作物种质资源整体保护策略与实践
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中国农业科学院作物科学研究所,北京 100081

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中国农业科学院科技创新工程


Strategies and Practices of the Integrated Conservation System for Crop Germplasm Resources
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Institute of Crop Sciences,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences,Beijing 100081

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Science and Technology Innovation Project of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences

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    摘要:

    作物种质资源保护经过近百年来的发展,逐步形成以非原生境保护与原生境保护为基础的整体保护策略,其要点: 一是每一种作物种质类型,依据其生物学特性及其保护利用的需求,需发展适宜的保存方式 / 技术,实现种质资源遗传完整性 或潜在进化能力的保护;二是一种作物种质资源,需组合多种保存方式,对其全体基因源实现完整的保护;三是在国家(区域) 层面,需采用原生境和非原生境保护的方式,以及实行中期、长期与备份保存机制,实现种质资源多样性、完整性和安全性的保 护,以供持续利用。至 2021 年底,我国已建成包括长期库、中期库、复份库、种质圃、试管苗库、超低温库在内的非原生境保存 设施 55 个和原生境保护点 214 个,在国家层面上初步对作物种质资源实现了整体保护,保存总量达到 52.8 万份,为我国作物 育种、种业发展和农业原始创新提供了雄厚的物质基础。本文阐述了作物种质资源整体保护策略的内涵、科学基础、及其国内 外的应用实践,以期能进一步促进我国作物种质资源保护与利用的发展。

    Abstract:

    Profiting from the development in the past nearly hundred years,the national integrated conservation system for crop germplasm resources has been well established based on ex situ and in situ conservation strategies,which important points:(1)for each type of crop germplasm,it is necessary to develop suitable conservation methods/technologies according to its biological characteristics,and conservation and utilization needs,to achieve preservation the genetic integrity or potential evolutionary ability,(2)each crop germplasm needs to be combined with a variety of preservation methods,to achieve integrated conservation of its gene pool,(3)at the national(regional)level,it is necessary to adopt in situ and ex situ conservation methods,as well as medium-term,long-term and backup preservation mechanisms to conservation the diversity, integrity and security of germplasm resources for sustainable use. By the end of 2021,China has built 55 ex situ conservation facilities,including long-term,medium-term,duplicate,field,in vitro,and cryo genebanks,and 214 in situ conservation sites,which has ability to achieve the integrated conservation of crop germplasm resources at the national level,and the total amount of conservation has reached 528000 accessions,providing a solid material foundation for crop breeding,seed industry development and agricultural innovation. This article reviewed the development history,scientific basis,and application practices in China and abroad of the integrated conservation system,in order to promote the conservation and utilization of crop germplasm resources.

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辛 霞,尹广鹍,张金梅,等.作物种质资源整体保护策略与实践[J].植物遗传资源学报,2022,23(3):636-643.

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  • 收稿日期:2021-12-06
  • 最后修改日期:2022-03-10
  • 录用日期:2022-03-15
  • 在线发布日期: 2022-05-10
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