贵州低热河谷区油茶种质果实性状分析与评价
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1.贵州大学贵州省森林资源与环境研究中心 / 贵州省高原山地林木培育重点实验室 / 贵州大学林学院;2.贵州黔西南喀斯特区域发展研究院

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基金项目:

贵州省科技计划项目(黔科合支撑[2020]1Y057 号,黔科合服企[2020]4011);国家自然科学基金(32060331,31800516);贵州 省教育厅青年科技人才成长项目(黔教合 KY 字[2018]097);贵州大学培育项目(贵大培育[2019]35 号);贵州大学引进人才科 研项目(贵大人基合字[2017]41 号)


Analysis and Evaluation on Fruit Characters of Camellia oleifera in Low Thermal Valley Area of Guizhou
Author:
Affiliation:

1.Research Center for Forest Resources and Environment of Guizhou Province/Key Laboratory of Plateau Mountain Tree Breeding of Guizhou Province/College of Forestry,Guizhou University;2.Guizhou Southwest Karst Regional Development Institute

Fund Project:

Science and Technology Planning Projects of Guizhou(Qian Ke He Zhi Cheng[2020]1Y057,Qian Ke He Fu Qi[2020] 4011),National Natural Science Foundation of China(32060331,31800516),Young Scientific and Technological Talents Growth Project of Guizhou Provincial Department of Education(Qian Jiao He KY[2018]097),Cultivation Project of Guizhou University(Gui Da Pei Yu [2019]35),Research Project of Introducing Talents in Guizhou University(Gui Da Ren Ji He Zi[2017]41)

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    摘要:

    对比研究贵州低热河谷区 77 份油茶种质资源的果实品质,筛选获得综合表现优良的油茶优异种质,以期为贵州 低热河谷区油茶优良品种选育及杂交育种提供理论依据和研究基础。分析 77 份油茶种质成熟果实的 15 个主要性状(单果 重、横径、纵径、果皮厚度、鲜出籽率、干出籽率、干出仁率、出油率、棕榈酸、棕榈烯酸、硬脂酸、油酸、亚油酸、亚麻酸、顺 -11- 二十碳烯酸),利用主成分分析法对数据进行多元统计降维处理,将油茶果实的 15 个主要性状简化为 4 组综合指标(4 个主 成分),主成分 1 特征值最大,为 5.13,贡献率最高,为 34.19%,主要代表种仁含油率;主成分 2 的贡献率 20.17%,主要代表单 果重;主成分 3 的贡献率 15.51%,主要代表了干出仁率,主成分 4,贡献率 8.35%,主要代表鲜出籽率。加权求和法合成主成 分,最终建立综合评价函数,获得每优株的综合得分,最后排名并筛选。15 个性状中单果重、鲜出籽率、干出籽率三者均为高 度变异,棕榈烯酸和顺 -11- 二十碳烯酸的变异系数≤0.35%,变异程度极低。贵州低热河谷区油茶的种仁含油率与干出籽率、 干出仁率均呈极显著正相关,除顺 -11- 二十碳烯酸之外,脂肪酸之间均呈现出极显著正相关或负相关。提取出了特征值 >1 的主成分 4 个,筛选出综合得分排名前十的优株,排名依次为:QC-8>QC-58>QC-21>QC-34>QC-32>QC-62>QC-30>QC-61> QC-59>QC-28。贵州低热河谷区 77 份油茶种质在单果重、鲜出籽率、干出籽率方面具有较高的改良潜力,果皮厚度和除亚油 酸之外的其余脂肪酸具有较强的遗传稳定性。贵州低热河谷区油茶的干出籽率和种仁含油率与除油酸之外的不饱和脂肪酸 之间呈现负相关关系。QC-8、QC-58 和 QC-21 号优株综合表现最佳,可作为下一步品种选育的候选资源。

    Abstract:

    We attempted to study the fruit quality characters in 77 Camellia oleifera Abel germplasms derived from the unique low thermal valley area of Guizhou,in order to determine the C. oleifera Abel germplasm with the best performance applicable for breeding. Fifteen characters(Single fruit weight,diameter,height,pericarp thickness,fresh seed yield,dry seed yield,kernel yield,kernel oil content,palmitic acid,palmitoleic acid, stearic acid,oleic acid,linoleic acid,linolenic acid,cis-11-eicosenoic acid)were analysed. Principal component analysis was performed to reduce the dimensionality of the data,thereby reducing the 15 main characters to four independent comprehensive indices(or principal components).The eigen value and contribution rate of the first principal component are 5.13 and 34.19%,respectively;the eigen value of principal component 2 is 3.03,and the contribution rate is 20.17%;the eigen value of principal component 3 is 2.33,and the contribution rate is 15.51%;the eigen value of principal component 4 is 1.25,and the contribution rate is 8.35%. Principal component 1 mainly represented the kernel oil content,principal component 2 mainly represented the single fruit weight,principal component 3 mainly represented the kernel yield,principal component 4 mainly represented the fresh seed yield. Functional expression analysis was performed to obtain the comprehensive score,followed by final ranking and screening. Among the 15 traits,single fruit weight,fresh seed yield,and dry seed yield showed abundant variations. Among the different fatty acids of C. oleifera Abel oils,including palmitoleic acid and cis-11-eicosenoic acid were extremely low(≤0.35%). Different degrees of correlation were detected between the 15 major traits. There was a significant positive correlation between kernel oil content and dry seed yield and between kernel oil content and dry kernel yield. The correlation between fatty acids was extremely significant except cis-11-eicosenoic acid. By using four principal components of characteristic value>1,a comprehensive evaluation function model based on oil tea plants in the low thermal valley area of Guizhou was established, and the top 10 C. oleifera Abel germplasms in the comprehensive score were selected(QC-8>QC-58>QC-21> QC-34>QC-32>QC-62>QC-30>QC-61>QC-59>QC-28). Our findings indicated that single fruit weight,fresh seed yield,and dry seed yield of the 77 germplasms in the low thermal valley area of Guizhou are the traits with high breeding potential,while thickness of pericarp and other fatty acids,except linoleic acid,have high genetic stability. The dry seed yield and kernel oil content of C. oleifera Abel in the low thermal valley area of Guizhou were negatively correlated with all unsaturated fatty acids,except oleic acid. Collectively,this study provided elite germplasms QC-8,QC-58,and QC-21 as candidate parental line for breeding improved C. oleifera Abel varieties.

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杨 露,高 超,廖德胜,等.贵州低热河谷区油茶种质果实性状分析与评价[J].植物遗传资源学报,2022,23(2):430-441.

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  • 收稿日期:2021-07-17
  • 最后修改日期:2021-08-14
  • 录用日期:2021-08-30
  • 在线发布日期: 2022-03-10
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