作物及其种质资源与人文环境的协同演变学说
作者:
作者单位:

1.中国农业科学院作物科学研究所;2.中国农业科学院农业经济与发展研究所

作者简介:

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中图分类号:

基金项目:

农业财政专项:第三次全国农作物种质资源普查与收集行动(19200354)


Synergistic Evolution Theory of Crop Germplasm Resources and Cultural Environments
Author:
Affiliation:

1.Institute of Crop Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences;2.Institute of Agricultural Economics and Development

Fund Project:

the Third National Survey and Collection Action on Crop Germplasm Resource

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    摘要:

    作物及其种质资源与人文环境的协同演变学说是关于作物及其种质资源与人文环境相互影响、相互作用和相互发展的理论。一方面,在一个特定环境中种植不同的作物或不同类型的作物会导致形成相应的饮食习惯与人文环境;另一方面,饮食习惯与人文环境又会对作物及其种质资源产生深刻影响,甚至可以引领其演变。其遗传基础是作物在传播和改良过程中发生自然杂交或突变后,在人文环境的人工选择作用下被定向固定,重组或突变基因频率在群体中不断累积提高,最终形成适应特定人文环境的新型作物及其种质资源。现代作物育种在一定程度上也受作物及其种质资源与人文环境的协同演变学说的指导,并且极大加速了作物及其种质资源的演变进程。本文以中国传统饮食文化习用体系为例,从糯性种质、蒸煮制度、蔬果丰富和物尽其用四个方面考察了作物及其种质资源与人文环境协同演变的关系。建议在作物种质资源保护和利用中要重视农民权利与作物传统生境保护,遵循“有差异,就选择;能遗传,可定向”的基本原则,强化地方品种与近缘野生种的高效利用,开展基因组学研究,正向推动作物改良与种质资源演变。

    Abstract:

    Synergistic evolution theory of crop germplasm resources and cultural environments is about the interference, interaction, and interpromotion between each other. On one hand, culturing different crops in a specific environment will lead to the formation of corresponding dietary traditions and cultural environments, on the other hand; dietary traditions and cultural environments will in turn have a profound influence on the formation of crop germplasm resources and might even lead their evolution. The genetic basis of this theory is that after the natural hybridization or mutations of the crops occurred during the processes of their dissemination and improvements, they are targeted and fixed under the artificial selection of the specific cultural environments, the frequency of the recombinant or mutant genes continues to accumulate and increase in the population, and finally form new crop and their germplasm resources adapted to the specific cultural environments. Modern crop breeding is also guided by this theory to a certain degree, which greatly promoted the evolution processes of crops and their germplasm resources. Taking the Customary System of Chinese traditional dietary culture as an example, this paper investigated the impact of dietary tradition on the evolution of crop germplasm resources from four aspects: waxy germplasm, steaming preference, rich varieties of vegetables and fruits, and use of whole-plant material. In view of the protection and utilization of crop germplasm resources in the future, suggestions were proposed, including paying attention to farmers’ rights and original habitats of crops, and following the basic law of “if there were character differences and genetic mutations, then select” to accelerating the landrace, crop wild relatives preservation and utilization, genomics research, and crop improvement as well as their positive evolution.

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刘旭,李立会,黎裕,等.作物及其种质资源与人文环境的协同演变学说[J].植物遗传资源学报,2022,23(1):1-11.

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  • 收稿日期:2021-12-02
  • 最后修改日期:2021-12-02
  • 录用日期:2021-12-08
  • 在线发布日期: 2022-01-07
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