this paper, species diversity of oats and genetic diversity of Avena sativa in China were briefly introduced. In the meantime , systematic research of wild oats in China were proposed in the paper.
Abstract:Genetic diversity analysis in crops plays an important role in evaluation and utilization of crop germplasm resources. In this study, the genetic diversity of 136 wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germplasm resources with drought resistance were analyzed based on ten agronomic traits and their drought tolerance index (DTI) in rain fed (drought stress, DS) and well-watered (WW) environments. The results showed that length from flag leaf pulvinus to spike base (LFS) has the largest coefficient of variance (CV) of 42.1% and 37.2% in both DS and WW environments, respectively, while the spikelet per spike (SPS) has the smallest CV of 6.4% and 5.7%. Under different water regimes, spike number per plant (SNP), effective spikelet per spike (ESPS) and peduncle length (PLE) contribute a lot to the stable grain yield. Genetic diversity indices of DTI were from 1.95 to 2.07, with an average value of 2.02. Based on the DTI of agronomic traits, all accessions could be clustered into seven groups, the first and third groups are not sensitive to the water regimes, and the second group is more suitable for planting in dryland. The diversity message on the drought-tolerant plant material may be helpful for the DT improvement in wheat.
Abstract:Pointing on situation that yield of organic rice was lower than that of common rice, this paper discused relation between industrialization of organic rice and application of wild rice excellent germplasm. At the same time, it also analyzed status of use of excellent genes from wild rice, questions existing at present and methods to solve questions. In the paper, it was showed up that excellent genes from wild rice were used in breeding program to rise resistance to disease and pests, tolerance to adversity and photosynthetic efficiency and so on of organic rice so as to promote application of wild rice excellent gerplasm, solve problem about residues and pollution of chemicals and rise economic benefit of enterprises.
Abstract:The genetic diversity of green-cotyledon black soybean cultivars native to Hebei province was evaluated based on ISSR and agronomic characters. The results indicated that 60 alleles of 7 ISSR markers were detected among 46 cultivars with an average of 8.57 alleles per ISSR marker, and the number of alleles per primer ranged from 5 to 17. The value of allelic polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.721 to 0.927, on the average of 0.82 per primer. The value of genetic similarity (GS) indices of 46 cultivars based on the 14 agronomic traits and ISSR data varied from 0.067 to 0.533 and 0.43 to 1.0 respectively, with an average of 0.284 and 0.704, indicating that the genetic diversity among green-cotyledon black soybean cultivars from Hebei is abundant. The clustering results showed that the groups could reflect the origin of the cultivars.
Abstract:One hundred and seventy seven accessions of hulled oat (Avena sativa L.) with domestic and oversea origins were analyzed using 20 AFLP primer combinations. Selective amplification created 976 unambiguous bands, of which 185 bands were polymorphic. The percentage of polymorphic bands for each AFLP primer combination ranged from 9.3% to 35.9%, with the average of 19.0%. Shannon-Weaver indices of groups of accessions with diverse geographic origins varied from 0.1900 to 0.3412. Western Europe group showed the highest index, followed by North Europe (0.3269), Japan (0.3072), Eastern Europe (0.2949) and North American group (0.2904), and Heilongjiang group showed the lowest. The results of PCA and UPGMA clustering analysis exhibited a good consistency, and were also consistent with geographic origins. All the accessions were classified into two categories based by PCAand UPGMA clustering analysis. One category covered mainly domestic accessions, the other category included accessions of Inner Mongolia and Qinghai as well as accessions from overseas. The exotic accessions were generally separated from domestic accessions while domestic accessions with different origins mixed up. This indicates that the relationship between domestic and oversea accessions was relatively far caused by lacking of effective exchange, and the domestic accessions of hulled oat were more homologous due to lack of diversity. It is important to promote the germplasm exchange with other countries and enrich the genetic diversity of hulled oat in China.
Abstract:Orchardgrass is a kind of famous forage in temperate zone with higher infection of rust disease. According to the infection analysis of rust in field, thirty-seven orchardgrass accessions(thirty-five of them were natural accessions) were tested in the paper. The infection phenomenon of rust was investigated and the result suggested that accessions of 02-106、02-107、90-130、02-115 can moderately resist to both leaf and stem rust, All of the four accessions are of more value for rust resistance reproductive selection.
Abstract:In this study, 300 soybean and 100 common bean germplasm conserved in National Crop GeneBank were screened for seed-borne viruses by serological and molecular biological methods. For the soybean germplasms, 76(25.33%), 41(13.67%) and 14 (4.67%) were positive to Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), and Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) respectively. Some were infected by two viruses, such as SMV and CMV, or SMV and AMV. In common bean 92% were infected by Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV). These information will be useful to understand the status of seed-borne viruses in leguminous crops in genebank and to take measures for control virus diseases during seed reproductions in field.
Abstract:The exploitation of crops with salinity tolerance is significant for the agriculture. Total 895 individual plants of wild soybean were collected from the littoral population in the Bohai Bay region bestriding Tianjin and Tangshan areas. The tolerance identification was carried out with three experimental treatments.The results showed that there were a series of salinity tolerant individual lines of different intensities at various growth phases in the Jin-Tang population, suggesting that edaphic ecotypic differentiation existed in this population. At seed germination, there were three kinds of lines for germination ability: germinable (high-tolerant); germinable at a reduced level of salinity stress; incapable (sensitive). The growth of plants at earlier stage was worse inhibited than subsequent stages. The damaged degrees of morphological traits in the population showed as the order: overground dry weight, yield, seed number per plant, 100-seed weight, and harvesting index per plant. The coefficients of variation in traits between lines was ordinal yield, seed number, pod number, harvesting index, overground dry weight per plant, and 100-seed weight. The Jin-Tang population had high levels of edaphic ecological adaptation and edaphic ecotype with high levels of salinity tolerance, which was expected to become useful in developing high salinity-tolerant soybeans.
Abstract:Twenty-two polymorphic primer pairs were selected from 53 SSR special primer pairs developed and designed by our laboratory to amplify genomic DNA of 46 litchi. 23 locus-specific SSR markers were obtained, and 52 alleles were found and the average alleles per marker was 2.4. The average observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity and PIC of all markers were 0.451, 0.355 and 0.507 respectively. Locus Lit6 had the highest number showed that it was an optimal marker. Then the selected polymorphic SSR markers were used to detect the genetic diversity of 46 litchi germplasm and to cluster them. The results revealed that similarity coefficients of most of litchi germplasm were among 0.63-0.95, which indicated that the genetic relationships between them were closer related. In addition, it was identified that huaizhi(hainan) and huaizhi(guangdong) were not the same cultivar but the different one which used the same name.
Abstract:The high frequency of multivalents was found in wheat-Agropyron addition line Ⅱ-21-2 which was added (1·4) recombinant P chromosome of A. cristatatum （L.） Beauv. The meioses of 10 different plants of wheat-Agropyron addition line Ⅱ-21-2 were observed. The result showed that there was low-frequency of univalent in all plants and the abnormal chromosome synapses mainly were hexavalents and quadrivalents. 41% pollen-mother cells in 1-7-3 line had hexavalents, while 13% pollen-mother cells in 1-7-7 line had quadrivalents. The analysis of SSR primers from wheat showed that there was polymorphism in wheat genome or P genome of the different plants. Our results suggested that P chromosomes may influence the chromosome synapsis of wheat-Agropyron addition line Ⅱ-21-2 and the molecular polymorphism and recombination of wheat-Agropyron addition line Ⅱ-21-2 may be useful in genetic improvement of wheat.
Abstract:Biochemical composition and diversity analysis of 98 tea germplasms originating from Guangxi were conducted. The results showed that the biochemical diversity and variation were high in Guangxi tea germplasms. The average diversity index and coefficient of variation were 1.90 and 25.8%, respectively. In principal component analysis, the first seven principal components represented 86.75% of the biochemical diversity. Based on the biochemical data, 98 germplasms were clustered into 3 groups. The germplasms in the first group suited to be processed green and black tea. The germplasms in the second group suited to be processed black tea. The germplasms in the third group suited to be processed green tea. A set of special germplasms on some biochemical composition were selected.
Abstract:Germplasms with high sugar content in stem are of importance for silage corn breeding. One hundred and fifty one corn inbred lines were screened for evaluation of sugar content in stem in this study. The results were summarized as follows, the Brix in stem ranged from 3.5 to 16.9, 65 out of 151 inbred lines (43.1%) had sugar content up to 10%,and these inbred lines might be useful for improvement of sugar content of hybrid stem. All the tested inbred lines were divided into three types using cluster analysis method according to their sugar content in stem. Type III included 22 inbred lines and these lines had high sugar content of stem(Brix=12.3～16.9),which might be pivotal to increase sugar content of corn hybrid stem. Five out of these 22 lines including 78599-1-550, 78599-2, YXD053-646, Y53-245 and YU-CY509 could be desirable genotypes considering their high sugar content in stem and superior agronomic characters.
Abstract:An Agrobacteriummediated transformation system,using transient and stable transformation assays,was used to evaluate some factors influencing transformation in cauliflower.These included the precultivation time,the bacterial density,the inoculation duration time with Agrobacterium tumefaciens,the concentration of acetosyringone,the delay selection and the concentration of kanamycin in selection.Using cotyledons with 12mm petioles as explants,the best transformation parameters were:twoday precultivation,OD6000.30.4 of bacterial density,eightminute infection with Agrobacterium tumefaciens,twoday cocultivation,100μmol/L acetosyringone in the cocultivaiton medium and sevenday delay selection in kanamycin of 5mg/L.By optimizing the parameters on the procedure of Agrobacteriummediated transformation,a high transformation efficiency(35.7%)was demonstrated.The GUS transient expression could be an important indicator for cauliflower transformation.The development of an efficient Agrobacteriummediated transformation system opens up new opportunities for the functional characterization of genes and promotes the development of novel germplasm of Brassica vegetable genus.
Abstract:75 Shaanxi soybean landraces were selected and a randomized blocked design was executed,then get date of 13 agronomic traits.Extracted DNA from five seeds of each landrace，amplified DNA with 42 RAPD primers，and analyzed genetic diversity index of agronomic traits and RAPD bands.42 RAPD primers were selected from 648 primers,and then 310 fragments were produced,an average of 7.3 fragments for each primer,the polymorphic percentage was 96%.The genetic diversity of Shaanxi soybean differs in different regions.Either the number of the highest diversity trait or the mean diversity value was higher in region North Qinling.The mean value of genetic diversity of RAPD bands were higher in region North Qinling while lower in region South Qinling,but the number of higher genetic diversity index of RAPD bands in region South Qinling was higher than that in north.Three groups were got from cluster analysis,landraces from same regions were tend to one cluster,clusters generally reflected the geographical origin of landraces.The first two principal components account for 1095% of the total variation,but it separated landraces of the two regions.Landraces of different regions showed significant difference by AMOVA analysis,variation between and within populations account for 7.94% and 92.06% of the total variation respectively,which were significant(P＜0.0001).The genetic diversity of soybean germplasm was higher in region North Qinling，although there were many tiny variations existed in population of region South Qinling.Populations of landraces divided by Mount Qinling showed significant difference.
Abstract:The investigation, collection of main crops Landrace resources of the Dai,Hani,Lahu and Yi national minorities were carried out in Menghai and Mengla Counties in Xishuangbanna,Yunnan Province. The survey collected landrace and Wild types of food crops,vegetables,fruit trees and economic crops totally 353 which belong to 40 families，71 genuses and 87 species.Analysis of characteristic and distribution for these collected resources revealed the current situation of main crops landrace in Xishuangbanna and that preferences，religion belief and ecological environment of different minorities play important roles in protection. Some protection strategies were made to landraces by their features.
Abstract:Zinc-finger proteins play a key role in the regulation expression of defense genes and resistance response of plant. So far, few articles reported C3HC4-type RING zinc-finger protein genes in the soybean. In this study, a RING zinc-finger protein gene was isolated from soybean (Glycine max, Tiefeng 8) cDNA library treated by drought stress for 5 h using NTT system. This gene contains 927 bp, coding 308 amino acids, and has a C3HC4-type RING finger domain and named GmRZFP1. Phylogenetic analysis showed that GmRZFP1 belong to C3HC4-type Zinc-finger subfamily. Real-time PCR results showed that the expression of GmRZFP1 gene was induced by drought, high salt, high temperature, low temperature, ethylene and ABA stresses, suggesting that GmRZFP1 might involve in some stresses related signal pathways. Subcellular localization assay indicated that the 163GFP-GmRZFP1 fusion protein was located in the nucleus of plant. The results would be useful in the study of functions of this gene family in stress responses of soybean, and clarify molecular mechanisms of stress resistance in soybean.
Abstract:Plant height and stem diameter are important agronomic traits in soybean, which have effect on yield and lodging. The objective of this study was to molecularly map the QTL conditioning plant height and stem diameter at different developmental stages of soybean growth. A population of 165 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between Zhongdou 29 and Zhongdou 32 was used in this study. Based on unconditional and conditional QTL mapping methods, 18 QTLs for plant height and 19 QTLs for stem diameter were detected on eleven and nine linkage groups respectively. The number, additive effects and contribution rate of QTLs for plant height and stem diameter were different at different developmental stages, which indicated that these QTLs expressed timely and selectively. Three QTLs for plant height and one QTL for stem diameter were detected in three years, and six QTLs for plant height and two QTLs for stem diameter were detected in two years. The QTLs of plant height and stem diameter on linkage groups F were mapped to the same loci and they were expressed simultaneously from R1 to R4 stages. Compared with the late stages, more QTLs expressed in the early stages, and QTLs for plant height expressed more times than QTLs for stem diameter. The positive alleles of QTLs for plant height and stem diameter were from different parents. The developmental dynamic of QTLs for plant height and stem diameter was consistent with the correlation analysis of phenotypic traits at different developmental stages.
Abstract:Extraction of high-quality RNA is the base for seeds molecular biology research. Rapid isolation of high-quality total RNA from dry seeds is difficult by the extraction methods reported previously. In this new protocol, SDS and guanidinium thiocyanate methods were combined for RNA extraction and high-quality of total RNA was obtained in about 3.5h. Extraction at low pH, precipitation of polysaccharides with potassium acetate, usage of phenol blocker polyvinylpolypyrrolidone(PVPP) yielded high-quality RNA from rice, soybean, broad bean, kidney bean and peanut with a small number of samples of 0.01-0.1g. The extracted RNA was suitable for RNA reverse transcription and RT-PCR. This method can provide some references for isolating total RNA from dry seeds of other species with similar chemical composition.
2010, 11(3):364-368. DOI: 10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2010.03.003
Abstract:Most agronomic charateristics and complex biosynthetic pathways are determined by the coordination of multiple gene expression ,and gene pyramiding molecular breeding combined with conventional breeding techniques have become the main means for the crop breeding.Gene pyramiding molecular breeding includes genetic transformation molecular breeding and marker-assisted selection molecular breeding. The research progress of crop genetic pyramiding molecular breeding in recent were reviewed. The research methods, the countermeasures on the existing problems of gene pyramiding molecular breeding were discussed and the prospects were described as well in this paper.
Abstract:A rapeseed mutant resistant to imidazolidone was found as a volunteer in the soybean field treated by spraying imidazolidoneherbicide. The resistance of this mutant was steadily inherited and effective,which had been testified by consecutive assessment of several generations in 3 years. The mutant showed resistant to a dose of imidazolidone which was two times of the effective concentration of this herbicide. It is of great theoretical and practical significance for the identification of new herbicideresistant oilseed rape genes with independent intellectual property,also for the development of new varieties against environmental release restrictions.
Abstract:45 crisp peach varieties were used as plant material in this paper. A total of 152 alleles were amplified by 25 primer pairs distributed on eight linkage groups on Prunus reference map. 146 alleles showed polymorphism,and the percentage of polymorphic bands (PPB) was 96.05%. The Nei′s gene diversity index (He) and Shannon′s information index（H0）of crisp peach varieties were 0.2283 and 0.3609,respectively. Crisp peach varieties from the area along Yangtzi river had the highest Nei′s gene diversity index (0.2211) and Shannon′s information index(0.3476),followed by subtropical zones in South China and YunnanKweichow Plateau ,the lowest from the North China Plain. Groups cluster analysis based on the UPGMA method indicated that there was some relationship between crisp peach varieties and ecological zones,but not all varieties were in comformity with geographic origin and some from different ecological zones overlapped. Crisp peach varieties from the Yangtzi River and YunnanKweichow Plateau had closer genetic relationship,followed by subtropical zones of South China,as far as the North China Plain. The results preferred the opinion that the crisp peach varieties from Yangtzi River may not only origin from the north China,but also from the YunnanKweichow Plateau and subtropical zones in South China.
Abstract:Constructing the core collection of fruit germplasm by using the existing basic information,identification and evaluation data has become another new research area of fruit germplasm resources after the preservation,identification and evaluation.According to the connotation and development of core collection,the main characteristics of the core collection of fruit trees were proposed and its main research contents,methods and procedures were presented.By analyzing the special natures of constructing core collection of fruit germplasm,its main problems and further research directions were discussed in detail.