甘蓝型油菜与埃塞俄比亚芥杂交创制有限花序新种质
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1 江西省农业科学院作物研究所 / 农业部作物基因资源与种质创制江西科学观测实验站,南昌 330200; 2 中国科学院庐山植物园,江西庐山 332900

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国家自然科学基金(3156100418);国家重点研发计划子课题(2016FYD0100202-17);江西省重点研发计划(S2016NYZPF0201);第三次 全国农作物种质资源调查与收集行动;江西省自然科学基金(20141513010002);江西油菜产业技术体系首席专家兼育种岗(JXARS-08)


Innovation of New Determinate Inflorescence Germplasm via Hybridization between Brassica napus and Brassica carinata
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1The Crops Institute of Jiangxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Jiangxi Research Station of Crop Gene Resource & Germplasm Enhancement,Ministry of Agriculture,P.R.China,Nanchang 330200;2 Lushan Botanical Garden, the Chinese Academy of Sciences,Jiangxi Lushan 332900

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    摘要:

    远缘杂交是作物遗传改良和种质创新的重要途径。本研究通过甘蓝型油菜(2n=38,AACC)与埃塞俄比亚芥 (2n=34,BBCC)的种间杂交获得了形态属于两亲本中间型的杂种 F1、且表现埃塞俄比亚芥的有限花序特性。该杂种具有预 期的体细胞染色体数目(2n=36,ABCC),GISH 分析显示含有 8 条 B 染色体组的染色体;在减数分裂终变期的花粉母细胞中 出现多种染色体配对构型,在后期Ⅰ染色体分离多以 17∶19 分离为主,但在后期Ⅰ及后Ⅱ期均出现大量的落后染色体、染色 体桥,导致花粉败育。将该杂种与亲本甘蓝型油菜品种中双 11 连续回交,获得有限花序的后代材料 BC5F1,其他形态特征与 中双 11 类似,其体细胞染色体数目恢复至 2n=38,减数分裂染色体行为也正常;GISH 分析虽检测到少数 B 染色体组信号,但 没有整条的染色体。利用 46 对 B 基因组特异引物对有限花序杂种及后代材料进行 SSR 扩增,发现在杂种 F1 及部分 BC5F1 植株中都能检测到 B 基因组特异带,表明有埃塞俄比亚芥 B 基因组遗传成分的导入。所创建的有限花序新品系为油菜的遗 传改良和选育适于机械化作业的新品种提供新材料。

    Abstract:

    Distant hybridization is an important approach in crop genetic breeding and germplasm creation. In this study,the F1 hybrids were produced by interspecific hybridization between B. napus(2n=38,AACC)and B. carinata(2n=34,BBCC),and they showed determinate inflorescence characteristic from B. carinata and the intermediate morphology of both parents. F1 hybrids showed the expected chromosomal composition(2n=36, ABCC)and eight B.carinata(referred B)chromosomes from by GISH analysis. Their pollen mother cell(PMCs) showed multiple chromosome pairing configuration at diakinesis of meiosis,with main segregation rate of 17: 19 at anaphase Ⅰ(AⅠ). A number of lagging chromosomes and chromosomal bridges appeared during AⅠ and A Ⅱ,which caused pollen abortion. By continuous backcross using its parental line Zhongshuang 11(B.napus), the BC5F1 lines with determinate inflorescence were obtained and they had similar morphology with Zhongshuang 11. Their somatic chromosomes(2n=38)showed normal programmed meiosis,and only minor B chromosome signals but whole chromosomes were detected by GISH analysis. By marker assisted detection using 46 pairs of B genome specific SSR primers,B genome specific bands are detectable in F1 hybrid and a few of BC5F1. This result indicated that the chromosomal segments of B.carinata were successfully introduced into B.napus L.Thus, a number lines with new determinate inflorescence will become useful in rapeseed breeding for new varieties suitable for mechanized operation.

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涂玉琴,汤洁,张洋,等.甘蓝型油菜与埃塞俄比亚芥杂交创制有限花序新种质[J].植物遗传资源学报,2020,21(1):74-82.

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  • 收稿日期:2019-08-20
  • 最后修改日期:2019-10-28
  • 录用日期:2019-11-08
  • 在线发布日期: 2020-01-17
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