贵州省农业科学院 贵州省油料研究所,贵阳 550006
黔农科院青年基金(103 号）；黔农科院种质资源种质资源(02 号）；贵州特色植物种质资源利用与创新人才基地 （RCJD2018-14）
Guizhou Institute of Oil Crops, Guizhou Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Guiyang 550006
Youth Foundation of Guizhou Academy ofAgricultural Sciences （  103）， Germplasm Resources of Guizhou Academy of Agricultural Sciences（ 02），Talent base for germplasm resources utilization and innovation of chacteristic plant in Guizhou (RCJD2018-14)
为探究贵州芝麻种质资源的品质特征，并对地方芝麻资源进行初步鉴定与评价，本研究对 73 份贵州芝麻种质资源的 8 个品质性状进行了测试分析。结果表明：（1）贵州芝麻种质资源含油量介于 41.45%～52.12%之间，平均含量为 49.69%。在脂肪酸组成中，油酸、亚油酸等不饱和脂肪酸的平均含量分别为 35.65%和 50.66%；而棕榈酸、硬脂酸等饱和脂肪酸的平均含量仅为 8.40%和 4.79%。此外，贵州芝麻资源中芝麻素、芝麻林素和木质素的平均含量分别为 5.03 mg/g、2.63 mg/g 和 4.79 mg/g。8 个品质性状的变异系数介于 3.69%～32.62%范围内，其中芝麻素含量变异系数最大，含油量变异系数最小。而芝麻素含量、芝麻林素含量及硬脂酸含量的变异系数均大于 10%，表明这 3 个性状在芝麻样本间存在较大差异。（2）相关性分析结果显示：含油量与油酸、芝麻素含量呈极显著正相关，与亚油酸含量呈极显著负相关；油酸含量与芝麻素含量呈极显著正相关，与亚油酸含量呈极显负相关；亚油酸含量与芝麻素含量呈极显著负相关。表明品质性状间相关性大、关联程度较高，性状间相互影响较大。（3）主成分分析将 8 个品质性状综合为 3 个主成分，分别为油酸因子、含油量因子和芝麻素因子，3个主成分因子包含了贵州芝麻种质资源品质性状的绝大部分信息，累计贡献率达 96%以上。（4）在欧氏距离 D=9.75 处将 73份贵州芝麻资源划分为 6 个类群：第Ⅰ类群包含 2 份资源、第Ⅱ类群有 7 份、第Ⅲ类群有 12 份、第Ⅳ类群有 5 份、第Ⅴ类群有16 份、第Ⅵ类群有 31 份。其中第Ⅵ类群油酸含量最高，且含油量、芝麻素含量较高。本研究探明了贵州芝麻品质的特征特性，可为芝麻种质资源的利用和创新提供依据，为芝麻品种选育和遗传改良提供参考。
To evaluate the kernel quality characteristics of the local sesame resources in Guizhou, eight quality-related traits of 73 Guizhou sesame accessions were analyzed. The oil content of sesame germplasms was ranged from 41.45% to 52.12%, with an average of 49.69%. The mean value of unsaturated fatty acids oleic acid and linoleic acid was 35.65% and 50.66%, respectively, while that of saturated fatty acids including palmitic acid and stearic acid was 8.40% and 4.79%, respectively. Furthermore, mean of three components sesamin, sesamolin and lignin in the tested sesame accessions were 5.03, 2.63 and 4.79 mg/g, respectively. The variation coefficient of these eight quality traits ranged from 3.69% to 32.62%, while the highest and lowest values were observed in sesamin and oil contents, respectively. Notably, the variation coefficient of sesamin content, sesamolin content and stearic acid content was more than 10%, which indicated that these three traits were significantly different among sesame samples. The correlation analysis showed that oil content was significantly positively correlated with oleic acid content and sesamin content. However, the oil content was significantly negatively correlated with linoleic acid content. Moreover, oleic acid content was positively correlated with the sesamin content, but negatively correlated with linoleic acid content. The linoleic acid content was negatively correlated with the sesamin content. By Principal component analysis (PCA), three principal components including oleic acid factor, oil content factor and sesamin factor explained 96.59% of the phenotypic variation. The cluster analysis roughly revealed six groups (Euclidean distance D = 9.75), which include 2, 12, 5, 16 and 31 accessions shared in Group Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ, Ⅳ, Ⅴ and Ⅵ, respectively. The accessions resided in group Ⅵ contained the highest oleic acid and oil content as well as moderate sesamin content. Taken together, this study unlocked the quality-related characteristics of Guizhou sesame accessions, which could provide a theoretical basis and good references for utilization and innovation of sesame germplasms.