中国油菜种质资源研究利用策略与进展
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中国农业科学院油料作物研究所/农业农村部油料作物生物学与遗传育种重点实验室,武汉 430062

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农业农村部农作物种质资源保护与利用专项(2019NWB033);国家油料种质资源共享服务平台(NICGR2019-014);国家重点研发计划(2016YFD0100202);中国农业科学院科技创新工程(CAAS-ASTIP-2016-OCRI)


Strategies and Progress of Research and Utilization of Oilseed Rape Germplasm in China
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Affiliation:

Oil Crops Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences / Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Oil Crops, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Wuhan 430062

Fund Project:

Project of Crop Germplasm Resources Protection (2019NWB033); National Infrastructure for Crop Germplasm Resources (NICGR2019-014); The National Key Program for Research and Development (2016YFD0100202); The Agricultural Science and Technology Innovation Program of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences(CAAS-ASTIP-2016-OCRI)

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    摘要:

    油菜是我国第一大国产植物油来源,种质资源在促进油菜育种和产业发展中发挥了关键作用,通过不断收集引进和发掘利用各类优异种质资源,培育高产优质高抗新品种,我国油菜每公顷水平由1949年的487.5 kg提高到了2017年的1995.2 kg,品质由“高芥酸和高硫苷”改良为“低芥酸和低硫苷”,油品质可与橄榄油媲美,显著提升了我国食用植物油供给水平和质量。本文对我国在油菜种质资源收集编目、繁殖保存、评价挖掘、创新利用等方面的背景依据和研究进展进行了分析和评述,总结了近20年来中国油菜种质资源研究利用策略与取得的突破性进展,展望了今后我国油菜种质资源发展方向和重点任务。

    Abstract:

    Oilseed rape is the largest source of vegetable oil produced in China. Oilseed rape germplasm has played a key role in promoting the rapid development of rape breeding and industry. By continuous collecting and utilizing elite germplasm, and consequently breeding of high-yielding high-quality high-resistance new varieties, the rapeseed yield level increased from 487.5 kg/ha in 1949 to 1,995.2 kg/ha in 2017. The seed quality was improved from conventional "high erucic acid and high glucosinolates" to "low erucic acid and low glucosinolates", the oil quality is as good as olive oil, which has greatly improved edible vegetable oil supply and nutrition in China. This paper reviewed the background and research progress of collection, reproduction, conservation, evaluation and identification, gene discovery, enhancement and utilization of germplasm, summarized the strategies and breakthroughs of oilseed rape germplasm research in recent two decades in China, and proposed future developmental directions and priorities in the field.

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引用本文

李利霞,陈碧云,闫贵欣,等.中国油菜种质资源研究利用策略与进展[J].植物遗传资源学报,2020,21(1):1-19.

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  • 收稿日期:2020-01-09
  • 最后修改日期:2020-01-09
  • 录用日期:2020-01-15
  • 在线发布日期: 2020-01-17
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