• Issue 3,2003 Table of Contents
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    • Study on Different Centers of Origin of Asian Cultivated Rice

      2003(3):185-190.

      Abstract (2271) HTML (0) PDF 0.00 Byte (531) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:分析中国、东南亚和南亚的96份普野的12个等位酶位点,及885份地方品种的10个酶位点的遗传多样性。结果表明,中国与南亚普野和栽培稻在Est—2、Est—10、Mal—1、Cat—1四个位点发生了地理分化。中国普野以Acp-1^2、Acp-2^0、Amp-2^2、Est—2^0、Cat—1^2、Mal—1^1基因型为主,是偏粳型。南亚普野以Acp-1^2、Acp-2^0、Amp—2^2、Est—2^1/Est—2^0、Cat—1^1、Mal—1^2基因型为主,是偏籼型。中国和南亚是两个独立的稻作起源中心。

    • Allelopathic Effects of Aqueous Extract from Rice on the Growth of Barnyardgrass

      2003(3):191-194.

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      Abstract:The effects of aqueous extract from the sheath, leaf and root of two rice materials (HG1 and HG2) on the growth of barnyardgrass were studied. The results showed that HG1 had strong allelopathic effects on the growth of roots and seedling of barnyardgrass, while HG2 only on the growth of roots. Leaf and sheath extracts had more significant inhibitory effects on the growth of barnyardgrass than root extract and distilled water. Root growth of barnyardgrass was significantly inhibited by aqueous extract of root, sheath and leaf of rice. The inhibiting effects on barnyardgrass were negatively relevant to barnyardgrass density, which might be induced by the decreasing amount of individual-absorbing allelochemical.

    • Karyotype and Peroxidase Isozyme Analysis of the Newly Formed Allotetraploid [AAGG] Cotton Species

      2003(3):195-198.

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      Abstract:本文对山西农业大学棉花育种组创育的[AAGG]异源四倍体新棉种及其二倍体亲本亚洲棉(G.arboreum)、比克氏棉(G.bickii)进行了核型分析,并对[AG]异源二倍体和[AAGG]异源四倍体的过氧化物同功酶进行了分析。研究结果:异源四倍体[AAGG]的体细胞染色体数目为2n=4x=52,表现为双亲染色体数目之和,其核型公式为2n=4x=52=50m(6SAT) 2sm,按stebbins的核型分析原则,异源四倍体[AAGG]属1A型。过氧化物酶同功酶分析表明:[AG]棉种酶谱表现为双亲不完全互补型。并具有新式酶带。因此过氧化物酶同功酶可以作为鉴别远缘杂种的生物技术之一。

    • Characters and Utilization of eR Lines

      2003(3):199-202.

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      Abstract:Compared with the corresponding R lines without eui, eR lines showed significant increasing in plant height, panicle exsertion, length of leaf, length of first internode, length of second internode. eR lines headed 4 days earlier, with little less number of tillers. F 1 of eR lines (e-hybrids) had similar performance in plant type and other major agronomic traits comparing to corresponding F 1 of R lines. E-hybrids showed a little increase in plant height and slightly increased the length of panicle, the length of panicle base exserting out of leaf sheath, the length of flag leaf and the first internode than F 1 of R lines. Moreover, e-hybrids headed a few days earlier, as well as showed greater grain weight resulting in higher yield potential than that of corresponding original hybrids.

    • Study of the Number Variation of Outward Characteristic of the Loropetalum chinense and Loropetalum chinense var. rubrum

      2003(3):203-206.

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      Abstract:There is a vast ditinction in the number structure between the Loropetalum chinense and the Loropetalum chinense var. rubrum. The 4 number character is about 96.2% in Loropetalum chinense (the flower petal, stamen, degenerated stamen and the sepal are also 4). The 4 number character is about 50% in wild Loropetalum chinense var. rubrum. The cultivated Loropetalun chinense var. rubrum's flower is always 5. There is a distinction in the number genetic structure of flower in diferent kind of variety. The law of totality variation is: present cultivated variety shuangmianhong type 5 number genetic flower>midterm cultivated variety touguhong type>early stage cultivated variety nenyehong type. The origin, the evolutionary history and the prospect of breeding of the Loropetalum chinense var. rubrum are discussed based on the number variation of the flower structure.

    • Prebreeding and Nutritive Characteristic Evaluation of Special Rice

      2003(3):207-213.

      Abstract (2455) HTML (0) PDF 0.00 Byte (557) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:将系谱选择和花药培养相结合,分别选育出具有巨胚、甜味、有色种皮、软米、香味等单一特殊性状和聚合上述2个以上特殊性状的特种稻种质12份,并对这些种质进行了营养特性评价。结果表明,创新的特种稻种质营养成分含量明显高于普通稻,其中甜黑米1569和甜红米1571糙米千粒重很小(8.4g、8.2g),蛋白质(12.4%、11.7%)、赖氨酸(0.75%、0.76%)、脂肪(5.29%、4.86%)、油酸(2.15%、1.93%)和亚油酸(1.93%、1.86%)、维生素B1(8.42mg/kg、1.60mg/kg)年口钙含量(36.8mg/100g、29.5mg/100g)较高;巨胚香糯1574和白巨胚米1575的胚较大,千粒胚重1.4g以上,胚重占糙米重的比率8%以上,蛋白质(9.9%、10.6%)、维生素B1(3.30mg/kg、0.98mg/kg)和钙含量(27.7mg/100g、32.5mg/100g)较高;黑糯米1568的维生素B1(6.57mg/kg)、铁扣锌含量(4.0mg/100g、7.2mg/100g)较高;红米1201的蛋白质(11.1%)、锌(7.0mg/100g)和硒(85.4ug/kg)含量较高,巨胚,甜味,有色种皮,香味等2个以上特殊性状的聚合是增加水稻种质营养保健功能性的有效途径之一。

    • Physiological and Structural Adaptation in Roots of Genotypes with Different Tolerance to Waterlogging in Sesame(Sesamum indicum L.)Under Anoxia Stress

      2003(3):214-219.

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      Abstract:利用4种耐渍性不同的芝麻基因型,在厌氧胁迫条件下检测了根部无氧呼吸酶活性、内源乙烯含量并调查了根形态和解剖结构,以比较研究旱生植物耐渍性的主要机制。同时设计了田间分期多次淹水试验,观察早期淹水训练对芝麻生长和产量的影响。结果表明:耐渍种质的乙烯释放量在根中增加了6.06倍,茎中1.76倍,不定根数量增加了4.0~5.0倍,在初生根和不定根皮层形成典型的通气组织。非耐渍种质中未检测到乙烯变化,不定根数量增加了0.79~1.8倍,根中无明显的通气组织发生,但是乙醇脱氢酶(ADH)活性可增加4.2~9.3倍,高于耐渍种质。分期淹水试验以四对真叶期和初花期处理产量较高,与对照无显著差异,而终花期一次性淹水产量损失最大。综合分析认为,不定根增生和根皮层通气组织的形成是芝麻耐渍性的重要机制,根中内源乙烯的增加与结构适应变异有关。淹水训练能够有效地改善芝麻品种耐渍能力为结构适应提供了进一步的证据。

    • Characteristics of Wheat Seed Viability Loss During Storage and Emergence Rate of Seedlings

      2003(3):220-224.

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      Abstract:通过对贮藏2~20年的378份中期库小麦种质进行生活力测定(每一贮藏年份测定种质份数为10~30),结果表明贮藏年限为2~12年的种质平均发芽率都高于83%,而贮藏年限为15年的种质平均发芽率已降至20%,这表明小麦种质在中期库贮藏过程中,生活力丧失存在着骤降特性。同时对同一品种分别来自中期库低活力和长期库高活力种质进行田间出苗率和农艺性状调查,发现中期库种质的室内发芽率与田间出苗率相关极显,其相关显性高于长期库种质,且不论是来自中期库低活力种质还是长期库高活力种质,总体上田间出苗率都比室内发芽率低20%以上,在子一代种子的农艺性状上两之间无显差异。

    • The Selection and Evaluation of Elite Maize Landraces

      2003(3):225-227.

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      Abstract:This article reports agronomic characteristics of the landraces. The twenty maize landraces were analysed by the method of Grey systematic theory. It was showed that the plant height mainly affected spike width, the ear height mainly affected the ear length. If plant height and ear height were low, the grain weight per plant was low. The number of leaves not only had remarkable effect on the ear length,ear width and grain weight per plant, but also had effect the use of landraces. Good inbred line and hybrids could be selected from corn landraces with short growth duration .Eight varieties of Baitoushuang,High-oil corn,Luoyan No.85,Baihe,Erxia,Pingzong No.2,Goldqueen,Bendihuang had good comprehensive agronomic characters which could be used in breeding programs.

    • Selection of an Elite Summer Soybean Line Lu 99-2

      2003(3):228-231.

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      Abstract:Breeding for elite germplasm is important for selection of elite soybean varieties.It has taken nearly 20 years to breed the elite line Lu99-2.Through selecting parents,breeding SCN-resistant and SMV-resistant lines,testing the resistance to SCN and SMV of the lines and testing the seeds for oil and protein.All of the resistances grades of Lu99-2 to race 1,race 3,and race 5 of SCN and to y 6 of SMV are 1.The oil content in seeds varied between 21.4% and 22.67% the protein content varied between 42.7% and 45.0%,and the total of oil and protein contenes varied between 64.85% and 66.4%.

    • Characterization and Evaluation on Breeding Use of Xu 781, an Advanced Sweetpotato Clone of High Dry Matter and High Disease Resistance

      2003(3):232-237.

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      Abstract:Analyses of yielding ability, disease resistance and quality were conducted for several years on sweetpotato true seeds introduced from International Potato Center. As a result, Xu 781, a new bred line was selected to have high disease resistance and high dry matter content. Its cross-incompatible group, adaptability to grafting stocks, genetic characteristics were also studied. The results showed that the genetic relationship of Xu 781 was far from local varieties. It had high dry matter content, high resistance to stem-nematode, easy flowering, high capsule setting ratio, and high selecting ratio of its progeny seedlings.Thus,it is a rare parental material.

    • Pre-harvest Sprouting and Responses to Exogenous Hormone in Different Rice Varieties

      2003(3):238-241.

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      Abstract:Resistances to pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) in eight different early indica rice varieties were investigated after their panicles were sampled from 16 days after pollination (DAP) onwards and treated in wetting condition. The result indicated that there was great variation in resistance to PHS among the varieties, which could be reasonably reflected by the treatment of 6d panicle-wetting for the panicles of 22 DAP. The exogenous hormone treatments to panicles, applying gibberellin acid (GA 3) and abscisin acid (ABA) solutions in 3 different concentrations, showed that 30 mg/kg concentration of GA3 could obviously promote the panicle germination and that ABA could restrain panicle germination even though the effect varied considerably for the different varieties.

    • Effect of Paclobutrazol on Conservation of Strawberry Germplasm in Vitro

      2003(3):242-244.

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      Abstract:取离体培养形成的草莓单芽接种到1/2MS附加不同浓度多效唑和0.5mg/L6—BA的培养基上,研究了多效唑对草莓试管苗生长及其保存的影响。结果表明,多效唑对草莓试管苗芽的分化有明显的促进作用,对草莓试管苗的伸长具明显的抑制作用。当多效唑浓度为0.04mg/L,苗高为对照(多效唑浓度为0mg/L)的29%~63%,当多效唑浓度较高(0.2mg/L)时,延迟了试管苗的发根,且抑制根的伸长。在继代培养中,多效唑抑制芽的分化,同时抑制苗的生长。在本试验中,不同浓度的多效唑对草莓试管苗保存成活率差异不十分明显,但野生草莓品种在离体保存中多效唑浓度不宜高,以0.1mg/L为好。

    • The Correlation Analysis between the Morphological Indices and Salt Tolerance in Different Rice Germplasm under the Salt Stress

      2003(3):245-251.

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      Abstract:The germination and seedling stages experiments were done with 16 rice accessions which belong to Indica, Japonica and Javanica type, possess different salt tolerance and came from China, Korea and International Rice Research Institute, respectively. The germination postponed and lengthened, and germination rate decreased with NaCl concentration increasing. The salt tolerance can be indicated efficiently by the germination rate in the germination stage. Many morphological indices were affected remarkably with NaCl concentrations, and the leaf index of salinity injure could reflect the salt tolerance capacity in seedling stage. The higher is the correlation coefficient between NaCl concentration and leaf index of salinity injure, the longer is NaCl treatment. The salt tolerance in the germination and seedling stages was different and the correlation coefficient was low on the same rice varieties.

    • Study on the Transferability of Wheat EST-SSRs

      2003(3):252-255.

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      Abstract:EST-SSRs, a new kind of microsatellites (SSRs), was derived from expressed sequence tags (ESTs). A total of 597 EST-SSRs primer pairs were developed in this study, of which about 80%, 65.8%, 62.1% and 58.1% amplified products successfully in wheat, maize, rice and soybean, respectively. A total of 255 primer sets (42.7%) worked across the four species. Sequence similarity alignment of the 255 universal ESTs containing SSRs against database in GenBank indicated that 63 ESTs (30%) were associated with protein destination, and the rest were involved in metabolism, transcription, cellular development, defense system and other pathways related. It is of significance that these EST-SSRs markers will be highly valuable not only for wheat genomics also for comparative genomics among species.

    • Applications of Genomics Approaches in Studies on Maize Germplasm

      2003(3):256-260.

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      Abstract:In the recent years, great progress has been made in the fields of plant molecular biology and genomics, and genomics approaches including molecular marker techniques have been widely used in studies on maize germplasm. The present paper reviews recent advances in the fields related to maize germplasm including origin and evolution of maize, shaping mechanisms and assessment of genetic diversity, and diversity-based gene discovery etc. Finally, the strategies of research on maize germplasm by the use of genomics approaches are proposed.

    • Potential Biological Safety Problems and Countermeasures in Developing Transgenic Rice in China

      2003(3):261-264.

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      Abstract:Recombinant DNA is a new method to create transgenic rice with foreign genes from other species. This method could be helpful to increase rice yield, quality and consequently to solve the problem between population expansion and sustainable development. Because rice is significant in human's diet and China is one of its original centers, the potential problems to human health and ecosystems caused by transgenic rice has aroused people's attention. This paper reviewed the research and development progresses of transgenic rice, analyzed the bio-safety of food and cultivated rice varieties, wild rice species and paddy weed species due to the development of transgenic rice. Base on the comparison between the profits and defects, some countermeasures are provided to solve the potential bio-safety problems while to develop transgenic rice in China.

    • Advances of the Relationship between Crop Root Morphology and Tolerance to Antibiotic Stress

      2003(3):265-269.

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      Abstract:The main advances of the relationship between crop root morphology and abiotic stress such as phosphorus deficiency, drought and aluminum stress were summarized. The important role of root morphology in abiotic stress was stressed. It is one of the important ways to improve crop yield.

    • A Review on Plant Drought and Salt Tolerance Gene

      2003(3):270-273.

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      Abstract:Drought and salinity affect plant growth seriously. These stresses can induce gene expression to protect plant cell from injury. The genes are classified into four groups: genes synthesizing osmoprotectant; genes encoding important functional protein related to water-stress; genes regulating signal transduction and genes expression in stress; genes encoding enzymes in the response of plant oxidation stress.

    • Advance on Molecular Marker Assisted Selection of Drought Resistance in Crops

      2003(3):274-278.

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      Abstract:Molecular marker assisted selection was regarded as a useful tool for breeding for drought resistance in crops. Recent advance on study of molecular markers of drought resistance in main crops such as wheat, maize, rice and soybean, was reviewed in this paper. A strategy for marker assisted selection of drought resistance in crops was also dicussed.

    • Advances in Research on Core Collection of Plant Germplasm Resources

      2003(3):279-284.

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      Abstract:Abundant plant genetic resources provide broad genetic foundation for plant breeding and genetic research. However, its huge size brings difficulties in collecting, preservation, evaluation and utilization of plant germplasm resources. The concept of core collection was firstly proposde by Frankel in 1984 and developed it with Brown in 1989.It represents to select a sub-set from the whole germplasm by certain methods to represent a maximum of the genetic diversity of the whole collection with a minimum of accessions and a minimum of redundancy. The concept of core collection provides a new strategy for studying and utilizing plant germplasm. So far, core collection was established for more than 20 species in the world, such as wild soybean, durum wheat and peanut. Based on four prominent characteristics i.e. representative, practicality, availability and dynamics, this paper introduced the utilization of data, principls of sampling, methods of sampling, parameters estimation for the establishment of core collection. It was found that the methods for establishing core collection were different for various plants. For most of plants which have bean established core collections, stratification according to geography and agro-ecological uniform zones was used. Clustering was most common method in the establishment of core collection of most plants. At present,research is focusing on the strategy of sampling for the establishment of core collection. There is little research about the evaluation of core collection. Most studies make use of agronomic traits to evaluate the representation of core colletion, few reports concentrated on molecule evaluation.The core collections which have been established need to be tested in the future.

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