中国东北地区水稻主要栽培品种的遗传多样性分析
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Comparative Analysis of Genetic Diversity of Commercial Rice Cultivars in Northeastern China
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    摘要:

    利用68对SSR引物对91份粳稻品种进行了遗传多样性分析。研究结果,共检测到293个等位基因,平均4.3个;平均多态信息含量(PIC)为0.313,变动范围为0.022~0.825。RM333和RM206的等位基因数最多,分别为14、10;且PIC也最高,分别为0.825、0.805。聚类和群体差异分析结果表明,东北三省水稻品种的遗传基础狭窄。黑龙江省和吉林省、黑龙江省和日本、吉林省和日本水稻品种间遗传距离都很小,分别为0.083、0.084.0.090,而辽宁省水稻品种遗传基础与吉林省、黑龙江省有一些差异。 9个地理来源的品种聚类结果,可分为5个大类群,黑龙江省、吉林省、日本和韩国形成第Ⅰ类群;北京和辽宁省归为第Ⅱ类群;中国台湾、云南省、美国分别为第Ⅲ、第Ⅳ和第Ⅴ类群。东北三省作为重要的粳稻生产基地,但遗传基础非常狭窄,要克服遗传脆弱性应从地理位置较远的国家或地区收集更丰富的遗传资源。

    Abstract:

    Genetic diversity among 91 rice cultivars, which include 56 cultivars from three provinces of Northeastern China (Liaoning, Jilin, and Heilongjiang) and 35 cultivars from Beijing, Yunnan, Taiwan, Korea, Japan, and USA, were analyzed using 68 SSR markers. A total of 293 alleles were produced, and the average number of alleles per marker locus was 4.3. The PIC value per locus varied widely from 0.022 to 0.825 with an average value of 0.313. RM333 and RM206 have the most alleles(14 and 10)and showed highest PIC(0.825 and 0.805).The unrooted neighbor-joining tree analysis and comparison of diversity parameters among provinces of Northeastern China and other groups revealed that rice cultivars from three Northeastern provinces had narrow genetic diversity. Cultivars from Heilongjiang and Jilin , Heilongjiang and Japan, Jilin and Japan have very near genetic distance, which were 0.083,0.084 and 0.090 . Liaoning cultivars have some different genetic foundation from Heilongjiang and Jilin. Cluster analysis showed that the 9 regional groups could be clustered into five groups. The first group included Heilongjiang, Jilin, Japan and Korea ,the second group included Beijing and Liaoning ,and Taiwan, Yunnan, U.S.A each comprised the 3rd , the 4th and the 5th groups. These results collectively demonstrate that more diverse genetic resources from far geography position should be incorporated into rice cultivars in three provinces of Northeastern China in order to avoid the potential genetic vulnerability.

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玄英实,姜文洙,刘宪虎,等.中国东北地区水稻主要栽培品种的遗传多样性分析[J].植物遗传资源学报,2010,11(2):206-212.

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