1.Center for Agricultural Resources Research，Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology，Chinese Academy of Sciences;2. Innovative Academy of Seed Design，Chinese Academy of Sciences;3. Institute of Crop Sciences，Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Scientific and Technological Innovation of Modern Seed Industry of Hebei Province（22326302D）；The Central Goverment Guides Local Science and Technology Development Fund Projects （2022ZY0069）；Accurate Identification Project of Wheat Germplasm Resources in The 14th Five-year Plan of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs（19221925）
With the increasing demand of nutritional function of colored wheat, the genetic research of colored wheat becomes more and more thorough, and there are more and more varieties of colored wheat. However, the germplasm resources of colored wheat in China remain unclear. In order to meet the rapid demand in the area of the colored nutrition wheat genetics and breeding, this paper summarized research advance on gene discovery and germplasm resources breeding utilization of the colored wheat. We introduced the colored wheat gene originated from germplasm resources, followed by introduction of chromosomes complement and pedigree of colored wheat, as well as comprehensive summary on colored wheat breeding and germplasm innovation in China. Sixty colored wheat varieties were approved in China in the past 24 years, including 49 purple (black) grain varieties, 10 blue grain varieties and 1 green grain variety. In addition, 23 new colored wheat germplasm resources were developed. Especially for the past four years, many colored wheat varieties have been approved. Henan province, Shandong province, Hebei province and Shanxi province was the four larger colored wheat breeding and industrialization bases. Most of the colored wheat varieties were from the hybridization between colored wheat and common wheat, and a larger proportion of the genes in colored wheat were from the distant hybridization between wheat and T.boeoticum, wild emmer wheat, Agropyron species, rye, Leymus, etc. Forty-seven colored wheat varieties showed grain protein content over 14%, four colored wheat varieties with grain protein content over 18%, and four colored wheat varieties with dough stable time over 10 min. Considering the problems of colored wheat genetic breeding and industrialization, we would like to suggest that the protection and utilization of crop germplasm resources should follow the basic principle of "if there is difference, it should be selected; if it can be inherited, it should be directed; if it has valuable, it should be conserved; it should be identified, must to be accurate; foster it strengths, use it widely". Collectively, this review will provide useful information and gene germplasm resources for the research of colored wheat genetics and breeding in China, and promote the in-depth development of colored wheat genetics and breeding research in China.