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作物种质资源表型性状鉴定评价:现状与趋势
王晓鸣, 邱丽娟, 景蕊莲, 任贵兴, 李英慧, 李春辉, 秦培友, 谷勇哲, 李 龙
0
(中国农业科学院作物科学研究所)
摘要:
表型是作物基因型与环境互作后呈现出来的性状,包括形态学、生育期、产量、品质、抗性等性状。作物种质资源具有丰富的遗传多样性,并经过数千年在世界不同区域驯化利用中的人工选择,形成了表型性状的多样性,构成育种家选育作物新品种的物质基础。认识和发现作物种质资源表型的多样性需要通过系统、科学的鉴定,特别是培育适应全球气候变化下环境的品种,更需在大量种质资源中发掘和利用抗旱、耐热、抗病虫、水肥高效利用等特性的材料。作物种质资源各类表型性状的鉴定需要对环境进行有效的控制,而多年多点的鉴定可以准确观察鉴定性状的变异水平或表达稳定性,是育种家准确选择和利用性状的重要依据。作物种质资源表型性状的鉴定主要采用田间鉴定、设施鉴定、仪器分析、感官鉴定的方式。近年来,作物种质资源表型性状鉴定已从单一环境、低通量、粗放型鉴定转变为多年多环境、重点性状、高通量精准型鉴定。随着组学技术、智能与信息技术的快速发展,作物种质资源的表型性状鉴定已进入一个新阶段,形成作物育种中重要性状准确快速发掘与应用的坚实基础。
关键词:  作物  种质  表型  鉴定  评价
DOI:10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20210802001
投稿时间:2021-08-02修订日期:2021-08-02
基金项目:中国农业科学院科技创新工程
Evaluation on Phenotypic Traits of Crop Germplasm: Status and Development
WANG Xiao-ming, QU Li-juan, JING Rui-lian, REN Gui-xing, LI Ying-hui, LI Chun-hui, QIN Pei-you, GU Yong-zhe, LI Long
(Institute of Crop Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences)
Abstract:
The phenotype, as outcome of genotype that interplays with environmental factors, includes different traits such as architecture, growth stage, yield characters, quality, and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. After long-term natural variations in eco-system as well as domestication and cultivation in agricultural eco-system crop germplasm obtained rich genetic and phenotypic diversity, as the fundamental basis in breeding for new varieties. It is of interest to explore and understand the phenotypic diversity by scientific and systematical identification and evaluation. Identifying elite germplasm resources that showed drought and heat tolerant, disease and pest resistant, high efficient use of water and fertilizer is absolutely important to breed new varieties with environmental adaptability under global climate change. Testing for phenotypic variations under controlled environment at multiple locations for years is desirable and highly recommended. The methods for identifying phenotypic variations are conducted in the fields, facilities, instruments and with person sensory. The identification of crop germplasm traits, which were surveyed at one environment (locus) with expected low-throughput and low accuracy, has been popularly performed at multi-environments with high-throughput and precise characterization. By taking advantage of rapid development on technologies of multi-Omics, artificial intelligence, image recognition and analysis, researches on phenotypic traits of crop germplasm resource will step for a new stage, valuable for crop breeding in the future.
Key words:  crop  germplasm  phenotypic trait  identification  evaluation