甘肃省小麦品种(系)矮秆基因检测及分布规律
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1.甘肃省农业科学院农业经济与信息研究所;2.甘肃省农业科学院小麦研究所;3.中国农业科学院作物科学研究所;4.中山大学农学院

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甘肃省农业科学院揭榜挂帅项目(2021GAAS03);甘肃省重点研发计划(23YFNA0033); 国家自然科学(32060481, 32160471,3 2260485);中国科学技术协会青年人才托举工程计划(2020QNRC001)


Detection and Distribution of Dwarf Genes of Wheat Varieties in Gansu Province
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Foundation projects: Open Competition Project of Gansu Academy of Agricultural Sciences (2021GAAS03); National Natural Science Foundation of China (32060481, 32160471, 32260485); Young Elite Scientists Sponsorship Program by the China Association for Science and Technology CAST (2020QNRC001)

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    摘要:

    地方种是小麦育种的重要种质资源,为了解矮秆基因在地方种中的分布,本研究检测了甘肃省地方种矮杆基因等位变异类型及其在不同麦区的分布频率。结果表明:(1)地方种Rht-B1b和Rht-D1b的频率极低;41.4%的地方种携带Rht8,且春麦区高于冬麦区;46.7%的地方种含Rht24b,春麦区低于冬麦区。Ppd-D1a的频率仅17.8%,且春麦区低于冬麦区。另外,仅检测到Rht-D1b/Rht8、Rht-D1b/Rht24b和Rht8/Rht24b 3种组合,频率分别为0.2%、0.5%和12.8%。(2)地方种携带的矮秆基因及其组合分布频率低于育成种,且差异较大。不同来源育成品种携带的优势矮秆等位变异和频率相同,清水品种以Rht-D1b、Rht8和Rht24b为主,黄羊品种以Rht-B1b、Rht-D1b、Rht8和Rht24b为主,甘谷以Rht8和Rht24b为主。清水和黄羊品种矮杆、丰产性好,可在河西和沿黄灌区的小麦育种中应用;甘谷品种品种茎秆高,抗病性突出,可应用于定西、天水、陇南和陇东等旱地小麦的抗病改良。(3)推测育成品种的矮秆基因可能来自农林10号、Akakomugi等品种。(4)筛选出15份地方种和31份育成种,可供甘肃不同麦区小麦矮秆育种参考。

    Abstract:

    Landrace are important germplasm resources for wheat breeding. In order to uncover the distribution of dwarfing genes in landraces, we detected the allelic variation types of dwarfing genes and their distribution frequencies in different wheat regions of Gansu Province. The results showed that: (1) the frequency of Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b in landraces was extremely low. 41.4% of landraces carried Rht8, with higher frequency in spring wheat regions than in winter wheat regions. 46.7% of landraces contained Rht24b, with lower frequency in spring wheat regions than in winter wheat regions. The frequency of Ppd-D1a was only 17.8%, with lower frequency in spring wheat regions than in winter wheat regions. In addition, only three combinations (Rht-D1b/Rht8, Rht-D1b/Rht24b, and Rht8/Rht24b) were detected, with frequencies of 0.2%, 0.5%, and 12.8%, respectively. (2) The frequency and combination distribution of dwarfing genes carried by landraces were lower than those of cultivars, and the differences were significant. Different sources of cultivars carried the same dominant dwarfing allelic variations and frequencies. Qingshui cultivars mainly carried Rht-D1b, Rht8, and Rht24b, Huangyang cultivars mainly carried Rht-B1b, Rht-D1b, Rht8, and Rht24b, and Gangu cultivars mainly carried Rht8 and Rht24b. Qingshui and Huangyang cultivars had dwarf stature and high yield potential, suitable for wheat breeding in Hexi and Yellow River irrigation areas. Gangu cultivars had higher plant height and better disease resistance, suitable for disease improvement in dryland wheat in Dingxi, Tianshui, Longnan, and Longdong, etc. (3) It is speculated that the dwarfing genes of cultivars may come from Nonglin 10 and Akakomugi. (4) Fifteen landraces and 31 cultivars were screened, which can serve as references for dwarfing wheat breeding in different wheat regions of Gansu.

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  • 收稿日期:2023-08-04
  • 最后修改日期:2023-09-22
  • 录用日期:2023-09-25
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