There are rich in wild germplasm resources of edible mushrooms and cultivable 93 species arise in China, which belong to 33 genera. Among them, 70 species were domesticated successfully and 50 species were cultivated in various scale; 33 species were produced commercially, which belong to 5 orders, 12 families, 18 genera. Biosynthesis of edible mushrooms is different from autotrophic green plants which synthesize organic compounds by photosynthesis. And they are heterotrophic organisms which break down the photosynthate of plants and construct themselves by bodies absorption of nourishment penetration. This biosynthesis property results in difference of evaluation methods from green plants for wild edible mushroom germplasm. Compared with green plants, diversities of their fruiting bodies are simple in morphology and they are prone to be changed with influenced of environment conditions. It often results in confusion for the taxonomy identification based on morphology. On the other hand, Taxonomy to species is more difficult based on morphology in cultivable mushrooms which have multiple relative species in the same genus, for example, Pleurotus, Auricularia and Armillaria. Therefore, ITS sequencing generally was used to identify biological species for the sample and isolates in the wide germplasm evaluation of cultivable mushrooms. RAPD(Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA), ISSR(Inter-Simple Sequence Repeats) and ITS（Internal Transcribed Spacers）sequencing were used as routine tools to identify isolates genuineness because the isolates are usually contaminated by other fungi similar in colony character. The spores spreading with air flow makes mushrooms to distribute in widely geographical region, and it further generates differences among the individuals or population in one species. The difference of available cultivation characters is formed in the long-term evolution with various climate and ecological conditions. Cultivation characters are evaluated in the fruiting test, which are related in growth and temperature reaction for mycelia, fruiting character, yield, resistance, commodity shape and endurance for transportation. In order to take the distant advantages, the genetic distance will be analyzed for the germplasm materials compared with cultivated strains based on the test of biochemical or molecular biology.