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5份粳型亲籼种质的生物学特性及育种利用
韦新宇, 张受刚, 许旭明, 卓 伟, 马彬林
0
(三明市农业科学研究院水稻研究所)
摘要:
本文以5份自主选育的粳型亲籼种质明恢413、明恢1616、明恢1707、明恢512和明恢509为研究材料,通过对其生物学特性和育种利用进行研究和评价,以期为今后开展粳型亲籼种质资源的选育和籼粳亚种间杂种优势的利用提供理论参考。生物学特性研究结果表明:5份粳型亲籼种质的生育期偏长,株高适中,直立穗型,穗子小,着粒密,单株有效穗多,结实好,粒重大。程式指数判定表明,明恢413、明恢1616、明恢1707、明恢512的籼粳属性为偏粳;明恢509的籼粳属性为粳。另外,研究表明,5份粳型亲籼种质均具有良好的亲籼性,与籼型两系不育系测交F1的结实率均在75%以上,最高可达89.80%;同时能够恢复野败型、印水型、K型等籼型三系不育系,测交F1的结实率均在80%以上,其恢复谱广、恢复力强。光合特性分析表明,其剑叶在生育后期能够保持较高的光合速率,利于籽粒的充实饱满。5份粳型亲籼种质的杂种优势表现:除播抽时间、株高和千粒重外,在穗长、单株有效穗数、每穗总粒数、结实率、一次枝梗数和二次枝梗数等性状上均表现出明显的竞争优势。其中,穗长、一次枝梗数、二次枝梗数和每穗总粒数所表现出的竞争优势均超过10%。利用明恢1616、明恢1707与籼型两系不育系华1037S配组,育成了籼粳亚种间杂交稻新组合华两优3716和华两优3707,区试表现较好,较对照增产显著,相继通过福建省农作物品种审定。因此,本研究中5份粳型亲籼种质具有良好的亲籼性且恢复谱广,在籼粳亚种间杂种优势的利用方面具有良好的应用前景。
关键词:  粳型亲籼种质  籼粳属性  亲籼性  恢复谱  杂种优势
DOI:10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20210528003
投稿时间:2021-05-28修订日期:2021-05-28
基金项目:国家现代农业产业技术体系专项(CARS-01);福建省自然科学基金项目(2018J01141);三明市科技计划项目(2019-N-4)
Biological Characteristics and Breeding Utilization of Five Indica-Compatible Japonica Germplasms
WEI Xin-yu, ZHANG Shou-gang, XU Xu-ming, ZHUO Wei, MA Bin-lin
(Rice Research Institute,Sanming Academy of Agricultural Sciences,Fujian Sanming 365500)
Abstract:
In this study, the biological characteristics and breeding applicability of five indica-compatible japonica germplasm (Minghui413, Minghui1616, Minghui1707, Minghui512 and Minghui 509) have been studied, which will provide theoretical reference for the future breeding of indica-compatible japonica germplasm and the heterosis utilization of the indica-japonica inter-subspecific hybrids. Five germplasm showed longer growth period, moderate plant height, erect panicle type, small panicle, dense grain setting, increased effective panicles per plant, high setting percentage and big grain size. The analysis using the Cheng’s indexes showed that Minghui413, Minghui1616, Minghui1707 and Minghui512 belonged to japonicalinous, while Minghui509 belonged to japonica. In addition, these germplasm showed a good indica compatibility. For instance, the seed setting rate of F1 by crossing with the two-line indica sterile line was >75% with a highest value of 89.80%. These germplasm are able to restore the fertility of indica CMS lines (WA type, YS type, and K type), and the seed setting rate was >80%. Moreover, the flag leaves of the five germplasm accessions could maintain a higher photosynthetic rate in the later period of growth and breeding, beneficial to the filling and fullness of grains. Except DSH (Duration from seeding to heading), plant height and 1000-grain weight, the heterosis of five indica-compatible japonica germplasms showed competitive performance in panicle length, effective panicle per plant, total grain number per panicle, seed setting rate, number of primary branch rachis and number of secondary branch rachis per panicle. Among them, panicle length, primary branch rachis number, secondary branch rachis number and total grain number per panicle all showed more than 10% competitive advantage. Indica-japonica hybrid rice Hualiangyou3716 and Huanliangyou3707, developed from two-line indica sterile line Hua1037S and the indica-compatible japonica germplasms Minghui1616 and Minghui1707 were registered and released by Fujian Provincial Crop Variety Appraisal Committee. The yield production of these two varieties was significantly higher than that of the control. Therefore, this study reported the five indica-compatible japonica germplasm accessions, which showed good indica compatibility and broad restoring spectrum with a good prospect in the subspecies heterosis utilization.
Key words:  the indica-compatible japonica germplasm  indica and japonica differentiation  indica compatibility  restoring spectrum  heterosis