李向华，研究方向为野生大豆遗传资源保护遗传学、鉴定评价与利用，E-mail ： email@example.com
Institute of Crop Sciences， Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences， Beijing 100081
Foundation projects： National Key R&D Plan of Ministry of Science and Technology （2021YFD1200103）；Investigation of Agricultural Wild Plant Resources by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Areas （13220102）
内蒙古东北部是我国大豆重要产区，也是转基因大豆安全生产试验区域。为了了解当地野生大豆资源概况，给转基因大豆安全种植提供参考，本研究对兴安盟科右前旗、呼伦贝尔市扎兰屯市和阿荣旗61个野外非连续地块进行了野生大豆资源种群概况实地调查。结果显示，54个地块（88.52%）有野生大豆分布，包括野生种群、野生-半野生混合种群和首次发现的全部由半野生大豆构成优势型的种群。该区域种群片段化严重，大部分种群的面积比较小，1000 m2及以下的种群占72.2%；500 m2及以下的占59.3%。约46%的地块野生大豆样方频率在80%以上，约41%地块野生大豆样方频率在40%~60%，约13%地块野生大豆样方频率在20%以下。从54个种群搜集到836份野生和半野生型单株资源，其种皮色有黑、双、褐、褐绿、绿、黄绿6种，叶形有长椭、椭圆和披针3种。该区域野生大豆百粒重偏小，1.5 g及以下类型占84.57%，平均1.19±0.49 g。根据调查结果估算出扎兰屯、阿荣旗和科右前旗分别约17.92%、29.48%和40.10%的剩余闲置土地可能有野生大豆潜在分布。调查发现，种植业发达程度较高会降低野生大豆天然种群植株密度；常年大豆种植面积越大的地域半野生型出现的概率越高。本文还对内蒙古东部地区未来安全种植转基因大豆，同时对野生大豆资源进行保护的措施进行了探讨。
The Northeast Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region is an important soybean production area of in China, and is also an experimental area of genetically modified soybeans. In order to understand the local wild soybean resources? situation and provide reference for safe cultivation of the genetically modified soybeans，we investigated the distribution of wild soybean populations in 61 discontinuous field plots in Zhalantun and Arun of Hulunbuir，as well as Keyouqian of Xingan League. Fifty-four plots（88.52%）were found to have soybeans，including three types： the wild populations，mixed populations of both wild and semi-wild soybeans，and a population of entirely semi-wild soybeans which was discovered for the first time. The sizes of most populations in this region were relatively small，showing ca. 72.2% of the populations being ≤ 1000 m2，and ca. 59.3% being ≤500 m2. The frequencies of wild soybean quadrats were above 80%，40%-60% and below 20% for ca. 46%, 41% and 13% of the plots. From the seeds of 836 single plants collected from 54 wild soybean populations，six seed-coat color types（black，bicolor，brown，brown-green，green and yellow-green）and three leaf-shape types （long oval， oval and lanceolate）were observed. The 100-seed weight of wild soybeans was relatively small，accounting for 84.57% for the type of ≤1.5 g in the total sample，with an average of 1.19±0.49 g. It was estimated that approximately 17.92%，29.48%，and 40.10% of the remaining idle lands may have potential distribution of wild soybeans. We found that the advanced agricultural ecosystem would reduce the density of wild soybeans in populations. The semi-wild soybean was found with higher probability in the long-term soybean growing area. This article also discussed the measures on safe cultivation of genetically modified soybeans in the Northeast Inner Mongolia in the future，as well as the protection of wild soybean resources.