Abstract:A total of 2156 near isogenic lines,genetic stocks, modern cultivars and some other soybean accessions were introduced from 22 countries including United States,Japan etc.These introductions were evaluated for their morphological traits and documented in the Chinese Soybean Germplasm Catalogs.In this paper,the achievements of introduction utilization were summarized in order to provide information for soybean researchers and breeders.By using introductions,some methods were established for characterizations such as soybean cyst nematode resistance,photophora rot resistance,lipoxygenase deficiency,kunitz inhibitor deficiency and EPSPS transgenic gene.Marker assisted breeding tended to be start because of tagging or mapping some important genes(salt tolerance,SMV resistance,photophora rot resistance,lipoxygenase deficiency,kunitz inhibitor deficiency) and establishing background selection strategy.Some new cultivars were also developed and planted in the soybean production by using introduction in the pedigree.Therefore,it is needed to enforce introducing soybean germplasm for sustainable soybean production as while as further study on these foreign germplasm for efficiently utilization in genetics,breeding science,phenotypics,genomics,proteomics and enzymics.
Abstract:Seed setting rate,pollen fertility and development of pollen were studied in 141 accessions of Oryza.rufipogon Griff.collected from the six sampling sites in Gaozhou City,Guangdong Province.The results showed that the seed setting rate of all accessions of the wild rice was low,with the average of 57.23%.The percentage of pollen fertility was 89.3%,in which 134 accessions(accounting for 95.04%) were of over 50%,suggesting normal fertility.The pollen fertility in 7 accessions(accounting for 4.96%) was low,in which the least was 8%(GZW122).The main abnormal sterility in pollen expresses typical sterile type.Abnormal anther dehiscence happened in 17 accessions(accounting for 12.06%).Correlation analysis showed that both anther dehiscence index and pollen fertility were the factors to affect seed setting rate.The seed setting rate,pollen fertility and anther dehiscence index were different in the wide rice in different sampling sites.Among them,Xiangshan Cave,Xiangshan County,Xiangshan Town,Gaozhou City gave the least average in the seed setting rate,pollen fertility and anther dehiscence index.However,coefficient of variation was the highest in them,which indicated the high diversity in reproduction in this site.The pollen development went through eight stages,i.e.microsporocyte formation stage,microsporocye meiosis stage,early microspore stage,middle microspore stage,late microspore stage,early bicellular pollen stage,late bicellular pollen stage and mature pollen stage,which was similar to that in O.sativa L..
Abstract:ISSR(inter simple sequence repeat) markers were used to detected genetic diversity among wheat cultivars(or breeding lines) of Huang-Huai Winter Wheat Region of China.Totally 96 alleles of 11 ISSR markers were detected among 96 cultivars with the average of 8.7 alleles per ISSR marker,and the number of alleles per primer ranged from 3 to 23.The value of allelic polymorphism information content(PIC) ranged from 0.601 to 0.941,on the average of 0.791 per primer.These results showed that ISSR is a suitable molecular technique for genetic diversity analysis of wheat germplasm resources.The value of Nei's genetic similarity(GS) indexes of 96 cultivars based on the ISSR data varied from 0.35 to 0.91,with an average of 0.60,indicating that the genetic diversity among cultivars of Huang-Huai Wheat Region is abundant.Cluster analysis showed that the cultivars tested in this study could be clustered into eight groups and fourteen sub-groups,which generally do not agree with pedigree relations and regions of origin.
Abstract:In order to establish the evaluation system of smut resistance for sugarcane varieties,nine introduced sugarcane varieties were chosen and a field experiment including six other control varieties was conducted.By means of manual dipping inoculation,smut resistance for tested sugarcane varieties was evaluated on the basis of analyses on three infected indexes of the area under disease progress curve,infected rate of stalk,infected rate of plant and on two disease epidemic parameters of latent infection period(LIP) and sustained disease duration(SDD).Systemic cluster analyses based on correlation coefficients of these parameters showed that ROC26 was sensitive to smut infection and the other varieties were resistant in nine introduced varieties.Positive significant correlation between three infection indexes and SDD,and negative insignificant correlation between infection indexes and LIP were found.Fifteen sugarcane varieties could be divided into 6 groups on the basis of the distance more than 1.0.It resulted most ot tested sugarcane varieties had similar smut resistance.It suggested that smut race 1 and race 2 were included in inocula and the condition for Ustilago scitaminea infection was suitable in the crop season by setting up the standard varieties of NCo310,F134,NCo376 and Ya71-374 for smut identification.In addition,the results of sugarcane varieties resistant to smut race 1 and race 2 were known by only a simple field trial.From above,a feasible evaluation system for sugarcane smut resistance was established.
Abstract:Phytophthora root rot, incited by Phytophthora sojae, is a destructive disease of soybean. The disease has occurred in several soybean-producing regions in China, and caused heavy losses in some regions. Cultivar resistance has been the most effective way to control Phytophthora root rot. The aim of this study was to screen effective resistance sources to P. sojae for disease control and resistance breeding. One hundred and twenty soybean cultivars or lines from 11 provinces in china were evaluated for their responses to 10 strains of P. sojae using the hypocotyls inoculation technique. One hundred and ten cultivars or lines were identified having resistance to 1 - 10 strains of the pathogen. The most abundant resistance diversity was occurred in cultivars or lines from Henan province, followed by from Anhui, Hubei and Shanxi province. One hundred and twenty cultivars or lines elicited 57 different reaction types with the 10 strains of the pathogen. Among them 4 reaction types accorded to that of single gene,seven reaction types were consistent with two-gene combinations, and the others were new reaction types. Some cultivars or lines possibly carry new Phytophthora resistance genes that are effective to control Phytophthora root rot of soybean in China.
Abstract:The genetic integrity of 20 wheat accessions from different propagation times was studied by PAG-electrophoresis. The result showed that there were 10 genetically homogeneous accessions having only one gliadin spectrum biotype and 10 genetically heterogeneous accessions having 2 - 4 gliadin spectrum biotypes. Among 10 genetically heterogeneous accessions, 6 were landraces. It showed that landraces had high heredity variation. The germination rates before regeneration were higher than 75 % for the 5 genetically heterogeneous accessions in which the differences of frequency of gliadin spectrum biotypes were not significant between the two populations propagated in different years. But for other 5 genetically heterogeneous accessions, the differences of frequency of gliadin spectrum biotypes were significant between the two populations propagated in different years and their germination rates were lower than germination rate was positively correlated with difference of heterogeneous accessions, and the correlation coefficient was germination rate was the main factor for maintaining the genetic 66 %. The result also showed that the difference of the frequency of biotypes at 1% level of 10 genetically 0.8665. The result indicated that the propagation integrity of heterogeneous germplasm
Abstract:The phosphorus acquisition characteristics were studied in wheat varieties with different P efficiencies under Pi-sufficient and Pi-deficient conditions.It showed that the plant total P contents at maturity stage,the accumulative P amounts per plant at mid-and later-growth stages were all the highest in varieties with high-P efficiency,then in the varieties with mid-P efficiency,and the lowest in the varieties with low-P efficiency.The P utilization efficiencies at jointing stage,flag leaf expansion stage and maturity stage had little differences among the variety types with different P efficiencies.It suggested that the increases of the grain yields in the varieties with high-P efficiency under Pi-deficient condition were related to the improvement of P uptake in the plants at the mid-and later-growth stages(from flag leaf expansion to maturity).Under Pi-deficient condition,the root TTC reductive activities and soluble protein contents at flag leaf expansion stage and mid-filling stage were also the highest in the varieties with high-P efficiency,then in the varieties with mid-P efficiency,and the lowest in the varieties with low-P efficiency.These results indicated that the higher root physiological functions during the plant mid-and later-growth stages in the varieties with high-P efficiency were the important reason for their much more P accumulations and higher grain yields.It is found that there were significant differences in the root acid phosphatase(APase) activities among the varieties with different P efficiencies during the mid-and later-growth stages,implying that the root APase activities have important functions on regulating the wheat P efficiency under Pi-deficient condition.
Abstract:A total of 288 accessions of rice were evaluated in the study. The results suggested that germplasm resources from upland showed relatively bigger volume of biomass in general. But some lowland rice also showed big volume of biomass in maturity stage. There were no significant differences between two rice germplasm resources in seed set rate of panicles in drought conditions. The correlation between biomass and seed set rate was 0.0578,which was not significant difference, indicating that the germplasm with big biomass may not possess high seed set.
Abstract:In order to screen germplasm resources of oolong tea plant(Camellia sinensis(L.)O.Kuntze) with low pesticide residue contents,we used 120 tea plant resources in the Oolong Tea Variety Garden of Fujian Wuyishan Tea Research Institute as materials.According to the appearance of tea plant,31 tea plant resources had firstly been screened as candidate.Four pesticides,bifenthrin,fenpropathrin,cypermethrin and buprofezin were sprayed on the 31 cultivars or lines.The tea new shoots were plucked 7d later and their pesticide residue contents were mensurated and analyzed by gas chromatography.The cultivars or lines with low pesticide residue content had been screened 5,4,3 and 7 germplasm resources with low residue contents of bifenthrin,fenpropathrin,cypermethrin and buprofezin,respectively.
Abstract:Using four different Na_2CO_3 concentration as simulating alkaline stress,the relative alkali damage rate(RADR) of rice germinative energy(GE) and germination rate(GR) at germination period,RADR of rice root length(RL),seedling height(SH) and root number(RN) at early seedling stage were looked as evaluation indexes,so the alkaline stress concentration for evaluation of alkaline tolerance at germination period and early seedling stage in rice was studied.The results showed that germinative energy(GE) was more sensitive to alkaline stress than germination rate(GR),RL was more sensitive to alkaline stress than SH and RN,early seedling stage was more sensitive to alkaline stress than germination period.The mean value,variance and range of variance for RADR of GE and GR under 0.15% or 0.20% Na_2CO_3 stress were larger and their distribution was more reasonable that was good condition for the evaluation of alkaline tolerance at germination period.The mean value,variance and range of variance for RADR of RB,RL,SH and total value at early seedling stage under 0.10% or 0.15% Na_2CO_3 stress were larger and their distribution was more reasonable,that was good condition for the evaluation of alkaline tolerance at early seedling stage.GE,GR,RN,RL and SH were negatively related to their RADR;RADR of GR was significantly associated with RADR of RN,RL and SH.Total RADR at germination period was significantly correlated with total RADR at early seedling stage.Therefore the alkaline tolerance at early seedling stage would indirectly evaluated by the alkaline tolerance at germination period.
Abstract:Eleven quality indexes of sugarcane from thirty-six sugarcane varieties and lines were performed by path and factor analysis in this study.Sucrose content in cane was significantly associated with the nine quality indexes except loss of water in boiling liquid of bagasse by simple correlation analysis.Fiber percent cane was extremely significantly related with juice extraction percentage,brix in juice,polarimeter reading(PR) of juice,PR by sodium chloride solution,PR by hydrochloric acid and water content in bagassse,however,it was not significantly associated with loss of water,brix and polarimeter reading of boiling liquid of bagass.The results of path analysis suggested that sucrose content in cane were primarily controlled by juice extraction percentage,PR by sodium chloride solution,PR by hydrochloric acid,loss of water in boiling liquid of bagasse and PR of boiling liquid of bagass.Fiber percent cane was mainly influenced by juice extraction percentage,water content in bagasse,loss of water in boiling liquid of bagasse and brix of boiling liquid of bagass.The nine quality indexes of sugarcane could be divided into four factors and cumulative variance contribution of the four factor reached 94.30% by factor analysis.The former three factors were sugar indexes of juice,sugar indexes of bagasse and water index of bagasse,respectively.The cumulative variance contribution of them reached 83.06%.Only loss of water in boiling liquid of bagasse had significant load in the fourth factor.
Abstract:Nineteen quality parameters of 67 wheat landraces in Sichuan province were investigated and analyzed. The result indicated that protein content and lysine content of all the varieties were commonly low, while wet gluten content, sedimentation value and gluten index were higher. Farinogram-development time, stability time and valorimeter value were generally low, and dough theological properties were not very perfect. Among all the 67 wheat landraces, one protein content exceeded 14 %, ten wet gluten content exceeded 40 %, sedimentation value of 29 exceeded 40ml, and 7 and 5 varieties were of middle and weak gluten, respectively. Five landraces, including Deyang tianli.ichang xiaomai, Nanbu bangchuimai, Youyang guangtou, Anyue hongxiaomai and Pengxi honghua guangtoumai could be considered to be perfect general quality characters. The correlation analysis indicated that the simple correlations between protein content, dry or wet gluten content, sedimentation value, development time, stability time and valorimeter value were significant or great significant. Partial correlations between protein content and wet gluten content and between sedimentation value and stability time were also significant. Protein content was simply negatively correlated to total starch content at a level of 0. 01, while partial correlation between them was not significant. Both simple correlations and partial ones between total starch content and amylopectin content were negatively significant at a level of 0. 01. Simple correlation between total starch content and amylose content was not significant, while partial correlation between them was great significant. Amylose content was negatively related to amylopectin content at a level of 0. 01 based on both simple correlations and partial ones. Therefore, it was reasonable to choose protein content, sedimentation value and amylose content as primary evaluation indexes in early generations of wheat breeding.
Abstract:Anthracnose(Colletotrichum lindemuthianum)is regarded as one of the most devastating diseases of common bean throughout the world.It causes greater losses to the production and quality of common bean.The study on the gene resistance to anthracnose can supply a foundation for resistance breeding.Gene resistance to anthracnose in common bean is Co-1 to Co-10 among which nine are independent and Co-3/Co-9 is allelic.Except the recessive co-8 gene,all other nine are dominant genes and multiple alleles exist at Co-1,Co-4 and Co-9 loci.Except loci Co-5,Co-7 and co-8,all other genes are mapped to different linkage groups.
Abstract:病毒诱导基因沉默（Virus—induced gene silencing，VIGS）技术是指带一段靶基因序列的VIGS重组病毒侵染植物、引起植物同源基因沉默与表型变异，进而通过表型变异进行基因功能分析的方法，是近年发展起来的从反向遗传学方向快速鉴定植物基因功能的技术，是转录后基因沉默机制的一种表现。①VIGS的分子机制，涉厦基因沉默的起始、维持和信号放大、传播共3个阶段；②VIGS技术、栽体与方法学的发展；③VIGS作为基因功能研究的优越性，如不必进行转基因、操作方法简便、获得结果快速等；④应用VIGS对植物抗病途径、代谢与发育调控中参与基因功能进行研究的概况。同时。展望了VIGS技术作为植物功能基因组学功能分析的高通量技术平台的美好前景。
Abstract:Through analysing the achievement and the problem of collection, conservation, identification and breeding utilization for tropical genetic resources update, in the genetic improvement view the paper summarized 4 general characteristics among tropical plant species, Based on them, it was pointed out that 7 strategy concepts for conservation and enhancement, and focused on 4 key techniques in germplasm development, such as discovering functional genes, molecular marker assist selection, somatic cell regeneration and creating doubled haploid plants. The paper stressed on molecular fingerprint-based in-situ conservation, nursery, net-share of information, law making and public education, all that will play an important role in sustainable conservation of endangered tropical species.
Abstract:Five hundred and one vegetable accessions were collected during 2002-2004.Propagation and(evaluation) with respect to agronomic traits of 1642 vegetable accessions were carried out,among them 1400(accessions) have been stored in the mid-term Guangdong Vegetable Genebank(GVG).Ninety-three accessions were(identified) for resistance to some diseases and 89 were evaluated with respect to quality traits.Among them 8(accessions) had high resistance and 16 had resistance to some diseases.Meanwhile,Guangdong vegetable germplasm database has been established and can be shared through internet,including the plant or fruit photographs of 1019 vegetable accessions stored in GVG.Moreover,some good vegetable germplasm had been used in breeding programs,and twelve vegetable and sweet corn varieties had been examined and approved by the government during 2003-2005.
Abstract:Germplasm resources is very important to the modern breeding and the study of biotechnology. The research on genetic relationships of germplasm resources can provide scientific basis for exploring the origin, evolution, classification, breeding and application of peach germplasm resources. The research advances in genetic relationships of peach germplasm, including the morphologic, cytology, palynology, biochemistry and DNA molecular markers, were reviewed in this paper. The actuality, prospect and urgent problems of peach germplasm resources were also discussed. To further study the genetic relationships of wildness, sib wildness and cultivar groups of peach, we may resort on genetic markers and DNA sequence analysis in addition to morphological characters.
Abstract:Studies on hardy fruit germplasm resources begun in 1950s . The history of studies was reviewed in the paper. Achievements in the collecting, storing, identification, evaluation, utilization and creating of hardy fruit germplasm resources were briefly introduced. Main trends in the future studies were also suggested in the paper.