近年来湖北省区试中稻品种耐热性鉴定与利用评价
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1.长江大学;2.湖北省种子管理局;3.华中农业大学

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科技部国家高技术研究发展计划(2014AA10A601);科技部国家重点研发计划(2017YFD0301403);湖北省中央引导地方科技发展专项(2018ZYYD073);湖北省技术创新专项(2018ABA083);主要粮食作物产业化湖北省协同创新中心开放基金项目(LXT-16-06,LXT-17-02)


Evaluation of Heat Resistance and Utilization of Rice Varieties in Hubei Regional Trials in the Recent Years
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1.Yangtze University, Hubei Jingzhou;2.Hubei Seed Administration Bureau;3.Huazhong Agricultural University

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    摘要:

    高温热害严重威胁中稻生产,对水稻产量、品质和育性等多方面都有较大影响。为给湖北省水稻品种审定与推广应用提供科学依据,同时挖掘出耐热的优异水稻种质资源供育种利用,本研究利用江汉平原地区田间自然高温环境条件结合玻璃温室高温胁迫,对湖北省近年新育成的中稻新品种进行抽穗开花期耐热性鉴定。结果表明:参鉴材料总体耐热性好,在耐热性较强至强的品种中常规品种(系)和两系杂交稻组合占比相当,而三系杂交稻组合占比次之。共鉴定筛选出耐热性强且优于耐热对照丰两优4号的品种共20份次,其中有粤禾丝苗、润珠香占、S532、楚糯3号和利丰占等5份常规品种(系),既可以作耐热性种质资源进行育种利用,也可优先审定后在热害常发稻区作耐热品种推广应用;荃优133、荃优晶占和荃优锦禾等5份三系杂交水稻品种,C两优300、全两优5号和恩两优454等10份两系杂交水稻品种,可在同等条件优先审定后在热害常发稻区作耐热品种推广应用,其亲本或亲本之一通过进一步鉴定,可能能从中筛选出优异耐热性种质资源材料。鉴定筛选出耐热性较强的品种共102份次,这批材料可根据其其它性状综合表现择优审定,再在热害常发稻区作耐热品种推广应用,其中的鄂糯98、红糯1号和龙王糯81等16份次常规品种(系),虽然其耐热性不是太强,但大多综合农艺性状优良,在耐热性育种种质较匮乏的情况下可加以利用。特优559、华浙优1534和中广优2号等32份次品种耐热性较弱至弱,建议在审定时要特别谨慎。

    Abstract:

    High temperature seriously threatens the yield, quality and fertility of middle rice varieties in Jianghan Plain. In order to identify rice varieties with high-temperature tolerance, this study analyzed the heat resistance at heading and flowering stages regarding new rice varieties in Hubei Province in the past three years, under natural high temperature environment (daily average temperature above 32 °C, the highest temperature above 35 °C and the duration above 5 days) and high temperature stress in glass greenhouse. Out of the varieties showing strong high-temperature resistance, the proportion of conventional varieties (lines) was equivalent to that of two-line hybrid rice combinations, and the proportion of three-line hybrid rice combinations was the second. A total of 20 varieties with strong heat resistance and better heat resistance were screened out in 3 year, among which 5 conventional varieties (lines) were Yuehesimiao, Runzhuxiangzhan, S532, Chunuo 3 and Lifengzhan. They can be used as heat-resistant germplasm resources for breeding and utilization, and can also be used as heat-resistant varieties after priority approval in the heat-damaged common areas. Quanyou 133, Quanyou Jingzhan and Quanyou Jinhe are three-line hybrid rice varieties, Cliangyou 300, Quanliangyou 5 and Enliangyou 454 are two-line hybrid rice varieties, which can be popularized and applied as heat-resistant varieties in heat-damaged common rice areas after the approval of the same conditions. The germplasm resources with excellent heat resistance may be screened out by further identification of their parents or one of their parents. A total of 102 heat-resistant varieties were identified and screened. The materials can be selected and approved according to the comprehensive performance of other traits, and then used as heat-resistant varieties in common rice areas. Among them, Enuo98, Hongnuo 1 and Longwangnuo 81 were conventional varieties ( lines ). Although their heat resistance is not too strong, most of them have excellent comprehensive agronomic traits, which can be used in the case of lack of heat-resistant breeding germplasm. 32 sub-varieties, such as Teyou 559, Huazheyou 1534 and Zhongguangyou 2, were sensitive upon heat treatment. It is suggested that priority should be eliminated at the time of approval, and special caution should be taken even in the promotion and application of approval.

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蔡恒奇,封佳彤,宋超新,等.近年来湖北省区试中稻品种耐热性鉴定与利用评价[J].植物遗传资源学报,2021,22(6):1559-1566.

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  • 收稿日期:2021-08-18
  • 最后修改日期:2021-08-18
  • 录用日期:2021-08-19
  • 在线发布日期: 2021-11-04
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