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贵州低热河谷区油茶种质果实性状分析与评价
杨 露1, 高 超1, 廖德胜2, 龙 莉1, 仇 杰1, 王 彪1, 郭之燕1, 周运超1
0
(1.贵州大学贵州省森林资源与环境研究中心/贵州省高原山地林木培育重点实验室/林学院;2.贵州黔西南喀斯特区域发展研究院)
摘要:
对比研究贵州低热河谷区77份油茶种质资源的果实品质,筛选获得综合表现优良的油茶优异种质,以期为贵州低热河谷区油茶优良品种选育及杂交育种提供理论依据和研究基础。分析77份油茶种质成熟果实的15个主要性状(单果重、横径、纵径、果皮厚度、鲜出籽率、干出籽率、出仁率、出油率、棕榈酸、棕榈烯酸、硬脂酸、油酸、亚油酸、亚麻酸、顺-11-二十碳烯酸),利用主成分分析法对数据进行多元统计降维处理,将油茶果实的15个主要性状简化为4组互相无关的综合指标(4个主成分),主成分1特征值最大,为5.13,贡献率最高,为34.19%,主要代表种仁含油率;主成分2的贡献率20.17%,主要代表单果重;主成分3的贡献率15.51%,主要代表了干出仁率,主成分4,贡献率8.35%,主要代表鲜出籽率。加权求和法合成主成分,最终建立综合评价函数,获得每优株的综合得分,最后排名并筛选。15个性状中单果重、鲜出籽率、干出籽率三者均为高度变异,棕榈烯酸和顺-11-二十碳烯酸的变异系数≤0.35%,变异程度极低。贵州低热河谷区油茶的种仁含油率与干出籽率、干出仁率均呈极显著正相关,除顺-11-二十碳烯酸之外,脂肪酸之间均呈现出极显著正相关或负相关。提取出了特征值>1的成分4个,建立了适用于贵州低热河谷区油茶优株的综合评价函数模型,筛选出综合得分排名前十的优株,排名依次QC-8>QC-58>QC-21>QC-34>QC-32>QC-62>QC-30>QC-61>QC-59>QC-28。贵州低热河谷区77份油茶种质在单果重、鲜出籽率、干出籽率方面具有较高的改良潜力,果皮厚度和除亚油酸之外的其余脂肪酸具有较强的遗传稳定性。贵州低热河谷区油茶的干出籽率和种仁含油率与除油酸之外的不饱和脂肪酸之间呈现负相关关系。QC-8、QC-58和QC-21号优株综合表现最佳,可作为下一步品种选育的候选资源。
关键词:  油茶  种质资源  果实性状  评价  主成分分析
DOI:10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20210717001
投稿时间:2021-07-17修订日期:2021-08-14
基金项目:贵州省科技计划项目(黔科合支撑[2020]1Y057号,黔科合服企[2020]4011);国家自然科学基金(32060331,31800516);贵州省教育厅青年科技人才成长项目(黔教合KY字[2018]097);贵州大学培育项目(贵大培育[2019]35号)和贵州大学引进人才科研项目(贵大人基合字[2017]41号)
Analysis and Evaluation on Fruit Characters of Camellia oleifera in Low Thermal Valley Area of Guizhou
YANG Lu1, GAO Chao1, LIAO De-sheng2, LONG Li1, QIU Jie1, WANG Biao1, GUO Zhi-yan1, ZHOU Yun-chao1
(1.Research Center for Forest Resources and Environment of Guizhou Province / Key Laboratory of Plateau Mountain Tree Breeding of Guizhou Province/College of Forestry, Guizhou University;2.Guizhou Southwest Karst Regional Development Institute)
Abstract:
We attempted to study the fruit quality characters in 77 Camellia oleifera germplasms derived from the unique low thermal valley area of Guizhou, in order to determine the C. oleifera germplasm with the best performance applicable for breeding. Fifteen characters (Single fruit weight, diameter, height, pericarp thickness, fresh seed yield, dry seed yield, kernel yield, kernel oil content, palmitic acid, Palmitoleic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, cis-11-eicosenoic acid) were analysed. Principal component analysis was performed to reduce the dimensionality of the data, thereby reducing the 15 main characters to four independent comprehensive indices (or principal components), The eigen value and contribution rate of the first principal component are 5.13 and 34.19%, respectively; the eigen value of principal component 2 is 3.03, and the contribution rate is 20.17%; the eigen value of principal component 3 is 2.33, and the contribution rate is 15.51%; the eigen value of principal component 4 is 1.25, and the contribution rate is 8.35%. Principal component 1 mainly represented the kernel oil content; Principal component 2 mainly represented the Single fruit weight; Principal component 3 mainly represented the kernel yield; Principal component 4 mainly represented the fresh seed yield. Functional expression analysis was performed to obtain the comprehensive score, followed by final ranking and screening. Among the 15 traits, single fruit weight, fresh seed yield, and dry seed yield showed abundant variations. Among the different fatty acids of C. oleifera oils, including palmitoleic acid and cis-11-eicosenoic acid were extremely low (≤0.35%). Different degrees of correlation were detected between the 15 major traits. There was a significant positive correlation between kernel oil content and dry seed yield and between kernel oil content and dry kernel yield. The correlation between fatty acids was extremely significant except cis-11-eicosenoic acid. By using four principal components of characteristic value >1, a comprehensive evaluation function model based on oil tea plants in the low thermal valley area of Guizhou was established, and the top 10 C. oleifera germplasms in the comprehensive score were selected (QC-8 > QC-58 > QC-21 > QC-34 > QC-32 > QC-62 > QC-30 > QC-61 > QC-59 > QC-28). Our findings indicated that single fruit weight, fresh seed yield, and dry seed yield of the 77 germplasms in the low thermal valley area of Guizhou are the traits with high breeding potential, while thickness of pericarp and other fatty acids, except linoleic acid, have high genetic stability. The dry seed yield and kernel oil content of C. oleifera in the low thermal valley area of Guizhou were negatively correlated with all unsaturated fatty acids, except oleic acid. Collectively, this study provided elite germplasms QC-8, QC-58, and QC-21 as candidate parental line for breeding improved C. oleifera varieties.
Key words:  Camellia oleifera  genetic resources  fruit character  evaluation  principal component analysis

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