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陆地棉与四个四倍体棉的遗传渐渗及QTL定位研究进展
温天旺1, 朱 宏1, 玉坎炳2, 李振仙2, 杨宾娟1, 汤飞宇1
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(1.江西农业大学农学院/作物生理生态与遗传育种教育部重点实验室;2.西双版纳农业科学研究所)
摘要:
陆地棉是棉属中最主要的一个栽培棉种,其产量占世界棉花总产的95%以上。我国对于陆地棉的引种、栽培和育种已有百年历史,在陆地棉不断改良的过程中,其遗传基础逐渐变得狭窄。为了拓宽陆地棉遗传基础,近十几年来,我国以及世界棉花基础研究和育种工作者通过有性杂交创建了棉花远缘杂交遗传群体和优异种质资源;与此同时,随着分子生物学的兴起和棉花基因组图谱的完成,研究人员利用基因组学技术揭示了远缘杂交群体中的数量性状位点(Quantative Trait Locus, QTL)。本文总结了陆地棉分别与四个远缘四倍体棉种(海岛棉、毛棉、黄褐棉和达尔文棉)的一些远缘杂交研究。综合已发表研究表明,基于陆地棉与四个远缘棉种材料的远缘杂交遗传群体,创造了优异的种质资源,对于棉花农艺性状改良、QTL定位和基因挖掘都具有重要的促进作用;另外,陆地棉与海岛棉的自然遗传渐渗事件在陆地棉资源材料中也被普遍发现,这种自然遗传渐渗事件对陆地棉的农艺性状改良起到了一定的促进作用。随着四倍体棉种基因组的公布和棉属中新的棉种的挖掘和利用,未来陆地棉的遗传基础可以得到进一步的拓宽。
关键词:  远缘杂交  陆地棉  海岛棉  黄褐棉  毛棉  达尔文棉  遗传渐渗
DOI:10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr. 20211006001
投稿时间:2021-10-06修订日期:2021-11-03
基金项目:江西省教育厅科技计划项目(GJJ200440)
Recent Advances on the Genetic Introgression and QTL Mapping in Upland Cotton with Four Tetraploid Cottons
WEN Tian-wang1, ZHU Hong1, YU Kan-bin2, LI Zhen-xian2, YANG Bin-juan1, TANG Fei-yu1
(1.Agronomy College of Jiangxi Agricultural Unversity / Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology, Ecology and Genetic breeding, Ministry of Education;2.Xishuangbanna Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Yunnan Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture)
Abstract:
Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), which accounts for more than 95% of the world''s cotton production, is the most important cultivated species in the Gossypium genus. Along with the introduction, cultivation and breeding of upland cotton in the past nearly one-hundred year in China, the genetic basis in cultivated cotton varieties gradually had become narrow. In order to broaden the genetic basis of upland cotton, the researchers and breeders have generated the genetic populations and excellent germplasm through sexual hybridization in recent decades. By taking advantage of recent achievements on molecular biology and genomics, the researchers uncovered the quantitative trait locus (QTL) in distant hybridization populations of cotton. Herein, we summarized the studies of distant hybridization in upland cotton with four tetraploid cotton species (G. barbadense, G. tomentosum, G. mustelinum and G. darwinii). Generally, the genetic population which were gained from distant hybridization between upland cotton and four tetraploid cotton species, hosted excellent germplasms valuable in studies of the genetic improvement of agronomic traits, QTL mapping and gene mining. Moreover, the genetic components introgressed from G. barbadense to upland cotton had been found in upland cotton with a positive role during the improvement of upland cotton. Profiling from the publication of the cotton genome and its use in application of exploring cotton species, the foreseen enrichment in the genetic basis of upland cotton will become feasible in the future.
Key words:  distant hybridization  Gossypium hirsutum  G. barbadense  G. tomentosum  G. mustelinum  G. darwinii  introgression

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