Liaoning Cash Crop Institute
China Agriculture Research System
芝麻黑斑病和黑蒴病是生产上最重要的病害之一,严重影响芝麻产量和品质。在田间通过人工接种,开展芝麻种质资源抗芝麻黑斑病和黑蒴病特性鉴定与评价,筛选抗病品种,为芝麻抗病育种和田间病害防治提供试材和技术指导。2020-2021年,采用人工接菌方法,开展了84份芝麻种质资源对黑斑病(Alternaria sesami)和芝麻黑蒴病(Alternaria alternata)田间抗病性鉴定与评价。鉴定结果表明：在84份芝麻种质资源中,对黑斑病表现抗(R)的资源12份,占鉴定资源总数的14.29%；表现中抗(MR)的资源25份,占总数的29.76%；表现感(S)的资源34份,占总数的40.48%；表现高感(HS)的资源13份,占总数15.48%；未发现对芝麻黑斑病高抗(HR)的资源。对黑蒴病表现高抗(HR)的资源6份,占总数的7.14%；表现抗(R)的资源26份,占总数的30.95%；表现中抗(MR)的资源31份,占鉴定资源总数的36.90%；表现感(S)的资源17份,占鉴定资源总数的20.24%；表现高感(HS)的资源4份,占鉴定资源总数4.76%。在供试的芝麻种质资源中,鉴定出兼抗黑斑病和黑蒴病的资源5份,分别为ZM02、ZM11、ZM21、ZM60、ZM77,抗病级别均为R级。研究发现,参试材料中对黑斑病和黑蒴病的抗感数量存在明显的差异,抗黑蒴病的资源数量明显多于抗黑斑病资源。
Black spot (Alternaria sesami) and capsule rotten (Alternaria alternata) of sesame is one of the most important diseases in filed production, which seriously affects yield and quality of sesame. The identification and evaluation of sesame germplasm resistance to both diseases were carried out by artificial inoculation in the field, which provided scientific basis and technical guidance for sesame disease resistance breeding and field disease control. From 2020 to 2021, the 84 sesame germplasm resources were evaluated for resistance to capsular rotten (A. semami) and black spot (A. alternata). The results showed that among 84 sesame germplasm resources, 12 were resistant to black spot (R), accounting for 14.29% of the total identified resources; 25 were moderate resistant (MR) resources, accounting for 29.76% of the total; 34 accessions were susceptible(S), accounting for 40.48% of the total; 13were highly susceptible (HS) resources, accounting for 15.48%; No high resistance (HR) to sesame black spot was found. Among 84 sesame germplasm resources, six resources showed highly resistance (HR) to capsule rotten disease, accounting for 7.14% of the total; 26 were resistance (R) to capsule rotten, accounting for 30.95% of the total; 31 were moderate resistance (MR), accounting for 36.90% of the total identified resources; 17 resources showed susceptible(S), accounting for 20.24% of the total; 4 resources showed high sensitivity (HS), accounting for 4.76% of the total. Five sesame germplasm resources, i.e. ZM02, ZM11, ZM21, ZM60 and ZM77, were identified as resistant to disease of both black spot and capsule rotten . It was found that there were significant differences in the number of resistant sesame germplasm resources for black spot and capsule rotten, and the number of resistant resources for capsular rotten was significantly more than that resistant black spot.