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我国东北地区205份主要甜菜种质资源的鉴定与评价分析
陈柳宏, 赵春雷, 王希, 李彦丽, 丁广洲, 陈丽
0
(黑龙江大学现代农业与生态环境学院)
摘要:
本文对东北地区甜菜 205 份种质资源的 5 个品质性状、18 个农艺性状以及 3 个抗性性状分别进行遗传多样性、相关性、主成分和聚类分析,以此为基础筛选出丰产优质以及综合抗性的甜菜种质,为改良甜菜种质与引进新种质提供一定的理论依据。研究结果表明,5 个品质性状之间变异系数变幅较大(6.104%~33.830%),其中钠含量的变异系数最大(33.830%),块根产量的极差最大(40.239 t/hm2)。蔗糖含量和钾含量、蔗糖含量和块根产量、蔗糖含量和α-氮三对性状呈极显著负相关,块根产量和钾含量之间呈极显著正相关。根据可回收蔗糖含量和杂质指数对种质进行筛选,筛选出块根产量大于 50 t/hm2、杂质指数小于 5.0 种质 20 份。18 个农艺性状遗传多样性分析表明应试种质资源遗传变异丰富,其叶部性状变异系数均在 30%以上,可有效运用于高品质甜菜改良中;主成分分析表明前 6 个主成分累计贡献率达 62.50%,第 1 主成分主要与甜菜生长因子有关,第 2 主成分主要与甜菜幼株生物量因子有关,第 3 主成分主要与甜菜根部性状因子有关,第 4 主成分主要与甜菜生长发育因子有关,第 5 主成分主要与甜菜标记性状因子有关,第 6 主成分主要与甜菜营养运输因子有关;聚类分析将种质资源分成 4 类,其中以 94211、T30BDXIJ 为代表的类群 2 具有幼株百粒重高、维管束环数多、下胚轴颜色偏混合色以及叶柄厚长等优势,是性状表现优秀的一类种质资源,可作为改良甜菜生物量性状的优质材料。最后,根据病情指数对应试种质进行综合抗病种质筛选,筛选出 5 份高抗褐斑病兼抗根腐病种质(8216M152、H1352、F86421、7909、H133),可作为抗病育种的优质亲本进行改良选育。
关键词:  甜菜  种质资源  种质评价
DOI:10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20210612001
投稿时间:2021-06-12修订日期:2021-08-27
基金项目:国家现代农业产业技术体系(糖料)建设专项资金(CARS-170102)
Insights of Major Traits Phenotypic Variation in Sugar Beet and Disease-resistant Evaluation in Northeast China
CHEN Liu-hong, ZHAO Chun-lei, WANG Xi, LI Yan-li, DING Guang-zhou, CHEN Li
(College of Advanced Agriculture and Ecological Environment of Heilongjiang University)
Abstract:
Sugar beet is a widely-cultivated sugar-producing crop with vital significance in the sugar industry. Unlocking its germplasm resource might provide elite parental lines applicable for Sugar beet breeding. In this research, the diversity on five quality traits, 18 agronomic traits and three resistance traits in 205 Sugar beet germplasm accessions collected from Northeast China were analyzed, followed by the correlation, principal component and cluster analysis. The correlations between the quality traits of Sugar beet were observed, and the coefficient of variation varied from 6.104%-33.830% (i.e. the coefficient of variation of sodium content was the largest). Moreover, the diversity analysis of 18 agronomic showed abundant genetic variation, and a variation coefficient of over 30% at leaf traits was observed. Furthermore, we deployed the concept of recoverable sucrose content to evaluate the quality of Sugar beet, and used it to compare and screen with root yield and impurity index, thereby obtaining 12 high-yield varieties with high-quality. In addition, through cluster analysis and principal component analysis of the agronomic traits, the germplasm tested was divided into four categories according to traits, and six principal components explaining the meaning of traits were obtained. The results showed that the variation coefficients of leaf traits were all over 30%. Besides, principal component analysis showed that the contribution rates of the first 6 components reached 62.50%. Among them, The first principal component is mainly related to the growth factor of Sugar beet, the second principal component is mainly related to the young plant biomass factor of Sugar beet, the third principal component is mainly related to the traits of Sugar beet roots, and the fourth principal component is mainly related to the growth and development of them, the fifth principal component is mainly related to Sugar beets’ marker traits, and the sixth principal component is mainly related to the nutrient transport factors. Then, the cluster analysis revealed that groups 2 represented by 94211 and T30BDXIJ had the high 100-seed weight of young plants, large number of vascular bundles, mixed colors of hypocotyls, and thick petioles, which means they were the germplasm resources with excellent traits and could be used as a high-quality material for improving sugar beet biomass traits. The germplasm was classified for resistance according to the disease index in order to screen the comprehensive disease-resistant varieties. Based on the disease index, five germplasms with high resistance to spot disease and root rot resistance (8216M152, H1352, F86421, 7909, H133) were screened out. The identified high-quality germplasm are valuable and laythe foundation for future breeding high-yield and disease-resistant varieties.
Key words:  sugar beet  germplasm resources  germplasm evaluation