Cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogea L.) is an important oilseed and economic crop in China. Oleic content and linoleic content of peanut seed add up to 80%. Oleic acid is an important factor that affects physical and chemical stability and nutritional value of peanut oil. Breeding peanut variety with high oleic content is an important breeding objective of peanut quality to promote international competitiveness and meet domestic consumption demand since 2000. Increasing oleic content in peanut significantly improves the nutritional quality. In this paper, we summarize mutants of high oleic peanut, the genetic characteristics of high oleic acid content and analyse pedigree relationship of high oleic acid peanut varieties and developing methods. Our purpose is to improve high oleic breeding of China peanut.