新疆落叶果树种质资源评价挖掘与创新利用
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山东农业大学园艺科学与工程学院 / 作物生物学国家重点实验室,泰安 271018

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基金项目:

国家自然科学基金重点项目(31730080);山东省泰山学者攀登计划项目(tspd20161005)


Progress on Evaluation,Mining and Utilization of Germplasm Resource of Deciduous Fruit Trees in Xinjiang
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Affiliation:

College of Horticulture Science and Engineering,Shandong Agricultural University/ State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology,Tai′an 271018

Fund Project:

Key Projects of the National Natural Science Foundation of China(31730080),The Project of Shandong Taishan Scholars Climbing(tspd20161005)

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    摘要:

    新疆是落叶果树的起源演化中心和品质育种的基因库之一。近几年来,在新疆野苹果及库尔勒香梨等新疆落叶果树种质资源评价挖掘与创新利用方面取得了诸多重要进展,主要结果如下:(1)研究明确了新疆野苹果是栽培苹果的祖先种,其评价挖掘和创新利用取得了重要成果;(2)东、西方梨杂种起源的新疆库尔勒香梨,优质、耐贮的特性遗传能力很强,已成为梨品质育种的重要亲本资源;(3)伊犁野杏遗传多样性最丰富,而南疆栽培杏是相对独立的孟德尔群体,通过优系选育与推广应用,打破了库车、喀什、和田 3 个南疆杏自然群体的封闭状态,为 20 余万 hm2 的南疆杏良种化提供了支撑;(4)新疆野樱桃李是李属的重要资源,通过迁地种植,实现了新疆野生樱桃李资源的品种化。

    Abstract:

    Xinjiang is one of the origin and diversity center of deciduous fruit trees and the gene bank for quality breeding. In recent years,important progresses have been made in the evaluation,mining and innovative utilization of germplasm resources of wild fruit forests and deciduous fruit trees in Xinjiang,such as Malus sieversii(Ledeb.)M. Roem.(wild apple)and korle pear. The significant achievements are listed as follows:(1)Studies have clarified that Malus sieversii is the ancestral species of cultivated apples,and its evaluation,mining and innovative utilization have achieved important results,(2)The Xinjiang korle pear,which originated from the hybrids of Eastern and Western pears,has strong heritability of high quality and storability,and is an important parent resource for pear quality breeding,(3)Yili wild apricots and southern Xinjiang cultivated apricots have played an important role in domestication of cultivated apricots. The hybridization and breeding of superior lines broke down the genetic isolation among the three natural apricot groups in Kuqa,Kashgar and Hotan,providing support for the good seeding of more than 200,000 hectares of southern Xinjiang apricots,(4)Xinjiang Wild Cherry Plum is one of most important species in genus Prunus L.. The ex-situ planting of wild cherry plum resources resulted in breeding for the plum varieties.

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陈学森,毛志泉,王楠,等.新疆落叶果树种质资源评价挖掘与创新利用[J].植物遗传资源学报,2021,22(6):1483-1490.

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  • 收稿日期:2021-03-03
  • 最后修改日期:2021-04-26
  • 录用日期:2021-05-06
  • 在线发布日期: 2021-11-04
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